Society The Basics 5th Canadian Edition by John J. Macionis – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

 

1) Charles Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships as a/an:

  1. instrumental group.
  2. expressive group.
  3. primary group.
  4. secondary group.
  5. out-group.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

2) Group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks is called:

  1. democratic leadership.
  2. secondary leadership.
  3. expressive leadership.
  4. primary leadership.
  5. instrumental leadership.

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

3) Which of the following statements is consistent with Solomon Asch’s findings?

  1. Many people compromise their own judgment to avoid being seen as different.
  2. Many people pick friends who disagree with them.
  3. Ordinary people rarely lie to people in power.
  4. Few people are confused in group situations.
  5. People rarely look to others for information.

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

4) The term bureaucracy refers to:

  1. an organizational model that operates informally.
  2. a source of inefficiency in organizational operation.
  3. a large, normative organization.
  4. an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently.
  5. an organizational model that avoids scientific management.

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 115

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

5) Which of the following is a way in which social diversity influences intergroup contact?

  1. Social boundaries create physical boundaries.
  2. Large groups turn inward.
  3. The smaller the group, the greater the conflict.
  4. Diverse groups turn inward.
  5. Diverse groups are less likely to interact with outsiders.

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 115

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

6) An imprisoned individual is a member of a/an____________ organization.

  1. voluntary
  2. normative
  3. rational
  4. utilitarian
  5. coercive

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: applied

 

7) Which of the following characterizes bureaucratic organizations?

  1. role uniformity
  2. social competence
  3. rules and regulations
  4. personality
  5. similarity of offices

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

8) Which of the following terms refers to the rule of the many by the few?

  1. bureaucracy
  2. formal organization
  3. oligarchy
  4. democracy
  5. patriarchy

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 121

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

9) What trait has been described as a “female advantage”?

  1. less need to ask questions
  2. less emphasis on communication
  3. more flexible leadership
  4. more concrete thinking
  5. greater intuition

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 124

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

10) As bureaucracy and computer-based technology have spread throughout Canadian society, privacy:

  1. is greater than ever.
  2. has not changed at all.
  3. is threatened as never before.
  4. has no legal protections at all.
  5. is nonexistent.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 128-129

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

11) What does the history of the McDonald’s organization reflect?

  1. the shortcomings of mass production
  2. that the McDonald brothers could have been very rich
  3. the death of small business in North America
  4. that McDonald’s guiding principles have come to dominate our social life
  5. the importance of the service industries

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Introduction

Skill: conceptual

 

12) What do sociologists call two or more people who identify and interact with one another?

  1. a dyad
  2. an interactive group
  3. a social group
  4. a crowd
  5. a category

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

13) What is the appropriate sociological term for people with a common status, such as “college students”?

  1. a crowd
  2. a category
  3. a group
  4. a population
  5. a peer group

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

14) A temporary, loosely formed collection of people who may or may not interact is referred to as a:

  1. crowd.
  2. category.
  3. group.
  4. population.
  5. drama.

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

15) All passengers on an international flight are an example of a:

  1. crowd.
  2. category.
  3. group.
  4. population.
  5. peer group.

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

16) Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships as a/an:

  1. close group.
  2. emotive group.
  3. mandatory group.
  4. secondary group.
  5. primary group.

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: applied

 

17) Which of the following is the most important primary group in every society?

  1. its government
  2. the peer group
  3. its economic advisors
  4. playgroups
  5. the family

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

18) Why did Cooley refer to some groups as “primary groups”?

  1. They are among the first groups we experience in life.
  2. They are formed during primary school.
  3. They provide for material needs.
  4. They provide opportunity for commodity exchanges.
  5. They primarily produce goods.

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

19) Which of the following statements about primary groups is correct?

  1. They are of primary importance to the socialization process.
  2. They provide discomfort and insecurity.
  3. Members of primary groups display a social orientation.
  4. They provide access to other people.
  5. They are usually long-term.

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

20) What term did Cooley use to refer to a large impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity?

  1. close group
  2. emotive group
  3. primary group
  4. peer group
  5. secondary group

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

21) When you speak at your university’s commencement ceremonies, Cooley suggests you are speaking to a ________ group.

  1. close
  2. bored
  3. primary
  4. secondary
  5. peer

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: applied

 

22) Select the attribute that is characteristic of secondary groups.

