Psychology from inquiry to understanding 4th Edition – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

Topic   Factual Conceptual Applied
Quick Quiz 1

 

Multiple Choice 1, 4–5, 9–10 3, 7–8 2, 6
Quick Quiz 2

 

Multiple Choice 1, 4–5, 9 7–8, 10 2–3, 6
Introduction and

Learning Objective 5.1a

Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Multiple Choice 1, 4–10, 12, 15 3, 17 2, 11, 13–14
Fill-in-the-Blank 2 1  
Essay      
Critical Thinking      
Learning Objective 5.1b

Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Multiple Choice 18–21, 24, 26, 29–30, 36–37 22, 28, 35, 39, 42 16, 23, 25, 27, 31–34, 38
Fill-in-the-Blank 3–5   6
Essay 1    
Critical Thinking      
Learning Objective 5.1c

Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Multiple Choice 40, 44, 56–58, 62–63, 68–69 43, 46–48, 50 41, 45, 49, 51–55, 59­61, 64­67
Fill-in-the-Blank 7, 9   8
Essay      
Critical Thinking     1
Learning Objective 5.2a

Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

Multiple Choice 71–72, 81 73, 75, 79–80 70, 74, 76–78
Fill-in-the-Blank      
Essay   2  
Critical Thinking   2  
Learning Objective 5.2b

Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Multiple Choice 88–89, 92 82–84, 86, 85, 87, 90–91
Fill-in-the-Blank   10–11, 13 12
Essay      
Critical Thinking   2  
Learning Objective 5.3a

Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Multiple Choice 95–96, 101 94, 97–99 93, 100
Fill-in-the-Blank 14 15  
Essay   3 3
Critical Thinking      
Learning Objective 5.3b

Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Multiple Choice 102, 105, 107–108, 112–114 103–104, 110–111 106, 109, 115
Fill-in-the-Blank 18 16–17  
Essay      
Critical Thinking 3    
Learning Objective 5.4a

Identify possible influences on substance use.

Multiple Choice 116–117, 120, 124 123 118–119, 121–122
Fill-in-the-Blank 19   20
Essay      
Critical Thinking      

 

Chapter 5: Consciousness

Total Assessment Guide


Topic   Factual Conceptual Applied
Learning Objective 5.4b

Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Multiple Choice 125, 129–131, 133, 137–139, 141–143, 145–146, 148–150 126–127, 144 128, 132, 134–135–136, 140, 147, 151
Fill-in-the-Blank 21, 23–24, 26 22, 25  
Essay   4  
Critical Thinking      

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Name _____________________________________________

 

Chapter 5 Quick Quiz 1

 

  1. Of the various forms of altered consciousness, in which of the following do we spend the most time?
  2. A) dreaming B) under the influence of drugs
  3. C) out-of-body experiences D) sleeping

 

  1. Abdulkadir had a very strange thing happen to him last night. He was sound asleep in bed, and he was dreaming that he was at a party when he won the $250 million dollar lottery spin. As everyone was screaming, jumping up and down, and celebrating, Abdulkadir had the strangest sensation that he was actually dreaming. As it turns out, unfortunately, he was right. What principle explains this experience?
  2. A) lucid dreaming B) conscious dreaming
  3. C) unconscious dreaming D) sentient dreaming

 

  1. Which of the following conditions would you least like the pilot flying your airplane to have?
  2. A) enuresis B) sleep terror
  3. C) daytime insomnia D) narcolepsy

 

  1. Sleepwalking occurs most often during __________ sleep.
  2. A) REM B) stage 1
  3. C) stage 2 D) stages 3 or 4

 

  1. Which theorist, attempting to explain what dreams are all about, suggested that there are two levels of content to each dream—the manifest content and the latent content?
  2. A) Freud B) Cartwright
  3. C) Domhoff D) Van de Castle

 

  1. Although he knows that it is wrong, Sean has a crush on his new stepmom. He dreams of the two of them running away together and living happily ever after. What aspect of dreaming does this represent?
  2. A) activation–synthesis B) repressed desires
  3. C) wish fulfillment D) dream–work

 

  1. It is tempting, based on anecdotal evidence, to believe that when we die, we will be ushered into a utopian afterlife. After all, many who have had near death experiences (NDEs) have claimed to “see” friends or loved ones waiting for them. There is no scientific evidence, however, to support these claims. This reminds us of which principle of critical thinking?
  2. A) extraordinary claims B) replicability
  3. C) falsifiability D) ruling out rival hypotheses

 

  1. At its most basic level, __________ is an exercise in suggestion.
  2. A) hypnosis
  3. B) meditation
  4. C) dreaming
  5. D) lucidity

 

  1. The need to take a drug in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms is an indication of __________.
  2. A) a craving B) tolerance
  3. C) psychological dependence D) physical dependence

 

 

  1. What is the most frequently used illegal drug in the United States?
  2. A) alcohol B) cocaine
  3. C) marijuana D) methamphetamine

 

 

Chapter 5 Quick Quiz 1 Answer Key

 

  1. D Explanation: We spend as much as one-third or more of our lives asleep. (The Biology of Sleep, Factual, APA LO 1.1, TEXT LO 5.1a)

 

  1. A Explanation: A lucid dream occurs when a person is aware that they are dreaming while the dream

is taking place. (The Biology of Sleep, Applied, APA LO 1.3, TEXT LO 5.1b)

 

  1. D Explanation: Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden sleep, which might cause the pilot to lose control of the plane. (The Biology of Sleep, Conceptual, APA LO 1.3, TEXT LO 5.1c)

 

  1. D Explanation: Though many believe that sleepwalking is the acting out of dreams, it actually occurs

in our deepest NREM stage when we typically are not dreaming. (The Biology of Sleep, Factual, APA LO 1.1, TEXT LO 5.1c)

 

  1. A Explanation: Freud believed that dreams are the “royal road to the unconscious.” (Dreams, Factual, APA LO 1.1, TEXT LO 5.2a)

 

  1. C Explanation: Freud believed our dreams were symbolic of how we wish things could be. (Dreams, Applied, APA LO 1.2, TEXT LO 5.2a)

 

  1. A Explanation: Recall that extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence, and in this case the

evidence simply is not there. (Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences, Conceptual, APA LO 2.1, TEXT LO 5.3a)

 

  1. A Explanation: Most research into hypnosis has found that it is highly related to a person’s level of suggestibility. (Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences, Conceptual, APA LO 1.1, TEXT LO 5.3b)

 

  1. D Explanation: This symptom, called tolerance, is an indication of physical dependence. (Drugs and Consciousness, Factual, APA LO 1.1, TEXT LO 5.4a)

 

  1. C Explanation: If you thought the answer was alcohol, remember that it is not illegal if you are “of

age.” (Drugs and Consciousness, Factual, APA LO 1.1, TEXT LO 5.4b)

 

 

Name _____________________________________________

 

Chapter 5 Quick Quiz 2

 

  1. Even though sleep research suggests that most college students require approximately __________ hours of sleep nightly, they often get no more than __________ hours.
  2. A) 7; 6
  3. B) 9; 6
  4. C) 9; 8
  5. D) 10; 8

 

  1. Nathan was a psychologist in the 1930s. Which of the following would best represent his understanding of what happened inside the brain during sleep?
  2. A) Humans pass through five distinct stages of sleep.
  3. B) Humans, unlike animals, experience REM sleep but both experience non-REM sleep.
  4. C) Neurons fire and create the biological underpinnings of dreams and nightmares as we sleep.
  5. D) The brain is temporarily turned off while humans sleep

 

  1. Which of the following statements might help you determine if an individual has narcolepsy?
  2. A) “I sometimes fall into a deep sleep in the middle of a conversation.”
  3. B) “I don’t have an adverse reaction to sleeping pills.”
  4. C) “I have difficulty getting to sleep.”
  5. D) “When I get up in the morning, I have the feeling that I had really bad nightmares.”

