Society The Basics 14th Edition Macionis – Test Bank

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Complete Test Bank With Answers

 

 

Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

In this revision of the test bank, I have updated all of the questions to reflect changes in Society: The Basics, 14th edition. In this revision, the questions are tagged according to six levels of learning that move from lower-level to higher-level cognitive reasoning. The six levels are:

 

REMEMBER: a question involving recall of key terms or factual material

UNDERSTAND: a question testing comprehension of more complex ideas

APPLY: a question applying sociological knowledge to some new situation

ANALYZE: a question requiring identifying elements of an argument and their interrelationship

 

The 118 questions in this chapter’s test bank are divided into four types of questions. True/False questions are the least demanding. As the table below shows, all of these questions fall within the three lowest levels of cognitive reasoning (“Remember,” “Understand,” and “Apply”). Multiple-choice questions also fall within the lowest levels of cognitive reasoning. Short answer questions also span a broader range of skills (from “Understand” to “Evaluate”). Finally, essay questions are the most demanding, falling within the four highest levels of cognitive reasoning (“Apply,” “Analyze,” “Evaluate,” and “Create”).

 

Types of Questions

East to Difficult Level of Difficulty

True/False Mult Choice Short Answer Essay Total Qs
Remember 28 (74%) 44 (68%) 0 0 72
Understand 8 (21%) 8 (12%) 3 (43%) 0 19
Apply 2 (5%) 13 (20%) 1 (14%) 1 (12.5%) 17
Analyze 0 0 3 (43%) 7 (87.5%) 10
38 65 7 8 118

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 5: GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

TB_Q5.1.1

 

People riding together on a subway are correctly called a social group.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.1.2

 

In addition to keeping their individuality, members of a social group also think of themselves as a special “we.”

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.3

 

The sociologist who explored the primary group was Charles Horton Cooley.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.4

 

The boundary that distinguishes members from nonmembers is clearer in secondary groups than in primary groups.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.1.5

 

Generally, people in secondary relationships think of others as being a means to some end.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.6

 

In general, people in secondary groups are more likely than people in primary groups to “keep score” in terms of who owes what to whom.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.7

 

Expressive leaders are more likely than instrumental leaders to enjoy more personal affection from group members.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.8

 

Expressive leadership emphasizes the completion of tasks.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.9

 

The leadership style that allows group members the most autonomy is “laissez-faire.”

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.10

 

Asch’s experiment in group conformity showed that most people would not compromise their personal judgment in order to avoid being seen as different.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.11

 

Milgram’s experiment showed that people are easily influenced by both “ordinary people” and legitimate authority figures.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.12

 

Irving Janis demonstrated how discussion always improves decision making in a social group.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.13

 

“Groupthink” is a form of social conformity among members of groups.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.1.14

 

Reference groups can be primary groups, but they can never be secondary groups.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.15

 

In the process of anticipatory socialization, people use social groups they wish to join as reference groups.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.16

 

One person’s in-group can be another person’s out-group.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.1.17

 

As the number of members in a group goes up, the number of possible relationships that connect these members goes up much more quickly.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.18

 

The number of people in a group has no effect on how the members interact with one another.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.19

 

Georg Simmel referred to a group of three as a dyad.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.20

 

As groups grow larger, they become less stable.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.21

 

As groups increase in size, interaction between members becomes more intense and personal.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.22

 

A social network is really a web of weak social ties.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.23

 

Typically, the people with the largest social networks are young, well educated, and live in big cities.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.24

 

Social media such as Facebook and Instagram help people create large social networks.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.25

 

The development of social media has resulted in social networks becoming smaller.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.26

 

Formal organizations are designed to meet the personal needs of the participants.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.27

 

A psychiatric hospital can be a coercive organization for a patient, a utilitarian organization for a psychiatrist, and a normative organization for a part-time volunteer.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.2.28

 

Bureaucracy places more importance on personal ties than on technical competence.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.29

 

Max Weber believed the spread of bureaucracy would greatly improve the quality of life for modern people.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.30

 

Oligarchy refers to the rule of the many by the few.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.31

 

Scientific management was an effort to give workers more power over production.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.3.32

 

Rosabeth Moss Kanter’s research shows making promotion and financial advancement widely available actually discourages people from working harder.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.3.33

 

Compared to U.S. organizations, many formal organizations in Japan have had more of the qualities that define primary groups.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.34

 

Today’s business organizations make greater use of competitive work teams.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.35

 

In today’s information age, more and more competitive organizations have a very hierarchical, pyramid shape.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.3.36

 

Frederick Taylor, the creator of “scientific management,” argued in favor of a flatter organizational shape with more organizational flexibility.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.3.37

 

The “McDonaldization” of society thesis echoes Weber’s belief that rational systems are efficient, but also dehumanizing.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.4.38

 

As large organizations have expanded in the United States, privacy has increased.