  1. small size
  2. warm, informal interaction
  3. strong emotional ties
  4. long-term duration
  5. goal orientation

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

23) Select the statement about secondary groups that is correct.

  1. They are necessarily informal and emotional.
  2. They have the same characteristics as primary groups.
  3. They have a personal orientation.
  4. They are important for what they can do for us.
  5. Members give of themselves freely and also take freely.

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

24) Applying Cooley’s criteria, which is the best illustration of a primary group?

  1. a PTA meeting
  2. a family gathering for Christmas
  3. a corporate board meeting
  4. a reunion of the graduating class of 1977
  5. a package tour to Europe

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: applied

 

25) Applying Cooley’s criteria, which of the following is the best illustration of a secondary group?

  1. a gathering of brothers and sisters
  2. a meeting of good friends
  3. a meeting of the Rotary Club
  4. a luncheon of mothers and daughters
  5. a Mother’s Day celebration

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: applied

 

26) Which of the following is a characteristic of a primary group?

  1. a means to an end
  2. social orientation
  3. short-term
  4. medium-term
  5. goal orientation

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

27) Which of the following is a characteristic of secondary groups?

  1. social orientation
  2. personal orientation
  3. an end in itself
  4. long-term
  5. short-term

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

28) What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks?

  1. task group leadership
  2. expressive leadership
  3. secondary group leadership
  4. instrumental leadership
  5. authoritarian leadership

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

29) A group where the leader focuses on the accomplishment of goals uses:

  1. task group leadership.
  2. expressive leadership.
  3. secondary group leadership.
  4. instrumental leadership.
  5. authoritarian leadership.

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: applied

 

30) What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes collective well-being?

  1. task group leadership
  2. expressive leadership
  3. secondary group leadership
  4. instrumental leadership
  5. authoritarian leadership

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

31) You are asked to assume leadership of a troubled group that is rife with debilitating conflict. To restore stability, what leadership style should you adopt?

  1. task group leadership
  2. expressive leadership
  3. secondary group leadership
  4. instrumental leadership
  5. authoritarian leadership

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: applied

 

32) In which type of leadership situation will the leader form a secondary, but not primary, relationship with other group members?

  1. task group leadership
  2. expressive leadership
  3. authoritarian leadership
  4. secondary group leadership
  5. instrumental leadership

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

33) A successful leader receives a distant respect in what type of leadership?

  1. task group
  2. expressive
  3. authoritarian
  4. secondary group
  5. instrumental

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

34) A successful leader uses humour to lighten serious moments in what type of leadership?

  1. task group
  2. expressive
  3. authoritarian
  4. secondary group
  5. instrumental

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

35) A female has been assigned a leadership role in your group. Given tradition, what type of leadership style would she be expected to show?

  1. task group leadership
  2. expressive leadership
  3. authoritarian leadership
  4. secondary group leadership
  5. instrumental leadership

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: applied

 

36) ________ leaders focus on instrumental concerns, make decisions unilaterally, and demand strict compliance from subordinates.

  1. Authoritarian
  2. Laissez-faire
  3. Democratic
  4. Bureaucratic
  5. Creative

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

37) You have been asked to lead a group that needs to learn how to make collective decisions on an egalitarian basis. What leadership style would you use?

  1. authoritarian
  2. laissez-faire
  3. democratic
  4. bureaucratic
  5. creative

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: applied

 

38) ________ leaders tend to downplay position and power, allowing the group to function on its own.

  1. Authoritarian
  2. Laissez-faire
  3. Democratic
  4. Bureaucratic
  5. Creative

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

39) Asch’s study in which participants were asked to match a “standard” line to one of three comparison lines demonstrates how individuals

  1. will conform when they are in a group of people who are important to them.
  2. will conform when they are in a group of people who have power over them.
  3. will conform in order to avoid the discomfort of being different.
  4. will not conform unless they are paid to do so.
  5. work hard to maintain their independence in groups.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

40) Select the appropriate conclusion from Milgram’s experiments on authority.