 

  1. The treatment for __________ usually involves wearing a facemask device that forces air into the lungs during sleep.
  2. A) narcolepsy B) night terrors
  3. C) somnambulism D) sleep apnea

 

  1. In a strange condition called sex sleep, or __________, people engage in sexual acts while asleep and don’t remember what occurred after they awaken.
  2. A) nocturnal erotica disorder
  3. B) circadian coitus syndrome
  4. C) erotoslumber
  5. D) sexsomnia

 

  1. A client tells his therapist about a dream in which he drives his wife to the airport where she boards a plane. As the plane takes off, he is smiling. The therapist says the dream suggests a desire for a divorce. The therapist’s interpretation represents what Sigmund Freud called the dream’s __________ content.
  2. A) deep B) latent
  3. C) manifest D) subliminal

 

  1. Enrico claims that déjà vu is evidence of a memory from one’s past life. This claim violates which principle of critical thinking?
  2. A) falsifiability B) parsimony
  3. C) replicability D) ruling out rival hypotheses

 

 

 

  1. The positive effects that have been noted when using hypnosis have been explained in a number of ways. One suggestion is that the relaxed state that accompanies a “hypnotic trance” is uniquely responsible for all of the effects. This reminds us of which principle of critical thinking from your book?
  2. A) replicability B) ruling out rival hypotheses
  3. C) correlation vs. causation D) falsifiability

 

  1. Which of the following drugs is categorized as a depressant?
  2. A) cocaine B) LSD
  3. C) alcohol D) marijuana

 

  1. Which of the following pairs belong together?
  2. A) marijuana; tetrahydrocannabinol B) marijuana; psilocybin
  3. C) marijuana; acetylcholine D) MDMA; acetylcholine

 

 

Chapter 5 Quick Quiz 2 Answer Key

 

  1. B Explanation: These are the numbers that are demonstrated by research. (The Biology of Sleep, Factual, APA LO 1.3, TEXT LO 5.1a)

 

  1. D Explanation: For much of human history, it was believed that sleep is a completely inactive, dormant period of time. (The Biology of Sleep, Applied, APA LO 1.1, TEXT LO 5.1b)

 

  1. A Explanation: Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden attacks of irresistible sleep. (The Biology of Sleep, Applied, APA LO 1.3, TEXT LO 5.1c)

 

  1. D Explanation: This mask, called a CPAP device, forces air into the patient’s lungs. (The Biology of Sleep, Factual, APA LO 1.3, TEXT LO 5.1c)

 

  1. D Explanation: This is the correct term for the condition described in this question. (The Biology of Sleep, Factual, APA LO 1.1, TEXT LO 5.1c)

 

  1. B Explanation: Latent (hidden) content refers to the meaning of the dream. (Dreams, Applied, APA LO 1.3, TEXT LO 5.2a)

 

  1. A Explanation: Enrico is using anecdotal evidence that cannot be verified or falsified. (Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences, Conceptual, APA LO 2.1, TEXT LO 5.3a)

 

  1. B Explanation: In this case, it is important to consider multiple explanations for the positive effects

of hypnosis. Another possible hypothesis is the placebo effect. (Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences, Conceptual, APA LO 2.1, TEXT LO 5.3b)

 

  1. C Explanation: Though many believe that alcohol is a stimulant, it is actually a central nervous system depressant. (Drugs and Consciousness, Factual, APA LO 1.1, TEXT LO 5.4b)

 

  1. A Explanation: THC is the active ingredient in marijuana. (Drugs and Consciousness, Conceptual, APA LO 1.1, TEXT LO 5.4b)

 

 

Chapter 5: Consciousness

 

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Our subjective experience of the world, our bodies, and our mental perspectives is what psychologists refer to as __________.
  2. A) consciousness
  3. B) motivation
  4. C) perception
  5. D) sensation

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: Introduction

Topic: Introduction

 

  1. Eric had a sleep-related experience where he reported feeling strapped down and unable to move or examine much of his surroundings. This inability to move that occurs just after falling asleep or just before waking up is called __________.
  2. A) dissociation
  3. B) hypnosis
  4. C) an out-of-body experience

Incorrect. Sleep paralysis is different from an out-of-body experience.

  1. D) sleep paralysis

Correct. Sleep paralysis is the strange experience of being unable to move just after falling asleep or immediately upon awakening.

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: Introduction

Topic: Introduction

 

 

 

  1. Research by Susan Clancy (2005) found that many people claim to have had experiences or interactions with extraterrestrial beings. A participant in her research assured them that their experience was likely real, and used hypnosis to draw out their repressed memories of the event. As it turns out, the participant’s entire experience may have actually been attributed to a bout of sleep paralysis, but this was not considered by the therapist. This case is an example of which concept of critical thinking?
  2. A) correlation vs. causation
  3. B) ruling out rival hypotheses

Correct. The therapist simply accepted the idea that a supernatural encounter had occurred, instead of considering other explanations for the event that was reported.

  1. C) replicability

Incorrect. There was nothing in this case that spoke specifically to an attempt (or failure) to reproduce the same incidents.

  1. D) falsifiability

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: Introduction

Topic: Introduction

 

  1. Of the various forms of altered consciousness, in which of the following do we spend the most time?
  2. A) dreaming
  3. B) under the influence of drugs
  4. C) out-of-body experiences
  5. D) sleeping

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. When you feel drowsy late at night, it is the result of activity occurring within your __________.
  2. A) amygdala
  3. B) cerebellum
  4. C) hypothalamus
  5. D) thalamus

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 5.3b

TEXT LO: 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

 

  1. The term circadian comes from the Latin for __________.
  2. A) “about a day”
  3. B) “operates at night”
  4. C) “slumber”
  5. D) “drop of consciousness”

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. The internal clock for humans is accurate to within a few minutes for most people. However, it tends to run on a 24-hour clock and therefore must be reset each day. The brain region that is responsible for resetting the internal clock is the __________.
  2. A) fornix
  3. B) hippocampus
  4. C) hypothalamus
  5. D) reticular activating system

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. A circadian rhythm is roughly __________ hours long.
  2. A) 1.5
  3. B) 12
  4. C) 6
  5. D) 24

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. A biological cycle, or rhythm, that is roughly 24 hours long is called a(n) __________ rhythm.
  2. A) infradian
  3. B) circadian
  4. C) diurnal
  5. D) ultradian

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. __________, a hormone that triggers feelings of sleepiness, is released at higher levels when you are in dark surroundings.
  2. A) Serotonin
  3. B) Testosterone
  4. C) Estrogen
  5. D) Melatonin

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Many over-the-counter remedies have names that resemble the actual chemical or physiological mechanism that they impact. Which of the following product names would be most likely to triggers feelings of sleepiness?
  2. A) Superserotone
  3. B) Melatonex

Correct. Remember that melatonin is the hormone that is associated with causing sleepiness.

  1. C) Dopaminex
  2. D) Adrenalaccel

Incorrect. Adrenaline is associated with wakefulness, not sleepiness.

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Also known as the brain’s biological clock, the hypothalamus has a mere __________ neurons that regulate our levels of drowsiness.
  2. A) 200
  3. B) 2,000
  4. C) 20,000
  5. D) 200,000

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

 

  1. When Sophia flies across the country for work meetings, traversing several time zones, her circadian rhythm is likely to be interrupted by __________.
  2. A) jet lag

Correct. The disruption in our circadian rhythm caused by changing time zones is called jet lag.