 

Answer: False

Learning ObjectiveLO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

TB_Q5.1.39

 

The success story of the McDonald’s organization explains _________

  1. that “fast food” is really not served very efficiently.
  2. that the McDonald’s idea never caught on abroad.
  3. why so many small businesses do not succeed.
  4. that the organizational principles of McDonald’s have come to dominate our social life.

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.40

 

What do sociologists call two or more people who identify and interact with one another?

  1. A dyad
  2. A social group
  3. A network
  4. A crowd

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.41

 

Which of the following sociological concepts refers to all people with a common status, such as “college student”?

  1. A crowd
  2. A group
  3. A category
  4. A network

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.42

 

A temporary, loosely formed collection of people who may or may not interact is a _________

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.43

 

Imagine you are watching several dozen passengers sitting in an airport gate area waiting to board a plane. These people are an example of a _________

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.1.44

 

Charles Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships as _________

  1. an instrumental group.
  2. an expressive group.
  3. a primary group.
  4. a secondary group.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.45

 

Why did Cooley refer to certain groups as “primary groups”?

  1. They are among the first groups we experience in life.
  2. They include more members than secondary groups.
  3. They sometimes only exist for a short period of time.
  4. Their members often consider group membership as a means to a goal.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.1.46

 

Which of the following is every society’s most important primary group?

  1. The peer group
  2. The work group
  3. The family
  4. The play group

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.47

 

Assume you are one of many people assembled at a university graduation ceremony. The concept that best describes this gathering is a _________

  1. peer group.
  2. primary group.
  3. secondary group.

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.1.48

 

A secondary group is a social group that _________

  1. we experience late in life.
  2. is impersonal and engages in some specific activity.
  3. engages in many very important activities.
  4. is generally much smaller than a primary group.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.49

 

One characteristic of secondary groups is _________

  1. their small size.
  2. weak emotional ties between members.
  3. strong emotional ties between members.
  4. their long-term duration.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.50

 

An example of a primary group is _________

  1. a family that has gathered to celebrate a religious holiday.
  2. carpenters gathering at a work site.
  3. a student government meeting.
  4. a reunion of the graduating class of 1977.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.1.51

 

An example of a secondary group is _________

  1. a fraternity chapter meeting on campus.
  2. a Microsoft Corporation awards banquet.
  3. parents meeting with their daughter and her coach.
  4. girl scouts at a cookout.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.1.52

 

In general, we see a(n) _______ as a means to an end; we see a(n) _____ as an end in itself.

  1. expressive group; instrumental group
  2. crowd; category
  3. secondary group; primary group
  4. primary group; secondary group

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.1.53

 

What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks?

  1. Democratic leadership
  2. Authoritarian leadership
  3. Expressive leadership
  4. Instrumental leadership

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.54

 

_________refers to group leadership that emphasizes collective well-being.

  1. Democratic leadership
  2. Authoritarian leadership
  3. Expressive leadership
  4. Instrumental leadership

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.55

 

You are part of a task force with a group leader who has a distant relationship with the group members and who is concerned with getting the job done. Which type of leader does your task force have?

  1. A laissez-fair group leader
  2. A democratic leader
  3. An expressive leader
  4. An instrumental leader

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.1.56

 

In your group, the leader is skilled at using humor to reduce tension and lighten serious moments. Which type of leader does your group have?

  1. A democratic leader
  2. A laissez-faire leader
  3. An expressive leader
  4. An instrumental leader

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.1.57

 

Which type of leadership style takes charge of making decisions and makes sure people do what they are told?

  1. Authoritarian leadership
  2. Democratic leadership
  3. Laissez-faire leadership
  4. Expressive leadership

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.58

 

Which type of leader encourages everyone in a group to have a say in what happens?

  1. Authoritarian leader
  2. Democratic leader
  3. Laissez-faire leader
  4. Expressive leader

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.59

 

Which type of leaders downplay their own power, letting group members function more or less on their own?

  1. Authoritarian leaders
  2. Democratic leaders
  3. Laissez-faire leaders
  4. Instrumental leaders

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.60

 

Solomon Asch’s research, in which subjects were asked to match lines, showed that ________

  1. people seek out friends with whom they tend to agree.
  2. people defined as “leaders” have great power over their subjects.
  3. people tend to see most things differently.
  4. group membership has the power to generate conformity.