  1. During times of war, values toward authorities and violence change markedly.
  2. Thresholds of physical pain differ substantially.
  3. People are surprisingly likely to follow not only the directions of “legitimate authority figures,” but also those of groups of “ordinary individuals.”
  4. The conclusions from Solomon Asch’s study of conformity were incorrect.
  5. Authority figures are usually mistrusted and are not effective in eliciting obedience in experimental situations.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

41) What is the sociological term for group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue?

  1. conformist cognizance
  2. doublethink
  3. blind spot
  4. tunnel vision
  5. groupthink

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

42) Which of the following represents “groupthink”?

  1. A group shares information widely and makes an excellent community policy recommendation.
  2. A group leader makes a decision without consulting anyone, and the decision is a bad one.
  3. A group follows the policy directives of their constituency “to the letter.”
  4. A group seeks consensus, not opinion differences, and as a result makes a poor policy recommendation.
  5. A group seeks opinion differences, and as a result makes a poor policy recommendation.

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: applied

 

43) A social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations or decisions is called a/an:

  1. outsider group.
  2. authority group.
  3. reference group.
  4. emulation group.
  5. think tank.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

44) A young graduate student is trying to figure out how her professor will respond to her research paper. What type of group does her professor represent?

  1. outsider group
  2. authority group
  3. reference group
  4. emulation group
  5. master group

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: applied

 

45) What is an accurate generalization from Stouffer’s studies of World War II soldiers?

  1. When we serve in a unit with a high promotion rate, we are optimistic.
  2. We make judgments about ourselves in isolation, perceiving well-being objectively.
  3. Whatever our situation, we form a subjective sense of our well-being by looking at ourselves in relation to specific reference groups.
  4. When we serve in units with low promotion rates, our esteem is greater than in high promotion units.
  5. When we serve in small units, our chances of promotion are greater.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

46) A social group that a member feels respect and commitment toward is a/an:

  1. partisan group.
  2. reference group.
  3. out-group.
  4. subculture.
  5. in-group.

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

47) A social group toward which a member feels competition or opposition is a/an:

  1. in-group.
  2. reference group.
  3. out-group.
  4. subculture.
  5. partisan group.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

48) What has research shown about in-groups and out-groups?

  1. In-group–out-group distinctions actually promote racial harmony.
  2. In-group–out-group distinctions inhibit ethnocentrism.
  3. In-group–out-group distinctions give people an unclear sense of their place in a world of diversity.
  4. In-group–out-group boundaries lead to unfairly negative views of out-groups.
  5. In-group–out-group boundaries are inevitable.

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

49) A sociological term for a social group with two members is a/an:

  1. pair.
  2. triad.
  3. myriad.
  4. couple.
  5. dyad.

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

50) Which statement reflects Simmel’s understanding of the dyad?

  1. Dyads are less stable than groups with many members.
  2. There usually is less intense interaction in a dyad.
  3. Dyads have the least potential for meaningful social bonds.
  4. Dyads are more stable than groups with many members.
  5. Dyads are only formed between blood relatives.

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

51) A triad is a/an:

  1. pyramidal organization.
  2. social group with three members.
  3. term for a trial marriage.
  4. unstable social group.
  5. three-generational family.

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

52) Which of the following statements regarding the influence of social diversity on intergroup contact is true?

  1. Heterogeneous groups turn inward.
  2. Social disparity promotes contact.
  3. Social boundaries foster physical boundaries.
  4. Segregated groups turn outward.
  5. Large groups turn inward.

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 115

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

53) You are linked by weak social ties to persons with whom you have little in common in terms of identity and interaction. The sociological term for these linkages is:

  1. a network.
  2. a structural web.
  3. a lineage.
  4. social structure.
  5. camaraderie.

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 115

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

54) Which of the following typically characterizes networks?

  1. primary relationships
  2. strong sense of membership
  3. sharp boundaries of membership
  4. indirect connections among the members
  5. secondary relationships

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 115-116

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

55) The fact that networks of more privileged categories of people are more likely to lead people in these categories to higher-paying jobs illustrates the importance of:

  1. social capital.
  2. groupthink.
  3. reference groups.
  4. anticipatory networking.
  5. rationalization.

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

56) In which of the following ways is the internet reflecting what sociologists have learned about group interaction?

  1. It is breaking up into a large number of smaller social groups.
  2. It is showing signs of “groupthink.”
  3. Users are beginning to display group conformity.
  4. Expressive leaders are beginning to emerge.
  5. Formal rules are interfering with communications.