  1. B) sleep deprivation

Incorrect. If you make the mistake of taking an overnight flight, you may, in fact, experience sleep deprivation, but jet lag is the best answer to this question.

  1. C) sleep debt
  2. D) REM rebound

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Who is at most risk for causing an accident driving home?
  2. A) Sven, who just flew into New York from Florida

Incorrect. This flight would stay within the same time zone, so it would probably not cause a person to experience sleep deprivation, jet lag, or an interruption in the circadian rhythm.

  1. B) Jess, who woke up early to take a final exam
  2. C) Amy, who just left her job as a night nurse

Correct. Late shifts can disrupt our biological clocks.

  1. D) Melissa, who has been taking antidepressants for 3 months

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Even though sleep research suggests that most college students require approximately __________ hours of sleep nightly, they often get no more than __________ hours.
  2. A) 7; 6
  3. B) 9; 6
  4. C) 9; 8
  5. D) 10; 8

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

  1. Nathan was a psychologist in the 1930s. Which of the following would best represent his understanding of what happened inside the brain during sleep?
  2. A) Humans pass through five distinct stages of sleep.

Incorrect. It was not until the middle of the twentieth century that the recognition of the existence of sleep stages occurred.

  1. B) Humans, unlike animals, experience REM sleep, but both experience non-REM sleep.
  2. C) Neurons fire and create the biological underpinnings of dreams and nightmares as we sleep.
  3. D) The brain is temporarily turned off while humans sleep.

Correct. For much of human history, it was believed that sleep is a completely inactive, dormant period of time during which our consciousness was deactivated.

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Research finds that African Americans sleep less—and less well—than White Americans. Some may feel that this is caused by genetics, while others suggest that factors like social class and education may contribute to the difference. Another idea suggests that the stressors of being a minority may also affect sleep. These various ideas are an important example of __________.
  2. A) correlation vs. causation
  3. B) Occam’s Razor

Incorrect. Looking for multiple explanations for a given phenomenon does not typify Occam’s Razor.

  1. C) ruling out rival hypotheses

Correct. The idea that we are considering many different dimensions of what may explain this phenomenon notes the idea of ruling out rival hypotheses.

  1. D) falsifiability

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Which device would a sleep researcher use to monitor a sleeping person’s brain waves?
  2. A) electromyograph (EMG)
  3. B) electrocardiograph (EKG)
  4. C) electro-oculograph (EOG)
  5. D) electroencephalograph (EEG)

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

  1. What does REM stand for?
  2. A) Random Excitatory Memory
  3. B) Rapid Eye Movement
  4. C) Repletion of Extra Melatonin
  5. D) Rigorous Energetic Motion

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. During what stage of sleep are we most likely to experience a vivid dream?
  2. A) non-REM sleep
  3. B) REM sleep
  4. C) stage 2 sleep
  5. D) stage 4 sleep

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

% correct   88    a = 6  b = 88  c = 6  d = 0      r = .32

% correct   88    a = 6  b = 88  c = 6  d = 0      r = .29

 

  1. How many stages of sleep are there in human beings?
  2. A) 3
  3. B) 4
  4. C) 5
  5. D) 6

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

 

  1. What is the biggest difference between the different stages of the sleep cycle?
  2. A) changes in physical activity
  3. B) changes in respiratory effort
  4. C) changes in muscle tone

Incorrect. Generally speaking, our muscle tone does not change significantly from sleep stage to sleep stage.

  1. D) changes in brain-wave activity

Correct. The different EEG activity that occurs during sleep indicates when one has gone from one sleep stage to another.

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. You are watching sleep researchers monitor the sleep of a normal adult. The participant is hooked up to an EEG. What brain waves would you observe as the person goes from a state of calm wakefulness to the first stage of sleep?
  2. A) alpha eventually replaced by delta

Incorrect. Delta waves only occur in deep sleep.

  1. B) delta eventually replaced by theta
  2. C) alpha eventually replaced by theta

Correct. The pattern sequence goes this way.

  1. D) delta eventually replaced by beta

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. What term do sleep researchers use to designate stages 1–4 of sleep?
  2. A) REM sleep
  3. B) non-REM sleep
  4. C) REMN sleep
  5. D) paradoxical sleep

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

% correct   76    a = 12  b = 76  c = 0  d = 6      r = .57

 

 

 

  1. Paulette has been asleep for only a few minutes. Her brain activity is made up primarily of theta waves. Which sleep stage is Paulette currently in?
  2. A) REM sleep
  3. B) stage 3
  4. C) stage 2

Incorrect. A majority of theta wave activity is indicative of stage 1 sleep, while sleep spindles indicate stage 2.

  1. D) stage 1

Correct. Stage 1 sleep is marked by theta wave activity.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. As we sleep during the night, we spend the majority of our time in __________ sleep.
  2. A) REM
  3. B) stage 1
  4. C) stage 2
  5. D) stage 4

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Troy is mowing the grass. As his lawnmower engine starts to run out of gas, it will sputter, run well for a while, then sputter again. What stage of sleep exhibits a similar pattern?
  2. A) stage 2

Correct. Stage 2 involves sudden bursts of electrical activity that create K-complexes.

  1. B) stage 3
  2. C) stage 4
  3. D) REM

Incorrect. If this example resembled REM sleep, the lawnmower would turn on and keep running without interruption.

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

 

  1. Sleep research has continually shown that children spend more of their night getting deep sleep than do adults. This deep sleep corresponds to what stage(s) of sleep?
  2. A) REM

Incorrect. Although REM sleep is when we do most of our dreaming, it is actually a very light stage of sleep.

  1. B) stages 2 and 3
  2. C) stage 3 and REM
  3. D) stages 3 and 4

Correct. Stages 3 and 4 of REM sleep are the deepest sleep stages.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Delta waves occur more than 50 percent of the time in stage __________ sleep.
  2. A) 1
  3. B) 2
  4. C) 3
  5. D) 4

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. The REM stage of sleep occurs approximately every __________ during the night.
  2. A) 45 minutes
  3. B) 90 minutes
  4. C) 120 minutes
  5. D) 2–4 hours

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

  1. Jemele has decided to remain awake two hours more than normal so that she can study for her British Literature exam. She also plans to wake 90 minutes earlier than normal to resume studying. This change in her sleep pattern will have the biggest effect on the amount of __________ sleep she gets.
  2. A) REM

Correct. The particular times when she missed out on her sleep corresponds to more activity in the REM stages.

  1. B) stage 2
  2. C) stage 3
  3. D) stage 4

Incorrect. As we get closer to the end of the night of sleep, we spend less time in stage 4 of NREM sleep.

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Jackie has not slept for several days. When she finally dozes off, we can expect her to spend a lot of time dreaming. What process of sleep is being illustrated?
  2. A) paradoxical sleep

Incorrect. REM sleep is also known as paradoxical sleep. Jackie’s lack of sleep will result in a phenomenon called REM rebound.

  1. B) hypnic myoclonia
  2. C) REM rebound

Correct. When deprived of REM for a few nights, we experience REM rebound. This leads to an increase in amount and intensity of REM sleep.

  1. D) middle ear muscle activity

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

 

  1. Curtis has been getting only four hours of sleep a night during final exams because he didn’t prepare like he should have during the semester. Upon returning home for the summer, he experiences intense dreams for three nights as he gets his more typical seven and a half hours of nightly sleep. Curtis is most likely experiencing __________.
  2. A) dissociation
  3. B) narcoleptic seizures
  4. C) REM rebound

Correct. When deprived of REM for a few nights, we experience REM rebound. This leads to an increase in amount and intensity of REM sleep.