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.61

 

According to the findings of Solomon Asch, ________

  1. many people are willing to compromise their own judgment to avoid being seen as different by others.
  2. many people have weak self-images and seek social approval.
  3. ordinary people are often not truthful to people who are in power.
  4. many people are unwilling to compromise their own judgment to please authority figures.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.62

 

Stanley Milgram’s research, in which subjects used a “shock generator,” showed ________

  1. people become angry when others disagree with them.
  2. the ability to withstand pain varies with cultural background.
  3. people are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals.
  4. that ordinary people are surprisingly independent in their judgments.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.63

 

The process called “groupthink” refers to ________

  1. a group that shares information widely and makes an effective policy decision.
  2. a group leader who makes a decision without consulting anyone and the decision turns out to be a bad one.
  3. group members who seek consensus, discourage people from speaking freely, and end up making a decision based on limited information.
  4. a group that gets different ideas from everyone and is unable to come up with any decision at all.

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.1.64

 

What is the sociological concept coined by Irving Janis for a limited understanding of some issue resulting from group conformity?

  1. reference group consciousness
  2. groupthink
  3. in-group
  4. tunnel vision

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.65

 

During the process of groupthink ________

  1. group members quickly settle on a position and then they treat other possibilities as oppositional.
  2. group members encourage each other to see the issue from multiple points of view.
  3. group members treat reaching consensus as less important than encouraging everyone to speak up openly.
  4. The group seeks diverse members and ends up being unable to reach a consensus.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.1.66

 

A social group that people use as a point of reference in making evaluations or decisions is called a ________

  1. peer group.
  2. reference group.
  3. out-group.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.67

 

Samuel Stouffer’s study of soldier morale during World War II led to what conclusion?

  1. The greater the chances of getting ahead, the happier people are.
  2. Happiness is a matter of personal values and standards.
  3. Whatever their situation in absolute terms, people evaluate themselves and
    1. make comparisons to others in specific reference groups.
  4. The less chance for promotion, the higher soldiers’ morale.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.68

 

Which type of social group commands a member’s esteem and loyalty?

  1. An in-group
  2. An out-group
  3. A reference group
  4. A social network

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.69

 

A social group toward which a person feels competition or opposition is ________

  1. an in-group.
  2. an out-group.
  3. a reference group.
  4. a social network.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.70

 

A social group with only two members is called a ________

  1. secondary group.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.71

 

Simmel described the dyad as ________

  1. less stable than groups with many members.
  2. involving less intense interaction.
  3. less meaningful than the triad.
  4. more stable than groups with many members.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.72

 

A “triad” is ________

  1. any pyramid-shaped organization.
  2. a trial marriage.
  3. a social group with three members.
  4. a temporary social group.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.73

 

If you want your social group to be open to any and all people as new members, you would encourage a ________

  1. socially diverse membership.
  2. large group size.
  3. group that is physically segregated.
  4. small group size.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.1.74

 

Which sociological concept refers to a number of weak social ties among people who have little common identity and little interaction?

  1. Primary group
  2. Triad
  3. Network
  4. Dyad

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.75

 

Social networks are typically ________

  1. built on primary relationships.
  2. “fuzzy” groups made up of people we “know of” rather than those we know well.
  3. characterized by a strong sense of membership.
  4. characterized by boundaries defining membership.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.1.76

 

The concept “social media” refers to ________

  1. technology based on industrial production.
  2. any technology that discourages social interaction.
  3. material about social behavior.
  4. technology that links people in social activity.

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.77

 

The development of social media means that ________

  1. fewer people in the United States participate in social networks.
  2. it is no longer important for people in our society to be “well connected.”
  3. in the computer age, typical social networks now link more people.
  4. our population is increasingly isolated socially with smaller social networks.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.1.78

 

Formal organizations are ________

  1. small groups with elected leaders.
  2. large secondary groups with a goal orientation.
  3. networks that have many members.
  4. only agencies that are part of the government.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.79

 

Which type of formal organization is sometimes called a “voluntary association”?

  1. normative organizations
  2. coercive organizations
  3. utilitarian organizations
  4. All of these are correct.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.80

 

A prisoner would consider a maximum-security prison ________

  1. a normative organization.
  2. a coercive organization.
  3. a utilitarian organization.
  4. a voluntary organization.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.2.81

 

Which type of formal organization do people join in order to obtain money and other material benefits?

  1. Normative organization
  2. Coercive organization
  3. Utilitarian organization
  4. Voluntary organization

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.82

 

Assume you are a parent of a child in school. From your point of view, what type of organization is a school’s parent-teacher association (PTA)?