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 115

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

57) Large secondary groups that are organized to achieve goals are referred to as:

  1. social organizations.
  2. formal organizations.
  3. bureaucracies.
  4. businesses.
  5. competitive organizations.

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

58) What types of formal organizations are called voluntary associations?

  1. normative organizations
  2. utilitarian organizations
  3. coercive organizations
  4. social organizations
  5. creative organizations

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

59) Your criminology class is touring a maximum-security prison. This is a ________ organization.

  1. normative
  2. utilitarian
  3. coercive
  4. social
  5. competitive

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: applied

 

60) What types of formal organizations bestow material benefit on members?

  1. normative organizations
  2. coercive organizations
  3. social organizations
  4. creative organizations
  5. utilitarian organizations

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

61) For parents, what type of formal organization is the Lions Club?

  1. a normative organization
  2. a utilitarian organization
  3. a coercive organization
  4. a social organization
  5. a creative organization

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: applied

 

62) For patients who are involuntarily committed, what type of formal organization are mental hospitals?

  1. a normative organization
  2. a utilitarian organization
  3. a coercive organization
  4. a social organization
  5. a competitive organization

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: applied

 

63) What is the largest formal organization in Canada?

  1. the federal government
  2. the capitalist system
  3. the Internet
  4. the Red Cross
  5. the Canadian International Development Agency

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: applied

 

64) According to Max Weber, tradition:

  1. encourages organizational change.
  2. encourages organizational efficiency.
  3. makes a society liberal.
  4. limits organizational efficiency.
  5. limits sentiments about the past.

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

65) According to Weber, the rise of the “organizational society” is based on:

  1. tradition.
  2. colonialism.
  3. rationalization of society.
  4. rationality.
  5. sentimentality.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

66) What term refers to an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently?

  1. formal organization
  2. complex organization
  3. social organization
  4. bureaucracy
  5. aristocracy

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

67) The task of assigning people to the highly specialized duties within a bureaucracy represents the function of:

  1. specialization.
  2. rules and regulations.
  3. the hierarchy of offices.
  4. technical competence.
  5. traditional leadership.

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: applied

 

68) Analyzing patterns of power and responsibility in an organization is examining:

  1. specialization.
  2. rules and regulations.
  3. the hierarchy of offices.
  4. technical competence.
  5. impersonality.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: applied

 

69) ________ is the term for the method in which a bureaucracy controls an organization’s functioning to ensure predictability.

  1. Specialization
  2. Rules and regulations
  3. The hierarchy of offices
  4. Technical competence
  5. Impersonality

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

70) What term refers to impersonal evaluation based on performance in bureaucracies?

  1. specialization
  2. rules and regulations
  3. the hierarchy of offices
  4. technical competence
  5. formal, written communications

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

71) You have been asked as a consultant to evaluate the fairness with which all the members of an organization are treated. You are thus evaluating the organization’s:

  1. rules and regulations.
  2. impersonality.
  3. hierarchy of offices.
  4. formal, written communications.
  5. specialization.

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: applied

 

72) What element of bureaucracy leads to the accumulation of files that guide the organization?

  1. rules and regulations
  2. impersonality
  3. hierarchy of offices
  4. formal, written communications
  5. traditional leadership

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

73) The term used to describe the range of factors outside the organization that affects its operation is:

  1. oligarchy.
  2. bureaucratic environment.
  3. organizational environment.
  4. competition.
  5. formal influence.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

74) Which of the following is one of the factors in the organizational environment that can influence the operation of an organization?

  1. economic trends
  2. social patterns
  3. internal officials
  4. primary groups
  5. secondary trends

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

75) Informality in organizations:

  1. decreases the amount of communication in the organization.
  2. decreases the amount of “gossip” that circulates in an organization.
  3. can provide necessary flexibility on the job.
  4. prevents the personalization of surroundings.
  5. can provide opportunities to revolt against the organization.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 120

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

76) A worker who feels like a small cog in an endlessly moving machine is experiencing

  1. retreatism.
  2. bureaucratic inertia.
  3. bureaucratic retreatism.
  4. bureaucratic ritualism.
  5. bureaucratic alienation.

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 120

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: applied

 

77) What term did Merton coin to describe focusing on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization’s goals?