  1. D) sleep paralysis

Incorrect. Curtis is sleep deprivation is not likely to lead to sleep paralysis, but rather will lead to REM rebound.

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

% correct  91     a = 3  b = 3  c = 91  d = 3      r = .21

 

  1. Nestor is in the middle of a fantastic dream. What is his body doing?
  2. A) acting out the movements of his dream
  3. B) twitching uncontrollably
  4. C) His arms are likely moving, but not his legs.

Incorrect. The only part of the body that typically moves during REM sleep is the eyes.

  1. D) nothing

Correct. Although the brain is active, the body is inactive; hence, paradoxical sleep.

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

% correct  84     a = 3  b = 12  c = 1  d = 84      r = .25

 

  1. Stage 5 sleep is often called paradoxical sleep because EEG patterns of people in stage 5 show __________.
  2. A) an abundance of K-complexes

Incorrect. Sleep spindles and K-complexes are indicative of stage 2 of NREM sleep.

  1. B) excessive sleep spindles
  2. C) brain waves similar to beta activity
  3. D) heightened brain activity

Correct. Although the body lies relatively inactive in bed, the brain activity of someone in REM sleep is often similar to a person who is fully awake.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

  1. Which of the following types of physical activation have been found to occur during REM sleep?
  2. A) The muscles of the middle ear become active.
  3. B) The salivary glands in the mouth become active.
  4. C) The Raffini corpuscles in the nose become active.
  5. D) The ciliary muscles of the lungs become active.

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. __________ dreaming is a phenomenon in which a person achieves an awareness of a dream as a dream while dreaming.
  2. A) Wakeful
  3. B) Sentient
  4. C) Lucid
  5. D) Self-aware

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Caitlyn has been asleep for about 90 minutes and is experiencing a dream. Unlike most nights, however, she is aware that she is dreaming and she can control the story of her dream. Caitlyn is experiencing a(n) __________ dream.
  2. A) wakeful
  3. B) sentient
  4. C) lucid
  5. D) self-aware

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

 

  1. Some research has found that the electrical activity of the brain indicates that lucid dreams may involve a mixture of REM sleep and wakefulness. If this research can be repeated, it may point to the idea that it is possible to be self-aware while one is asleep. This finding highlights the importance of __________.
  2. A) correlation vs. causation
  3. B) replicability

Correct. One research finding would not be enough to make this leap, but multiple similar findings would be very important from a scientific perspective.

  1. C) falsifiability
  2. D) extraordinary claims

Incorrect. Just because a concept is new does not make it either (a) extraordinary or (b) impossible.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. What relatively rare sleep disorder involves people acting out the movements and events of their dreams?
  2. A) sleepwalking
  3. B) narcolepsy
  4. C) REM behavior disorder
  5. D) sleep apnea

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Abdulkadir had a very strange thing happen to him last night. He was sound asleep in bed, and he was dreaming that he was at a party when he won the $250 million dollar lottery spin. As everyone was screaming, jumping up and down, and celebrating, Abdulkadir had the strangest sensation that he was actually dreaming. As it turns out, unfortunately, he was right. What principle explains this experience?
  2. A) lucid dreaming

Correct. A lucid dream occurs when a person is aware that they are dreaming while the dream is taking place.

  1. B) conscious dreaming
  2. C) unconscious dreaming
  3. D) sentient dreaming

Incorrect. The correct term for this kind of dream is a lucid dream.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

  1. Which of the following concepts most strongly challenges the conventional belief that one is either entirely awake and consciously aware or asleep and not consciously aware?
  2. A) dissociation
  3. B) hypnosis

Incorrect. Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness, but it is not related to being asleep.

  1. C) lucid dreaming

Correct. In a lucid dream, an individual is aware that they are dreaming and may be able to exert some control over the context or content of their dreams.

  1. D) sleepwalking

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. A psychologist or a psychiatrist is likely to diagnose one’s recurring difficulty in attaining adequate nightly sleep as a psychological disorder __________.
  2. A) even if it occurs relatively infrequently

Incorrect. Generally speaking, infrequent disruptions of the sleep cycle are not considered to be a sleep disorder, even if they are inconvenient or disruptive to a person’s life.

  1. B) if it interferes with daily activities such as work and negatively impacts a person’s health

Correct. Everybody has the occasional difficulty sleeping, but when those difficulties significantly interfere with a person’s functioning, they may indicate a sleep disorder.

  1. C) only if the person feels that the lack of sleep is causing problems in other areas
  2. D) when it results from a deliberate choice, such as studying all night for an exam

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. The most commonly experienced sleep disorder is __________.
  2. A) insomnia
  3. B) narcolepsy
  4. C) night terrors
  5. D) sleep apnea

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

% correct  94     a = 94  b = 0  c = 3  d = 3      r = .24

 

 

  1. Joaquin frequently experiences difficulty staying asleep through the night. He has no problem falling asleep initially, but recently he has experienced problems with waking up and then having trouble returning to sleep after receiving a new promotion at work approximately three weeks ago. Joaquin is most likely to be diagnosed as suffering from __________.
  2. A) insomnia

Correct. Insomnia is a sleep disorder that can take several different forms, but generally interferes with the quality or duration of a person’s sleep.

  1. B) nightmares
  2. C) REM behavior disorder
  3. D) sleep apnea

Incorrect. Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder marked by interruption of breathing while asleep.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. The difference between insomnia and narcolepsy is __________.
  2. A) insomnia causes people to have difficulty falling asleep when they want to, while narcolepsy causes people to fall asleep when they do not want to

Correct. Insomnia impacts the ability to fall or stay asleep, while narcolepsy involves having a problem staying awake.

  1. B) narcolepsy causes people to have difficulty falling asleep when they want to, while insomnia causes people to fall asleep when they do not want to
  2. C) insomnia is a stage 1 and stage 2 disorder, while narcolepsy is a REM stage disorder
  3. D) narcolepsy is a stage 1 and stage 2 disorder, while insomnia is a REM stage disorder

Incorrect. Narcolepsy does not occur during sleep, and insomnia can involve problems before sleep is achieved or at any stage during sleep.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. The difference between insomnia and sleep apnea is that __________.
  2. A) sleep apnea affects primarily the elderly, whereas insomnia is characteristic of children
  3. B) insomnia is treatable but sleep apnea is not

Incorrect. Both of these disorders are treatable.

  1. C) sleep apnea is a precursor to narcolepsy, whereas insomnia is not
  2. D) insomnia is often characterized by sleeplessness, whereas sleep apnea is characterized by breathing difficulties

Correct. Insomnia is characterized by sleeplessness but sleep apnea refers to breathing difficulties.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

  1. Which of the following may contribute to insomnia?
  2. A) soft music playing

Incorrect. In fact, many people find soft music to assist them in falling asleep.

  1. B) the air conditioner
  2. C) the clock on the wall

Correct. Researcher James Maas recommends hiding clocks to avoid becoming preoccupied with the inability to fall asleep quickly.

  1. D) the fatigue you are feeling

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Which of the following is a suggested treatment for insomnia?
  2. A) Consume caffeine if planning to stay up late.
  3. B) Remain in bed until you are able to fall asleep no matter how long it takes.
  4. C) Hide clocks to avoid becoming preoccupied with how long it is taking to fall sleep.
  5. D) Use an alarm clock to wake up in the morning.

