Youth Gangs in American Society 4th Edition by Randall G. Shelden – Test Bank


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  1. In the 1970’s it was believed that female gangs only made up what percentage of all gangs?
    1. 5%
    2. 10%
    3. 15%
    4. 20%

ANS: B           REF: p. 130

  1. The area of East Los Angeles provides a fascinating glimpse of how gangs emerge and change with the times. Gangs in this area first emerged during the late:
    1. 1930-1040’s
    2. 1940-1050’s
    3. 1950-1960’s
    4. 1960-1970’s

ANS: A           REF: p. 132

  1. In 2009 the National Gang Intelligence Center reported this percentage of females who claimed gang membership:
    1. 6%
    2. 5%
    3. 5%
    4. 4%

ANS: D           REF: p. 132



  1. A detailed look at differences between male and female gang members in police databases can be obtained from a study that analyzed files maintained by the:
    1. Dallas Police Department
    2. New York Police Department
    3. Honolulu Police Department
    4. Chicago Police Department

ANS: C           REF: p. 133

  1. According to the text, what is the primary source of income for female gang members?
    1. Prostitution
    2. Selling drugs
    3. Theft
    4. Legitimate work

ANS: B           REF: p. 135

  1. What is the most common offense female gang members are arrested for?
    1. Selling of drugs
    2. Theft
    3. Prostitution
    4. Running away and other status offenses

ANS: D           REF: p. 136

  1. What is the most common type of female gang involvement?
    1. Independent gang membership
    2. Regular membership in a coed gang
    3. A female auxiliary member of a male gang
    4. Dual membership in all female and coed gangs

ANS: C           REF: p. 137

  1. According to the research, Honolulu, currently has around approximately how many gangs?
    1. 56
    2. 121
    3. 171
    4. 200

ANS: C           REF: p. 139

  1. According to Harper and Robinson (1999), what percent of female gang member’s family’s received government assistance (food stamps, welfare etc.)?
    1. 46%
    2. 77%
    3. 86%
    4. 96%

ANS: D           REF: p. 139

  1. Kitchen’s student in 1995 in Indianapolis, Indiana revealed what percentage of African-American female gang members families lived below the poverty level?
    1. 2%
    2. 3%
    3. 1%
    4. 7%

ANS: A           REF: p. 140

  1. Miller in 2005 discovered that only ____ percent of students in St. Louis were proficient in English.
    1. 6%
    2. 10%
    3. 15%
    4. 20%

ANS: A           REF: p. 141

  1. Moore’s study of girl gangs in East Los Angeles reveals drugs to be:
    1. Prominent in Asian gangs only
    2. A major problem
    3. An outlet for abuse from male gang members
    4. Not a problem with females as much as males

ANS: B           REF: p. 141

  1. Female offenders are how many more times likely to show clinical symptoms of anxiety and depression than non-offending females?
    1. 2
    2. 3
    3. 4
    4. 5

ANS: B           REF: p. 142

  1. Which is not a form of gang initiation according to the text?
    1. Sex
    2. Fighting other gang members
    3. Committing crimes
    4. Smoking crack cocaine

ANS: D           REF: p. 144

  1. McNaught (1999) suggests that some girls who are drawn into gangs because of:
    1. The need for protection
    2. Pressure to join from peers
    3. Sexual relationships
    4. Being hooked on drugs

ANS: C           REF: p. 147

  1. Many female gang members describe their boyfriends as:
    1. Nice
    2. Caring
    3. Possessive
    4. Violent

ANS: C           REF: p. 149

  1. According to Moore, what percentage of female gang members reported being sexually assaulted by a member of their own family?
    1. 15%
    2. 18%
    3. 29%
    4. 35%

ANS: C           REF: p. 151

  1. As it relates to school, gang members in general:
    1. Drop out
    2. Complete high school
    3. Obtain a GED
    4. Are star athletes

ANS:   A         REF: p. 158



  1. Many female gang members in school report that teachers usually:
    1. Like them
    2. Make sexual advances toward them
    3. Stereotype them
    4. Ignore them

ANS: C           REF: p. 158

  1. The average median income for working female gang members is:
    1. $800.00 per month
    2. $1000.00 per month
    3. $1200.00 per month
    4. $1500.00 per month

ANS: C           REF: p. 158



  1. Girls’ involvement in delinquent gangs has never been of the same magnitude as their male counterparts.

ANS: True             REF: p. 130

  1. Several studies have noted that boys are more likely than girls to remain involved in a gang well into young adulthood.

ANS: True             REF: p. 133

  1. According to the research, male gang members are more likely to carry concealed weapons than female gang members.

ANS: False            REF: p. 135

  1. Both male and female gang members spend a lot of their time “partying,” “kicking it,” and just “hanging out” and the use of drugs and alcohol is common.

ANS: True             REF: p. 141

  1. One study (Kataoka et al. 2001) found that girl offenders were not more likely than girls who were not in the system to show clinical symptoms of anxiety and depression.

ANS: False            REF: p. 142

  1. Girls tended to join at an earlier age (12) than the boys (14) in a study conducted in Hawaii.

ANS: True             REF: p. 143

  1. Females most at risk for gang involvement come from homes in crisis.

ANS: True             REF: p. 151

  1. Scholars have argued that many mothers with children in gangs encourage their children to become involved in gang activities.