  1. bureaucratic retreatism
  2. bureaucratic innovation
  3. bureaucratic ritualism
  4. bureaucratic inertia
  5. bureaucratic leadership

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 120

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

78) The emergency room clerk who keeps a profusely bleeding patient waiting while she fills out extensive paperwork is a classic example of bureaucratic:

  1. retreatism.
  2. innovation.
  3. ritualism.
  4. inertia.
  5. leadership.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 120

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: applied

 

79) Tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves is referred to as bureaucratic:

  1. retreatism.
  2. innovation.
  3. ritualism.
  4. progress.
  5. inertia.

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 121

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

80) What is the rule of the many by the few called?

  1. bureaucracy
  2. oligarchy
  3. formal organization
  4. dictatorial organization
  5. anarchy

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 121

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

81) Which of the following is true regarding oligarchy?

  1. It cannot survive in the hierarchical structure of bureaucracy.
  2. It increases people’s confidence in their elected leaders.
  3. It can reduce the accountability of leaders to the people who elected them.
  4. It thrives on political competition and term limits.
  5. There are no current organizations that resemble the outdated oligarchy.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 121

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

82) Which of the following represent the three steps involved in scientific management?

  1. observe the operations for a task, provide incentives, punish poor performance
  2. provide incentives, punish poor performance, provide feedback
  3. set goals, analyze data, hire workers
  4. observe the operations for a task, analyze the data, provide incentives
  5. set goals, increase competition, provide incentives

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 121-122

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

83) Males and females age 20 to 64 represent approximately the same percentage of the total population aged 20 to 64. Therefore, which of the following statements regarding gender and management is true?

  1. Males hold only 50% of management positions.
  2. Females hold only approximately 35% of management positions.
  3. Males hold 90% of management positions.
  4. Females hold only 15% of management positions.
  5. Males hold more than 90% of management positions.

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 123

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

84) What does Rosabeth Kanter’s research show?

  1. Organizations must “open up” their structure to bring out the best in their employees.
  2. Employees who “get ahead” do so because they hustle.
  3. Organizational environment is largely immaterial to employee performance.
  4. Opportunity to advance is irrelevant to the vibrancy of an organization.
  5. Open organizations turn workers into unproductive “zombies.”

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 123-124

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

85) According to Kanter, an organization with many dead-end jobs turns workers into

  1. the paid “other workers” at the end of the company’s chain of command.
  2. socially isolated out-groups.
  3. less productive “zombies” who are never asked for their opinion on anything.
  4. underrepresented employees.
  5. incompetent staff members.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: Page Ref: 124

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

86) Which of the following is a gender-linked pattern that contributes to the “female advantage” for companies attempting to be more flexible and democratic?

  1. Men place greater value on communication skills and share information more than women do.
  2. Men are more flexible leaders who typically give their employees greater autonomy.
  3. Women have a greater “information focus” and are more likely to ask questions.
  4. Men tend to emphasize the interconnectedness of an organization’s operations.
  5. Women have an “image focus” that directs their attention to their reputation.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 124

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

87) Which of the following statements most accurately describes Japanese formal organizations?

  1. Japanese formal organizations undermine primary relationships.
  2. In Japan, formal organizations are developed in the context of a highly heterogeneous society.
  3. Japan’s organizations reflect the Japanese strong collective spirit.
  4. Japanese organizations are unfriendly.
  5. Japanese organizations value rugged individualism.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 124

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

88) In what respect are Canadian and Japanese formal organizations distinctly different?

  1. hiring and advancement, lifetime security, and profit motive
  2. lifetime security, holistic involvement, and entrepreneurial spirit
  3. holistic involvement, broad-based training, and profit motive
  4. non-specialized training, profit motive, and entrepreneurial spirit
  5. lifetime security, broad-based training, and quality circle discussions

 

Answer: e

Page Reference: 124

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

89) The open, flexible organization:

  1. has a pyramid shape.
  2. has a clear chain of command.
  3. has many workers do their jobs in teams.
  4. reports performance flow from the bottom up.
  5. has extensive rules and regulations.

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 125

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

90) Which of the following is a way in which today’s organizations differ from those of a century ago?