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

% correct  76     a = 0  b = 24  c = 76  d = 0      r = .30

 

  1. Sleep research supports several “helpful hints” to avoid insomnia. Which of the following statements is one of those helpful hints?
  2. A) Make sure to have a clock near the bed so you will know when it is time to get up and stop trying to sleep.
  3. B) Sleep in a warm room to keep body temperature constant.
  4. C) Avoid napping during the day.

Correct. This is one of the helpful hints.

  1. D) Enjoy some relaxing television in bed before going to help unwind.

Incorrect. This actually is not one of the helpful hints.

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements might help you determine if an individual has narcolepsy?
  2. A) “I sometimes fall into a deep sleep in the middle of a conversation.”

Correct. Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden sleep.

  1. B) “I don’t have an adverse reaction to sleeping pills.”
  2. C) “I have difficulty getting to sleep.”

Incorrect. This describes insomnia.

  1. D) “When I get up in the morning, I have the feeling that I had really bad nightmares.”

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

% correct   94    a = 94  b = 6  c = 0  d = 0      r = .51

 

  1. Which of the following conditions would you least like the pilot flying your airplane to have?
  2. A) enuresis

Incorrect. This is bed wetting and should not interfere with flying.

  1. B) sleep terror
  2. C) daytime insomnia
  3. D) narcolepsy

Correct. Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden sleep, which might cause the pilot to lose control of the plane.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Ed often experiences an intense urge to sleep and has often fallen asleep for a few minutes while in business meetings, while driving, and talking on the phone. He is most likely to diagnosed as suffering from __________.
  2. A) narcolepsy

Correct. Narcolepsy occurs when people suddenly go from a wakeful state directly to REM sleep.

  1. B) REM behavior disorder
  2. C) sleep apnea

Incorrect. Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder marked by interruption of breathing while asleep.

  1. D) sleeptalking and sleepwalking

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

 

  1. Your friend has experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. He is laughing at a joke you just told him and suddenly falls to the ground sound asleep. Your friend is probably suffering from __________.
  2. A) narcolepsy

Correct. Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden sleep.

  1. B) parasomnia
  2. C) REM rebound
  3. D) sleep apnea

Incorrect. Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder marked by interruption of breathing while asleep.

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Mr. Colbert is meeting with his doctor to discuss treatments for his recently diagnosed narcolepsy. Which of the following is likely to be a part of his treatment regimen?
  2. A) exercising to promote weight loss

Incorrect. This is a course of action that would be taken to help treat sleep apnea.

  1. B) maintaining a consistent sleep schedule
  2. C) sleeping pills to promote deeper sleep
  3. D) taking a medication to replace the hormone orexin in his brain

Correct. Some such medications have been found to be effective treatments for, and possibly a future cure for, narcolepsy.

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Many people who suffer from narcolepsy experience a complete loss of muscle tone, which can cause them to become limp as a rag doll. This phenomenon is called __________.
  2. A) cataplexy
  3. B) catapraxia
  4. C) catatonia
  5. D) catonahottinroof

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

 

  1. Research has shown that people with narcolepsy have abnormally few brain cells that produce the hormone __________.
  2. A) adrenocorticosteroid
  3. B) orexin
  4. C) melatonin
  5. D) dopamine

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. __________ is a disorder caused by a blockage of the airway during sleep.
  2. A) Sleep apnea
  3. B) Narcolepsy
  4. C) Insomnia
  5. D) Sleepwalking

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Your friend Megan is suffering from sleep apnea. What might you suggest she try first?
  2. A) watching television before she tries to fall asleep

Incorrect. In fact, sleep experts suggest that this is a bad idea, and it is involved in the treatment of insomnia not sleep apnea.

  1. B) reading a book before bedtime
  2. C) losing some weight

Correct. Apnea is associated with being overweight, so this is usually the first option.

  1. D) turning up the thermostat in her house

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Jim is 56 years old and slightly overweight. His wife reports that he snores loudly. What sleep disorder seems to fit Jim’s symptoms?
  2. A) sleep apnea

Correct. Sleep apnea is associated with excess weight and causes loud snoring.

  1. B) narcolepsy

Incorrect. This occurs when you fall asleep without warning.

  1. C) sleep terror
  2. D) REM sleep behavior

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

  1. A student nurse looks at a patient’s chart and does not understand the meaning of serious sleep apnea, so she asks the head nurse for assistance. How might the head nurse describe this condition?
  2. A) The patient has a potentially life-threatening condition in which air does not flow into or out of his nose or mouth for periods of time while he is asleep.

Correct. This description defines sleep apnea.

  1. B) The patient cannot sleep unless he has several pillows he uses to deaden sounds that might awaken him.
  2. C) The patient appears to awaken throughout the night and start walking, but he will not respond to commands.

Incorrect. This description defines sleepwalking and has nothing to do with apnea.

  1. D) The patient experiences extreme fear and screams and runs around during sleep without awakening fully.

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. The treatment for __________ usually involves wearing a facemask device that forces air into the lungs during sleep.
  2. A) narcolepsy
  3. B) night terrors
  4. C) somnambulism
  5. D) sleep apnea

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Which of the following disorders is more common among children than among adults?
  2. A) insomnia
  3. B) narcolepsy
  4. C) night terrors
  5. D) sleep apnea

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

 

  1. Young Marita has periods during her sleep when she will appear to wake up and will scream, kick and thrash. She appears to be in significant distress as she breathes faster and faster. Which of the following statements best explains what is happening?
  2. A) Marita is experiencing night terrors.

Correct. These are the symptoms of night terror disorder, which is most commonly seen in children.

  1. B) Marita is experiencing hyperstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system caused by sleep deprivation.
  2. C) Marita is responding to nightmares, which are common in young children.

Incorrect. Because Marita “appears” to wake up but does not actually do so, this is probably a night terror and not a nightmare.

  1. D) Marita is not fully asleep, and is experiencing a disorder of first and second sleep stages.

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Which of the following is probably the best response for a parent to have when their child experiences an episode of night terrors?
  2. A) If the child is not in any physical danger, ignore it.

Correct. As your textbook notes, many parents learn not to overreact and even to ignore night terror episodes if there is no risk of danger posed by the episode.
B) Wake the child as often as the terrors occur so that the sleep cycle is “rebooted” and starts again at stage 1.

Incorrect. Children in the throes of a night terror episode can be very difficult, if not impossible, to wake up. And there is no evidence that such awakenings will restart their sleep cycle.

  1. C) Check to make sure that the child’s oxygen mask is not obstructed.
  2. D) Bring the child into bed with them so that the scary dreams will be less likely to reoccur.

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Suzanne’s son has been under a lot of stress at school. Last night while sleeping, he began screaming and shaking. What did her son probably experience?
  2. A) a lucid dream
  3. B) a nightmare

Incorrect. A nightmare occurs during REM sleep, while night terrors typically occur during the fourth stage of NREM sleep.

  1. C) a night terror

Correct. More common in children, night terrors take place in deep sleep.

  1. D) sleeping consciousness

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. It is 3 a.m. and Jack is in the kitchen standing at the refrigerator. His wife walks in and asks him what he thinks he’s doing. Jack does not respond, but begins to take out items to make a sandwich. What might Jack be exhibiting?
  2. A) insomnia
  3. B) night terror

Incorrect. Although night terrors and sleepwalking both occur during the deep stages of NREM sleep, they are not the same illness.

  1. C) middle ear muscle inactivity
  2. D) sleepwalking

Correct. Sleepwalking often involves relatively little activity and is harmless.        