  1. A normative organization
  2. A coercive organization
  3. A utilitarian organization
  4. A traditional organization

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.2.83

 

From the point of view of anyone considered to be an “inmate,” what type of formal organization is the person in?

  1. A normative organization
  2. A coercive organization
  3. A utilitarian organization
  4. A voluntary organization

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.2.84

 

The concept “bureaucracy” refers to ________

  1. a large, normative organization.
  2. any source of inefficiency in organizational operation.
  3. an organizational model that operates informally.
  4. an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently.

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.85

 

One of the traits Max Weber noted about bureaucracy was that it ________

  1. favors family members over strangers.
  2. arranges workers in a flat organizational hierarchy.
  3. emphasizes cultural traditions.
  4. provides workers with highly specialized jobs.

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.86

 

In principle, bureaucratic organizations pay little attention to ________

  1. formal policies.
  2. completing tasks efficiently.
  3. the technical competence of members.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.87

 

Which concept refers to all factors outside an organization that affect the organization’s operation?

  1. Oligarchy
  2. Organizational environment
  3. Secondary environment
  4. Competition

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.88

 

Max Weber argued that formal organizations were efficient, but he cautioned that they can have harmful effects on people. As he saw it, what is the danger?

  1. Organizations create social inequality.
  2. Organizations create conflict among workers.
  3. Organizations create alienation.
  4. Organizations create conformity.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.89

 

What is Robert Merton’s term for a preoccupation with rules and regulations to the point of keeping an organization from accomplishing its goals?

  1. Bureaucratic ritualism
  2. Bureaucratic alienation
  3. Bureaucratic innovation
  4. Bureaucratic inertia

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.90

 

The emergency room clerk who keeps a bleeding patient waiting while filling out lots of paperwork is a classic example of bureaucratic ________

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.2.91

 

The tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves in order to keep going is called bureaucratic ________

 

Answer: d

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.92

 

Robert Michels referred to the rule of the many by the few as ________

  1. a bureaucracy.
  2. a formal organization.
  3. an oligarchy.
  4. an authoritarian leadership.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2. 93

 

In the “iron law of oligarchy,” Robert Michels stated that bureaucracy always means ________

  1. the few rule the many.
  2. formal rules and regulations.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.94

 

The basic idea behind scientific management is that ________

  1. both science and formal organizations are rational.
  2. organizations benefit from employees with scientific knowledge.
  3. applying scientific principles can make a business more efficient.
  4. formal organizations can benefit from more hierarchy and rigidity.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.95

 

The scientific management approach was developed by ________

  1. Frederick Taylor.
  2. Robert Merton.
  3. Robert Michels.
  4. Rosabeth Moss Kanter.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.96

 

In brief, what does Rosabeth Moss Kanter’s research show?

  1. Organizations must “open up” their structure in order to bring out the best in their employees.
  2. Employees who hustle are the ones who get ahead.
  3. Organizational structure has little to do with employee performance.
  4. Formal organizations typically become oligarchies.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.97

 

According to Deborah Tannen, what traits make up a “female advantage”?

  1. There are more women than men graduating from college.
  2. Women place greater emphasis on communication.
  3. Women are stricter managers.
  4. White women are overrepresented in senior management positions.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.98

 

During the last 50 years, Japanese formal organizations have differed from those in the United States by being ________

  1. less efficient.
  2. less profitable.
  3. more collective in their orientation.
  4. more hierarchical.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.99

 

U.S. business organizations differ from those a century ago because ________

  1. today’s organizations grant less creative autonomy.
  2. today’s organizations use more competitive work teams.
  3. today’s organizations have a steeper pyramid shape.
  4. today’s organizations have less flexibility.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.3.100

 

One of the traits linked to the process of McDonaldization is ________

  1. cultural awareness.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.101

 

The concept of “McDonaldization” of society refers to ________

  1. McDonald’s organizational principles moving to dominate all of society.
  2. the spread of McDonald’s restaurants around the world.
  3. society becoming more filled with red tape and inefficiency.
  4. the less and less predictable nature of today’s society.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.102

 

Evidence of the process called the “McDonaldization” of society includes ________

  1. bank tellers being replaced with automatic teller machines (ATMs).
  2. the fact that jobs now provide workers with greater autonomy and independence.
  3. the increased flexibility of the modern workplace.
  4. the fact that many new jobs demand creativity and imagination.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.4.103

 

The text speaks of “opposing trends” in today’s world of formal organizations because ________

  1. some organizations are getting bigger, but most are getting smaller.
  2. men dominate formal organizations, but women are gaining quickly.
  3. some organizations have evolved toward flatter, more flexible forms, but others remain rigid organizations patterned by McDonald’s.
  4. almost all people are better off than ever, but they are sacrificing privacy.