  1. creative restriction
  2. a hierarchical organization
  3. cooperative work teams
  4. more flexibility
  5. less day-to-day supervision

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 125

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

91) According to Brooks, the current standard that healthy organizations should emulate is the

  1. ecosystem.
  2. machine.
  3. telephone.
  4. automobile.
  5. solar system.

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 125

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

92) The McDonaldization of society refers to:

  1. the proliferation of McDonald’s restaurants around the world.
  2. how McDonald’s organizational principles are coming to dominate our society.
  3. how bureaucracy worldwide is filled with red tape and inefficiency.
  4. the complexity and lack of predictability in modern society.
  5. the competitiveness of modern society.

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 126

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

93) Which of the following is one of the principles of McDonaldization?

  1. inefficiency
  2. standardization
  3. creativity
  4. freedom
  5. unpredictability

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 126

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

94) The principles of McDonaldization _______________________ that formal organizations would crush the human spirit.

  1. contradict Weber’s view
  2. show that Weber was being overly pessimistic when he argued
  3. show that people have more control over “the system” than Weber believed when he argued
  4. support Weber’s view that rational systems were efficient but dehumanizing when he argued
  5. support Weber’s view that a move to more rational systems would spark creativity when he argued

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 126

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

95) The emergence of a post-industrial economy brought a flatter, more flexible model of formal organizations that prize communication and creativity that resulted in:

  1. an increased danger of worker alienation.
  2. decreases in productivity.
  3. decreases in employee autonomy.
  4. an increased threat of losing employment due to downsizing.
  5. “unintelligent organizations.”

 

Answer: d

Page Reference: 129

Topic: The Future of Organizations: Opposing Trends

Skill: conceptual

 

96) Advances in technology have led to which of the following?

  1. a gain of privacy for all citizens
  2. known people having access to information about you
  3. enactment of laws giving citizens the right to examine government records kept on them
  4. success of laws to address the extent of the privacy problem
  5. a reduction in efficiency

 

Answer: c

Page Reference: 128

Topic: The Future of Organizations: Opposing Trends

Skill: conceptual

 

97) People riding on the same subway form a social group.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: applied

 

98) To be members of a “category,” people must think of themselves as a special “we.”

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

99) Secondary groups have the opposite characteristics of primary groups.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

100) The boundary that distinguishes members from non-members is clearer in secondary groups than in primary groups.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

101) Expressive leaders are more likely than instrumental leaders to enjoy more personal affection.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

102) Expressive leaders give orders and discipline those who hold back the group’s efforts.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

103) Laissez-faire leadership is the least effective in promoting group goals.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

104) Asch’s experiment on group conformity shows that many people would compromise their judgment than risk being seen as different.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

105) Milgram’s experiment showed people are easily influenced by “ordinary people” and legitimate authority figures.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

106) Avoiding groupthink will result in better decision making.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

107) Reference groups can be primary groups but not secondary groups.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 13

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

108) In the process of anticipatory socialization, people are likely to use social groups they wish to join as reference groups.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

109) One person’s “in-group” is likely another person’s “out-group.”

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

110) The number of people in a group determines how the members interact.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

111) As groups become larger, they are more stable.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

112) As groups increase in size, intense personal interaction also increases.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

113) Heterogeneous groups turn inward.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 115

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

114) Social networks are a web of weak ties.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

115) Although networks have weak ties, they can provide a powerful resource.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

116) In terms of finding a job, it is true that whom you know is often as important as what you know.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 116-117

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

117) Networks of the lower class are higher in social capital than the networks of the higher class.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

118) The most extensive social networks include people who are young, well educated, and living in large cities.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

119) Internet use around the world is linked to income levels.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

120) Formal organizations meet personal needs.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

121) A psychiatric hospital can be a coercive, a utilitarian, and a normative organization at the same time.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 117-118

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: applied

 

122) Formal organizations began with the Industrial Revolution.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

123) Bureaucracies are characterized by rules and regulations and impersonality.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

124) Bureaucracies strive to place less value on formal, written communications than on the normal communications among workers.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

125) Although Weber believed bureaucracy is the model of productivity, he feared bureaucracy would dehumanize the people it is designed to serve.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

126) Bureaucratic ritualism is the same process as bureaucratic inertia.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 120-121

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

127) Most formal organizations cease to exist before they can reformulate goals in order to survive.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 121