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Sleepwalking occurs most often during __________ sleep.
  2. A) REM
  3. B) stage 1
  4. C) stage 2
  5. D) stages 3 or 4

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

% correct   56    a = 12  b = 9  c = 23  d = 56      r = .38

 

  1. In a strange condition called sex sleep, or __________, people engage in sexual acts while asleep and don’t remember what occurred after they awaken.
  2. A) nocturnal erotica disorder
  3. B) circadian coitus syndrome
  4. C) erotoslumber
  5. D) sexsomnia

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

  1. Geoff is reading the science section of the newspaper. He should be most skeptical of which of the following headlines?
  2. A) Feeling bad? Angry? Dream your problems away

Correct. Research has found that dreams tend to include more negative emotions than positive ones, and more misfortune than good fortune. This contradicts the headline that dreaming can simply make bad feelings or negative emotions go away.

  1. B) Gender differences in dream content found again

Incorrect. There is no reason for him to be skeptical of this headline, because it is consistent with the extant research.

  1. C) Researcher claims dreaming not limited to deep sleep
  2. D) Sight restored in dreams for man blinded in recent accident

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. Interest in understanding dreams can be traced back __________.
  2. A) thousands of years
  3. B) only about 30 years
  4. C) to the research on REM sleep of Aserinsky and Kleitman
  5. D) to the work and theorizing of Sigmund Freud

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. Which theorist, attempting to explain what dreams are all about, suggested that there are two levels of content to each dream—the manifest content and the latent content?
  2. A) Freud
  3. B) Cartwright
  4. C) Domhoff
  5. D) Van de Castle

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

Topic: Dreams

% correct  82     a = 82  b = 18  c = 0  d = 0      r = .57

 

 

 

  1. The perspective that one’s dreams contain more information than would be expected at first glance is most consistent with __________.
  2. A) activation–synthesis theory

Incorrect. The activation–synthesis theory of dreaming suggests that dreams have no significant meaning, and are merely caused by the random firing of neurons in the brain while we sleep.

  1. B) dissociation theory
  2. C) dream protection theory

Correct. The dream protection theory of Sigmund Freud suggested that dreams have different levels of meaning and content.

  1. D) information processing theory

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.2

TEXT LO: 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. Although he knows that it is wrong, Sean has a crush on his new stepmom. He dreams of the two of them running away together and living happily ever after. What aspect of dreaming does this represent?
  2. A) activation–synthesis

Incorrect. The activation–synthesis model of dreaming was a counter theory to that of Sigmund Freud and suggested that dreams have no significant meaning whatsoever.

  1. B) repressed desires
  2. C) wish fulfillment

Correct. Freud believed our dreams were symbolic of how we wish things could be.

  1. D) dream-work

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.2

TEXT LO: 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. Interpretation of the __________ content of a dream is expected to reveal the __________ content.
  2. A) latent; manifest

Incorrect. Freud said latent was hidden interpretation and manifest was what was dreamed.

  1. B) manifest; latent

Correct. Freud developed these categories of latent and manifest content.

  1. C) manifest; sublimated
  2. D) metaphorical; denotative

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

Topic: Dreams

 

 

 

  1. A newspaper advertisement describes a book that offers interpretations of dreams. In attempting to tell readers the meaning of the symbols of their dreams, the author intends to describe the __________ content.
  2. A) latent

Correct. The definition of latent is “hidden.”

  1. B) deep
  2. C) manifest

Incorrect. This would be the surface meaning.

  1. D) subliminal

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 51.3

TEXT LO: 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. A client tells his therapist about a dream in which he drives his wife to the airport where she boards a plane. As the plane takes off, he is smiling. The therapist says the dream suggests a desire for a divorce. The therapist’s interpretation represents what Sigmund Freud called the dream’s __________ content.
  2. A) deep
  3. B) latent

Correct. Latent (hidden) content refers to the meaning of the dream.

  1. C) manifest

Incorrect. Manifest content has to do with what actually happens in a dream, not with its meaning. 

  1. D) subliminal

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. A client tells his therapist about a dream of riding on a train with his boss. At the end of the journey, the boss gets off the train at a terminal. The content of this dream, as related by the client to the therapist, is what Freud called its __________ content.
  2. A) primary
  3. B) manifest

Correct. This content would be the surface meaning.

  1. C) secondary
  2. D) latent

Incorrect. The definition of latent is “hidden,” that is, not observable.

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

Topic: Dreams

 

 

 

  1. Sigmund Freud suggested that dreams represent the fulfillment of wishes, yet research suggests that quite a few dreams that people experience do not have positive themes or content. Which principle of critical thinking is involved in this apparent contradiction?
  2. A) replicability
  3. B) extraordinary claims

Incorrect. Nothing in this question has to do with the principle of extraordinary claims.

  1. C) falsifiability

Correct. The fact that dreams tend to have quite a bit of negative, or unpleasant, content does not support, or actively falsifies, Freud’s theory that dreams are about our deepest desires or wishes.

  1. D) correlation vs. causation

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

Topic: Dreams

% correct  47     a = 6  b = 18  c = 47  d = 29      r = .33

 

  1. Sigmund Freud suggested that quite a bit of our dream content serves the purpose of wish fulfillment. Which of the following statements would be most consistent with the critical thinking concept of falsifiability with regard to Freud’s assertion?
  2. A) Most dream content is focused on misfortune rather than positive events.

Correct. We don’t wish for misfortune, so the themes of our dreams should be more positive than negative.

  1. B) The dreams of most men are sexual, while the dreams of most women are relational.
  2. C) People with brain injuries often dream about “undoing” the event that led to their condition.

Incorrect. If this were the case (and there is no research to support this statement), then it would actually support Freud’s theory rather than refute it.

  1. D) The time we spend dreaming diminishes as we age.

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. One research finding that has challenged Freud’s concept of dreams as wish-fulfillment is the fact that as much as __________ percent of dreams do not seem disguised, but rather are straightforward descriptions of everyday events and problems.
  2. A) 50
  3. B) 60
  4. C) 80
  5. D) 90

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

Topic: Dreams

 

 

 

  1. What theoretical explanation of dreams explains dreaming as resulting from random neural transmission and interpretation?
  2. A) activation–synthesis theory

Correct. This is the basis of the activation–synthesis model, which was a counter theory to that of Sigmund Freud.

  1. B) dream protection theory

Incorrect. The dream protection theory of Sigmund Freud suggested that dreams have different levels of meaning and content.

  1. C) information processing theory
  2. D) neurocognitive theory

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.2

TEXT LO: 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

% correct  65     a = 65  b = 0  c = 6  d = 29      r = .29

 

  1. Because Alzheimer’s disease impacts the brain’s level of acetylcholine, what sleep-related impact are sufferers of this disease likely to experience?
  2. A) less frequent dreaming

Correct. Less acetylcholine means fewer active nerve cells in the pons, therefore fewer signals to be interpreted as dreams.

  1. B) increased insomnia

Incorrect. Acetylcholine levels are related to the amount of dreaming that we do, not specifically related to the amount of sleep we get or the ease with which we fall asleep.

  1. C) increased sleep apnea
  2. D) decreased memory for their dreams upon waking

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. The fact that damage to the forebrain can eliminate dreams entirely, even when the brainstem is still working, is a valid criticism of the activation–synthesis hypothesis of dreaming. Which critical thinking concept is at work here?
  2. A) Occam’s Razor

Incorrect. This is actually a rather involved and complicated way of disproving the activation–synthesis hypothesis. It does not provide a more parsimonious explanation of dreams.

  1. B) replicability
  2. C) falsifiability

Correct. This finding provides evidence that the activation–synthesis hypothesis may not be accurate, since it suggests that the brainstem plays a large role in dream activity.