 

Answer: c

Learning ObjectiveLO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

 

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

TB_Q5.1.104

 

What are the differences between categories and social groups?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.1.105

 

What are several important differences between primary and secondary groups?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.1.106

 

What does the research by Solomon Asch and Stanley Milgram show us about the ability of social groups to affect the opinions and behavior of group members?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.1.107

 

What is the meaning of “in-group” and “out-group”? How do they both affect the opinions and behavior of individuals? Give an example of each operating as a reference group.

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.2.108

 

List the traits that Max Weber used to describe bureaucratic social organizations. How do these traits promote organizational efficiency? What do these traits have in common?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.3.109

 

What is the “McDonaldization” of society? List the four principles that define this organizational pattern. In what ways is this pattern good for society? In what ways does it threaten us?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.4.110

 

What does it mean to say that rationality may be irrational? How might Weber respond to this question?

 

Answer:

Learning ObjectiveLO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS/TOPICS FOR SHORT PAPERS

 

TB_Q5.1.111

 

Based on your understanding of this chapter, discuss (1) how group size affects the behavior of group members, and (2) how diversity in group membership affects the behavior of group members. Illustrate your responses with examples from everyday life.

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.1.112

 

Explain the effect of social media such as Facebook on the size and character of social networks. How do social media bring more and more people together? In what ways can social media discourage social interaction?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 

TB_Q5.2.113

 

In this essay, list the key characteristics of bureaucracy. What was it about bureaucracy that Max Weber saw as being positive? What did he see as being negative? To what extent to you agree with Weber’s assessment?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.3.114

 

How have formal organizations changed over the course of the 20th century? Describe the ideal formal organization in the eyes of scientific management analyst Frederick Taylor, who wrote his business principle a century ago. How and why do today’s more flexible organizations strive to be different from those described by Taylor?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.3.115

 

Discuss the “McDonaldization” of society thesis. What, exactly, does this phrase mean? How might this thesis, assuming it is correct, affect your own life in college and after?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.3.116

 

Why do many analysts claim that the spread of formal organizations threatens personal privacy? What do you think can be done about the erosion of personal privacy?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.3.117

 

Explain the “opposing trends” that are shaping the future of organizations in the United States. Why are workers in some large organizations rewarded for developing their creativity and imagination, whereas those in other organizations are prevented from doing anything other than what they are told?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

TB_Q5.3.118

 

What are the dangers that are posed to us by the process called the “McDonaldization” of society? Develop some strategies, policies, or personal choices that might help discourage the spread of this process.

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

 

 

Name ________________________________

 

Quick Quiz: Chapter 7

Groups and Organizations

 

Multiple Choice:

 

TB_Q5.1.119

 

Which of the following is every society’s most important primary group?

  1. The peer group
  2. The work group
  3. The family
  4. The play group

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.120

 

One characteristic of secondary groups is _________

  1. their small size.
  2. weak emotional ties between members.
  3. strong emotional ties between members.
  4. their long-term duration.

 

Answer: b

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.121

 

In general, the largest social networks include people who are ________

  1. young and living in cities.
  2. older and working class.
  3. living in rural areas.
  4. unfamiliar with formal organizations.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.2.122

 

In principle, bureaucratic organizations pay little attention to ________

  1. formal policies.
  2. completing tasks efficiently.
  3. the technical competence of members.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

TB_Q5.2.123

 

The scientific management approach was developed by ________

  1. Frederick Taylor.
  2. Robert Merton.
  3. Robert Michels.
  4. Rosabeth Moss Kanter.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.124

 

During the last 50 years, Japanese formal organizations have differed from those in the United States by being ________

  1. less efficient.
  2. less profitable.
  3. more collective in their orientation.
  4. more hierarchical.

 

Answer: c

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.3.125

 

One of the traits linked to the process of McDonaldization is ________

  1. cultural awareness.

 

Answer: a

Learning Objective: LO 5.3: Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century

Topic: The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

True/False

 

TB_Q5.1.126

 

The sociologist who explored the primary group was Charles Horton Cooley.

 

Answer: True

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

TB_Q5.1.127

 

Asch’s experiment in group conformity shows that most people would not compromise their personal judgment in order to avoid being seen as different.

 

Answer: False

Learning Objective: LO 5.1: Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life

Topic: Social Groups

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

 

 

Short Answer

 

TB_Q5.2.128

 

List the traits that Max Weber used to describe bureaucratic social organizations. How do these traits promote organizational efficiency?

 

Answer:

Learning Objective: LO 5.2: Describe the operation of large, formal organizations

Topic: Formal Organizations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

 

 

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