ANS: True             REF: p. 155

  1. Gang members usually do not have problems at school if they attend regularly.

ANS: False            REF: p. 157

  1. Girls’ involvement in gangs is as frequent as that of their male counterparts.

ANS: False            REF: p. 159



  1. Most studies of gangs show that gang membership tends to ___________ rates of delinquency after individuals join gangs and tend to decrease after they leave.

ANS: Increase                   REF: p. 133

  1. The media portrays female gang members as ____________ women.

ANS: Violent                    REF: p. 159

  1. One main difference between male and female gangs is the _______________ spent in the gang.

ANS: Length of time        REF: p. 133

  1. In contrast to the male gang member, female gang members rarely _____ or________.

ANS: Drink/Fight             REF: p. 136

  1. The most common role of a female in a gang is that of a ___________ member.

ANS: Auxiliary                 REF: p. 137


  1. Describe the different types of roles females play in gangs.

ANS: There are three types of female gang involvement: 1) membership in an independent gang, 2) regular membership in a male gang as a coed, and 3) as female auxiliaries of male gangs. Most girls are found within the third type.

Auxiliaries usually form after a male gang comes into existence and, as mentioned earlier, usually take a feminized version of the boys’ gang name. They often reflect the age grouping found in male units. They have no formal leader but usually have some members with more clout than others. Girls are not coerced to join. Rather, they come into the gang through regular friendships and families. Wannabes are informally screened for acceptability. Initiation usually involves an intense fist fight with a regular (girl) member of the gang to prove the wannabe has courage. Initiation ceremonies are not unlike those experienced by sororities or fraternities or even country clubs (Campbell, 1993:136). “The gang will not accept just anyone, and this fact alone augments the members’ self-esteem, which has taken such hard knocks from teachers, social workers, police, and families. The gang rejects ‘prospects’ whose aim is merely to avail themselves of the gang’s fighting ability for their own ends” (Ibid.).

REF: pp. 137-138

  1. Describe the criminal activity of the female gang member and compare it to the male gang member.

ANS: Previous research has shown that found that in every offense category female gang members have a higher rate of delinquent offenses than non-gang females.  Most studies of gangs show that gang membership tends to increase rates of delinquency after individuals join gangs and tend to decrease after they leave. Girls are involved in very few homicides and they differ significantly from those committed by boys.  The research is also clear that male gang members commit far more crimes than their female counterparts. A study by Esbensen, Deschenes, and Winfree (1999) found that gang girls, while to significantly lesser degree in number of incidents, are very similar to gang boys in the types of illegal acts they commit. These researchers concluded that their findings did not support the idea that gang girls are only ancillary members or that they are excluded from the illegal and violent activities in which male gang members are exposed. “They are involved in assaults, robberies, gang fights, and drug sales at substantial rates” (Esbensen et al., 1999:48).

More recent studies show that gang-related delinquency among girls is related to the gender mix of the gangs. For example, Fleisher and Krienert (2004) found that having a large proportion of males in their gangs increases girls’ participation in delinquency and violence (see also Miller and Brunson, 2000).  Peterson, Miller, and Esbensen (2001) found that delinquency, particularly of a serious nature, was less likely within primarily female gangs than all male or mixed gender gangs. Also, girls in mostly male gangs had higher delinquency rates than boys who are in all-male gangs.  Jody Miller’s study (2001) of gangs in St. Louis and Columbus, Ohio found that girls in gangs did not participate in the most serious forms of gang crime mainly because the male members excluded them and because many of the girls did not want to be involved in activities they considered either dangerous or morally troubling.  There is also the fact that there are gender differences in norms supportive of violence and delinquency (Joe and Chesney-Lind, 1995; Campbell, 1993). Also, compared to male gang members, girls in gangs are less likely to be engage in fighting and they are less likely to carry weapons (Morash, Park and Kim, 2010: location 5000; see also Joe and Chesney-Lind, 1995; Miller, 2001; Sampson, Morenoff and Raudenbush, 2005; Molnar at al., 2004).

REF: pp. 133-135

  1. Describe the use of drugs in the female gang.

ANS: Both male and female gang members (and many nonmembers living in the same areas) spend a lot of their time “partying,” “kicking it,” and just “hanging out,” and the use of drugs and alcohol is common. Moore’s study of girl gangs in East Los Angeles reveals drugs to be a major problem. She noted that heroin has been a consistent feature of Chicano life for many years. Moore commented that in the 1980s, there was a heroin epidemic that was barely noticed in the press, no doubt because of the focus on crack cocaine. The lifestyle that revolved around the use of heroin was known as the tecato lifestyle. As the life history of one gang member revealed, this was a life filled with a sporadic work history and characterized by frequent jail and prison terms. By the age of 20, about half of the male gang members studied—but less than 25 percent of the females—were using heroin. By this age, most had already been labeled tecatos by their gang and had withdrawn into their own subculture.  To give an idea of the importance of heroin in their lives, Moore reported that 39 percent of the men and 16 percent of the women mentioned “heroin, drugs, narcotics” as being “the major happening during their teens” and “it was during their teens that they were initiated into the world of heroin and its usually disastrous life consequences” (Moore, 1991: 107).


REF: pp. 141-142



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