  1. D) extraordinary claims

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. Mrs. Lassey is taking medication to reduce the activity of her acetylcholine-producing neurons. What might happen?
  2. A) Her dreams are likely to intensify.

Incorrect. A decrease in acetylcholine levels will reduce the frequency and intensity of her dreams.

  1. B) She may dream less often, or not at all.

Correct. Less acetylcholine means less active nerve cells, therefore fewer signals to be interpreted as dreams.

  1. C) She will be more likely to recall her dreams.
  2. D) Her dreams will become more bizarre.

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

% correct  47     a = 12  b = 47  c = 18  d = 23      r = .48

 

  1. The best adjectives associated with the nature of the activation–synthesis hypothesis are __________.
  2. A) meaningless and random

Correct. Meaningless and random reflect the nature of the activation–synthesis hypothesis since dreams are totally the result of brain activity.

  1. B) unconscious, symbolic, and meaningful

Incorrect. These adjectives would be associated with Freud’s theory.

  1. C) meaningful, problem-oriented, and historical
  2. D) free and neurotic

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.2

TEXT LO: 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. “First I was walking down the street, then I was in psychology class taking notes, but the teacher was my dad, then I was in my bedroom playing video games with my professor. It was bizarre!” What theory of dreaming is being represented?
  2. A) activation–synthesis

Correct. Activation–synthesis theory maintains that dreams reflect the activated brain’s attempt to make sense of random neural signals during REM sleep.

  1. B) wish fulfillment

Incorrect. The dream protection theory of Sigmund Freud focused on wish fulfillment purposes of dreams.

  1. C) dream-work
  2. D) stream of consciousness

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

 

 

 

  1. Research has highlighted the importance of what region of the brain in the process of dreaming?
  2. A) forebrain
  3. B) midbrain
  4. C) occipital lobe
  5. D) temporal lobe

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. Which of the following theories of dreaming emphasizes that dreams are a meaningful product of our cognitive capacities, which shape what we dream about?
  2. A) neodissociationist theory
  3. B) neurocognitive theory
  4. C) meta-linguistic theory
  5. D) dream-protection theory

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.2

TEXT LO: 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. Dwayne and his nine-year-old son are sitting at the breakfast table and talking about various things. The son mentions a dream he had about his favorite toy. Dwayne mentions a bizarre dream he had the previous night. These differences in the content of dreams is best explained by __________.
  2. A) activation–synthesis theory
  3. B) dream protection theory

Incorrect. Freud’s dream protection theory did not specifically discuss differences between the dreams of children and adults.

  1. C) neurocognitive theory

Correct. The neurocognitive theory of dreaming discusses the differences in our dream content as we go from childhood to adulthood.

  1. D) sleep dissociation theory

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

 

 

  1. Which of the following was most likely to be dreamt by 5-year-old Cecilia?
  2. A) She dreamt that she was flying on her laptop over the city.

Incorrect. According to the neurocognitive theory of dreaming, children’s dreams tend to have very little movement.

  1. B) She dreamt that her mom had grown wings.
  2. C) She dreamt about the pony she wants.

Correct. Children’s dreams tend to be simple, lacking in movement, and less emotionally complex than adult dreams.

  1. D) She dreamt that her teachers had horns and were making her paint the fence with erasers.

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. According to the dream __________ hypothesis, the content of our dreams mirrors our actual life circumstances.
  2. A) dissociation

Incorrect. Dreams may have a dissociative component, but dissociation is not the best answer to this question.

  1. B) symmetry
  2. C) converse
  3. D) continuity

Correct. Despite the lack of supporting evidence, this hypothesis reflects the idea that our dreams are an indication of what is going on in our waking lives.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.2

TEXT LO: 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. Carla reported observing herself help a pedestrian who had been hit by a taxicab driver from atop a building awning 15-feet off the ground. This is an example of what altered state of consciousness?
  2. A) dissociation

Incorrect. Out-of-body experiences certainly have a dissociative component to them but dissociation is not the best answer to this question.

  1. B) hypnosis
  2. C) near-death experience
  3. D) out-of-body experience

Correct. Out-of-body experiences are often accompanied by a sense of watching ourselves from a distance.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

 

 

  1. Those who report having had out-of-body experiences often suggest that they can see or hear things that are separated from their bodies. On the rare occasion when these claims have been positively verified by research, repetitions of that research have failed to produce the same outcomes. This is a problem for which principle of critical thinking mentioned in your textbook?
  2. A) falsifiability
  3. B) replicability

Correct. The failure to reproduce the same research results is a problem of replicability.

  1. C) correlation vs. causation

Incorrect. Nothing in this question is related to the principle of correlation vs. causation

  1. D) Occam’s Razor

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. Hallucinations involving which sensory system can be brought about by oxygen and sensory deprivation, epilepsy, fever, dementia, and migraine headaches?
  2. A) vision
  3. B) hearing
  4. C) touch
  5. D) smell

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. Having important life events replay quickly, and being in a tunnel moving toward a bright light, are common themes in __________.
  2. A) déjà vu experiences
  3. B) hypnotic trances
  4. C) near-death experiences
  5. D) out-of-body experiences

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

 

 

  1. It is tempting, based on anecdotal evidence, to believe that when we die we will be ushered into a utopian afterlife. After all, many who have had near death experiences (NDEs) have claimed to “see” friends or loved ones waiting for them. There is no scientific evidence, however, to support these claims. This reminds us of which principle of critical thinking?
  2. A) extraordinary claims

Correct. Recall that extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence, and in this case the evidence simply is not there.

  1. B) replicability
  2. C) falsifiability
  3. D) ruling out rival hypotheses

Incorrect. This question does not provide any other hypotheses, but simply notes that the evidence for these extraordinary claims has not been seen.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. While some use the visions they claim to have seen during a near-death experience (friends, loved ones, a tunnel of light) as evidence of a peaceful afterlife, scientists have suggested that such experiences may actually be the result of a massive release of endorphins in a dying brain. Which concept of critical thinking is most important in this example?
  2. A) extraordinary claims
  3. B) correlation vs. causation
  4. C) replicability

Incorrect. There is no repeated research being discussed in this particular situation.

  1. D) ruling out rival hypotheses

Correct. In this case, alternative explanations for a particular phenomenon are being offered.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

 

 

  1. Many people have claimed to have near-death-experiences over the years, during which they report metaphysical events, such as seeing a bright light, walking through a tunnel, or even approaching the presence of God. Research, however, has suggested that these “experiences” are nothing more than the consequence of physiological changes of a dying brain. This simpler explanation represents which principle of critical thinking from your textbook?
  2. A) Occam’s Razor

Correct. The simplest explanation for these experiences is that they reflect changes as the brain appears to be dying. This demonstrates the principle of Occam’s Razor.

  1. B) falsifiability
  2. C) replicability
  3. D) extraordinary claims

Incorrect. Given the frequency with which these claims are made, they may not be considered that extraordinary. They are not, however, supported by extraordinary evidence.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. Enrico claims that déjà vu is evidence of a memory from one’s past life. This claim violates which principle of critical thinking?
  2. A) falsifiability

Correct. Enrico is using anecdotal evidence that cannot be verified or falsified.

  1. B) parsimony
  2. C) replicability

Incorrect. There is no research presented in this question that can be repeated by another scientist, so replicability is not the best answer.