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

128) Michels’s “iron law of oligarchy” notes that organizations are ruled by a few powerful leaders.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 121

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

129) Scientific management involves carefully observing the tasks performed by each worker.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 123

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

130) Even though men and women between the ages of 20–64 represent almost equal shares of the total population, women now hold a higher percentage of management positions than men.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 123

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

131) Rosabeth Kanter’s research shows that rigidity in organizations promotes profitability.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 123-124

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

132) Helgesen found three gender-linked patterns—dubbed the female advantage—that help make companies more flexible and democratic.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 124

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

133) In many respects, formal organizations in Japan are viewed as large primary groups.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 124

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

134) Japanese workers are loyal to their workplace.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 124

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

135) Rather than provide specialized training, Japanese organizations train their employees in all phases of their operation.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 124

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

136) Japanese workers expect to move from one company to another to advance their careers, as workers do in Canada.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 124

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

137) The Japanese model is available to all workers in Japan.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 124

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

138) Today’s organizations offer greater flexibility but less creative autonomy than those of a century ago.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 125

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

139) McDonald’s has become a symbol of our way of life.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 126

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

140) McDonaldization verifies Weber’s argument that rational systems are efficient but dehumanizing.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 126

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

141) The ever-present threat of “downsizing” decreases with organizational flexibility.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Page Reference: 129

Topic: The Future of Organizations: Opposing Trends

Skill: factual

 

142) Today’s loss of privacy reflects the increasing size and number of formal organizations.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Page Reference: 128-129

Topic: The Future of Organizations: Opposing Trends

Skill: conceptual

 

143) Why are “categories” not considered groups?

 

Answer:

It is because the individuals are likely aware that others with the same status exist, but the vast majority are strangers. There is no interaction.

 

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

144) Why did Cooley call personal and tightly integrated groups “primary groups”?

 

Answer:

He called them primary groups because they are among the first groups we experience in life, and because the family and early playgroups hold primary importance in the socialization process, shaping attitudes, behaviour, and social identity.

 

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

145) Name and briefly describe the two leadership roles.

 

Answer:

Instrumental leaders provide the group direction that emphasizes the completion of tasks. They are goal-oriented and tend to be more formalized, forming secondary relationships with group members.

 

Expressive leaders focus on the provision of collective well-being for the group. They are harmonizers and tend to cultivate more personal, primary relationships with group members.

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

146) Name and briefly describe the three leadership styles.

 

Answer:

Authoritarian leadership stresses instrumental concerns, taking personal charge of decision making and demanding strict compliance.

 

Democratic leadership is more expressive, making sure to include everyone in the decision-making process.

 

Laissez-faire leadership allows the group to function more or less on its own.

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: factual

 

147) Briefly explain why the size of a group plays a crucial role in how the group members interact.

 

Answer:

As the group increases in number, the number of possible relationships increases almost geometrically. While there is only one relationship in a dyad, there are six among four people, and fifteen in a group of six. The larger the group, the greater the number of people who are unable to speak, which is why the group will divide into smaller groups to allow more interaction for more members.

 

Page Reference: 114-115

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

148) Define the concepts “primary group” and “secondary group,” discuss characteristics of each type of group, and identify five social groupings that you know reasonably well. Which groupings are primary groups, and what about them makes you sure of this? Which groupings are secondary groups, and what about them makes you sure of that? Is there a clear dividing line between primary and secondary groups, or should the two types of groups be viewed as polar ends of a continuum? Explain your answer.

 

Answer:

A primary group is a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships. Characteristics include: personal orientation; usually long-term; broad, usually involving many activities; as ends in themselves. A secondary group is a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity. Characteristics include: goal orientation; variable, often short-term; narrow, usually involving few activities; as means to an end. Specific examples will vary.

 

Page Reference: 109-110

Topic: Social Groups

Skill: conceptual

 

149) Name and give an example of the three types of formal organizations.

 

Answer:

1) utilitarian: a person’s business or place of employment

2) normative: civic and service clubs

3) coercive: mental hospitals and prisons

 

Page Reference: 117-118

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

150) List three of the six characteristics of bureaucracy.

 

Answer:

1) specialization

2) hierarchy of offices

3) rules and regulations

4) technical competence

5) impersonality

6) formal, written communication

 

Page Reference: 118-119

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

151) Why are “grapevines” persistent in large bureaucracies?

 

Answer:

They spread information much faster than do the formal communication channels, but, more importantly, they are quite important for subordinates, because the high-ranking officers often try to keep important information secret from them.

 

Page Reference: 120

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

152) List the key characteristics of bureaucracy and discuss the positive and negative aspects of bureaucracy. Write about both a positive and a negative experience you have had that resulted from your dealings with a bureaucracy.

 

Answer:

Key characteristics of bureaucracy include: specialization; hierarchy of offices; rules and regulations; technical competence; impersonality; formal, written communications. Although bureaucratic organization promotes efficiency, problems include bureaucratic alienation, bureaucratic inefficiency, and bureaucratic ritualism. Personal examples will vary.

 

Page Reference: 118-119

Topic: Formal Organizations

Skill: applied

 

153) Define scientific management and identify the three steps in this approach.

 

Answer:

Scientific management is the application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization. Scientific management involves three steps:

1) Carefully observe the task performed by each worker, identifying all operations involved and measuring the time required for each.

2) Analyze the data, looking for ways for workers to perform each task more efficiently.

3) Provide guidance and incentives for workers to do the job more efficiently.

 

Page Reference: 123

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

154) What are specialized management skills that women might bring to strengthen an organization?

 

Answer:

Tannen (1994) claims women have a greater “information focus” and more readily ask questions in order to understand an issue. Helgesen (1990) found women place greater value on communication skills and share information more freely; they are more flexible leaders who give employees greater autonomy, and they tend to emphasize the interconnectedness of all organizational operations.

 

Page Reference: 123

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

155) What are the four ways in which today’s organizations differ from a century ago?

 

Answer:

1) creative freedom

2) competitive work teams

3) a flatter organization

4) greater flexibility

 

Page Reference: 125

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

156) To what does the phrase “The McDonaldization of Society” refer?

 

Answer:

The organizational principles that underlie McDonald’s are steadily coming to dominate our entire society. The fast-food and fast service national chains are beginning to dominate, and smaller businesses are mimicking their style, nationwide.

 

Page Reference: 126

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

157) List the four principles of McDonaldization:

 

Answer:

1) efficiency

2) standardization

3) uniformity and predictability

4) control through automation

Page Reference: 126-127

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: factual

 

158) Discuss the differences between Japanese and Western formal organizations focusing on the following themes: Is one model or organization better than the other? What would prevent Canada from fully adopting the Japanese formal organization system?

 

Answer:

Japanese organizations reflect that nation’s strong collective spirit. The emphasis is on cooperation, whereas the North American focus is on individualism. Differences between formal organizations in Japan and North America include: Japanese companies hire new workers in groups, giving everyone the same salary and responsibilities; Japanese organizations hire workers for life, train workers in all phases of operations, and involve workers in “quality circles” to discuss decisions that affect them; Japanese organizations play a large role in the lives of workers. Individual positions on which organizational model is best will vary. One factor that might prevent Canada from fully adopting the Japanese formal organizational system is an individualistic orientation focusing on competition.

 

Page Reference: 124

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: conceptual

 

159) Discuss Ritzer’s thesis of the McDonaldization of our society. How will the principles of McDonaldization affect our society’s members in the future? Consider all aspects of social life, as well as work. Will standardization stifle creativity and/or impede personal freedom? Consider Weber’s concerns regarding the power of formal organizations. What do you see for the future: more or less McDonaldization? Is it a positive or a negative? Why do you think that is so?

 

Answer:

A good answer will include reference to Ritzer’s basic organizational principles (efficiency, standardization, uniformity and predictability, control through automation). Weber’s concerns that formal organizations would cage our imaginations and crush the human spirit should also be mentioned.

 

Page Reference: 125-127

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Skill: applied

 

160) Discuss the growing trend in the collection of personal information by both the public and private sectors, and how individuals’ lives can and/or will be positively and negatively affected. What would you recommend as a reasonable approach to solving the problem of the government’s and business’s right to information versus the public’s right to privacy?

 

Answer:

A good answer will include reference to the current decline in privacy resulting from the increasing number and size of formal organizations as well as the role of technological advances in the loss of privacy.

 

Page Reference: 128-129

Topic: The Future of Organizations: Opposing Trends

Skill: applied

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