  1. D) ruling out rival hypotheses

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. Which altered state of consciousness might be due to an excess of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the temporal lobes of the cerebrum?
  2. A) déjà vu experiences
  3. B) hypnosis
  4. C) near-death experiences
  5. D) out-of-body experiences

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

 

 

  1. __________ refers to suggestive techniques for altering a person’s perceptions, thoughts, feelings, memories, or behaviors.
  2. A) Déjà vu
  3. B) Hypnosis
  4. C) Meditation
  5. D) Perceptual sets

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. At its most basic level, __________ is an exercise in suggestion.
  2. A) hypnosis

Correct. Most research into hypnosis has found that it is highly related to a person’s level of suggestibility.

  1. B) meditation
  2. C) dreaming

Incorrect. Hypnosis and being asleep are two different levels of conscious awareness.

  1. D) lucidity

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. The positive effects that have been noted when using hypnosis have been explained in a number of ways. One suggestion is that the relaxed state that accompanies a “hypnotic trance” is uniquely responsible for all of the effects. This reminds us of which principle of critical thinking from your book?
  2. A) replicability

Incorrect. This question does not involve the discussion of repeated research.

  1. B) ruling out rival hypotheses

Correct. In this case, it is important to consider multiple explanations for the positive effects of hypnosis. Another possible hypothesis is the placebo effect.

  1. C) correlation vs. causation
  2. D) falsifiability

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

 

  1. Which of the following has research found hypnosis to be effective at treating or helping to treat?
  2. A) reducing depression
  3. B) recovering memories
  4. C) reducing habit disorders
  5. D) reducing insomnia

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. Jared is attending a comedy hypnosis show with his girlfriend, and he agrees to come up on stage and be hypnotized by the performer. While he is in a trance, he is given an instruction that when he wakes up he is to flap his arms like a chicken and grunt like a gorilla as he runs through the crowd. Because Jared is usually a rather quiet and laid back person, what do you think is most likely to happen when he “wakes up” from his trance?
  2. A) He is going to experience a new deep-seated fear of hypnosis, comics, and nightclubs because the experience will set up a conflict that his rooted in his unconscious.
  3. B) He is going to have a delayed response and will start acting like an animal in several hours because it will take time for the hypnotic suggestion to overcome his personality reservations.
  4. C) He is most likely to do exactly what the performer instructed him to do, because hypnosis is effective at getting us to act in direct contravention to our own personality.

Incorrect. While this is an oft-believed myth of hypnosis, it is completely inaccurate.

  1. D) He is most likely to go back to his seat and sit quietly, since hypnosis cannot make us do things that we would not willingly do in our regular lives.

Correct. Recall from your text that hypnosis is not a condition in which we lose control over our will. Gerald would be unlikely to do things when hypnotized that he would not willingly do when not hypnotized.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. Contrary to popular public opinion regarding hypnosis, people can __________.
  2. A) experience highly enhanced memory for situational details when hypnotized
  3. B) experience a total lack of situational awareness when in a hypnotic state
  4. C) forget what happened while hypnotized
  5. D) resist and oppose hypnotic suggestions at will

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

% correct  82     a = 6  b = 6  c = 6  d = 82      r = .29

 

 

  1. What does the research evidence suggest about the relationship between hypnosis and sleep states?
  2. A) When people are hypnotized, it is like they are in effect dreaming in REM sleep.
  3. B) When people are hypnotized, it is like they are in effect in deep stages 3 and 4 sleep.
  4. C) When people are hypnotized, it is like they are in effect dreaming within stage 1 and REM sleep.
  5. D) When people are hypnotized, it is a state that is entirely different from sleep.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. You meet a psychologist who says she views hypnosis from the social-cognitive perspective. Which of the following is the best description of what her view of hypnosis would be?
  2. A) The hypnotized person role is only played when people who have been hypnotized are in a social setting.
  3. B) There is no hypnotized person role; hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.
  4. C) People play the role of a hypnotized person; hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.

Incorrect. Although this position says we play a role, it also says there is no altered state.

  1. D) People’s expectations of whether they’ll respond to hypnotic suggestions are correlated with how they’ll respond.

Correct. The sociocognitive view suggests that many factors, including one’s expectations, play a role in how we respond to hypnosis.

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.2

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. Which theory of hypnosis argues that hypnosis is not a trance state or a unique state of consciousness?
  2. A) activation–synthesis theory
  3. B) dissociation theory
  4. C) psychodynamic theory
  5. D) sociocognitive theory

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.2

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

 

 

  1. What theory of hypnosis posits that individuals who are highly suggestible are simply responding to waking imaginative suggestions?
  2. A) demand characteristics theory
  3. B) dissociation theory
  4. C) sociocognitive theory
  5. D) unconscious motivation theory

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.2

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

% correct  35     a = 12  b = 29  c = 35  d = 24      r = .35

 

  1. Research on age-regression and past life regression therapeutic techniques suggests that __________.
  2. A) they are effective techniques for individuals who experience physical or sexual abuse during childhood
  3. B) they are more effective for male clients than for female clients in overcoming their psychological difficulties
  4. C) they say more about the patient’s beliefs than about any true healing properties
  5. D) they are an excellent means for producing accurate recall and recollections during hypnosis

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. The thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and experiences that occur during age regression or past life regression are __________.
  2. A) always traumatic
  3. B) often accurate
  4. C) based in fact
  5. D) educated guesses

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. Ernest Hilgard described the process of __________ as a dividing of consciousness, and claimed that this mechanism was at the very heart of hypnosis.
  2. A) sublimation
  3. B) reaction formation
  4. C) dissociation
  5. D) regression

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

  1. What theory of hypnosis would be best able to account for research findings that suggest that an individual can be consciously telling a researcher that placing one’s hand in ice-cold water isn’t painful while unconsciously tapping a button that indicates they are experiencing pain?
  2. A) activation–synthesis theory
  3. B) dissociation theory

Correct. The dissociation theory of hypnosis suggests that hypnotic suggestions result in a separation between personality functions that are normally well integrated.

  1. C) information processing theory
  2. D) sociocognitive theory

Incorrect. According to sociocognitive theory, people’s attitudes, beliefs, motivations and expectations about hypnosis shape their reaction to a hypnotic suggestion.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.2

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. Psychoactive drugs are drugs that __________.
  2. A) speed up activity in the central nervous system
  3. B) contain chemicals similar to those found naturally in our brains
  4. C) slow down activity in the central nervous system
  5. D) are derived from the opium poppy that relieve pain and produce euphoria

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. __________ occurs when people require larger amounts of a drug to experience the same effects experienced during their initial usage.
  2. A) Physical withdrawal
  3. B) Psychological withdrawal
  4. C) Satiety
  5. D) Tolerance

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

% correct  94     a = 3  b = 0  c = 3  d = 94      r = .33

% correct  82     a = 0  b = 12  c = 6  d = 82      r = .47

 

 

 

  1. “I don’t know what is wrong with me,” says Lucy. “It used to take just a couple of drinks to get me ‘going,’ but now it takes four or five.” What is Lucy exhibiting?
  2. A) withdrawal
  3. B) tolerance

Correct. Tolerance means that, over time, a user requires more and more of a drug to experience the same “high.”

  1. C) delirium
  2. D) resistance

Incorrect. Resistance to the effect of the standard amount of the drug and the need for more of that drug in order to achieve the same effect is called tolerance, and it is an indication of physical addiction to a drug.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. Russell needs more of the drug he has been using to get the normal high he got when he first started. Russell is experiencing __________.
  2. A) drug tolerance

Correct. The phenomenon of needing more and more of a drug as time goes on is called drug tolerance.

  1. B) drug detoxification
  2. C) withdrawal

Incorrect. Withdrawal occurs when you stop getting the drug you have been using.

  1. D) overdrawal

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. The need to take a drug in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms is an indication of __________.
  2. A) a craving
  3. B) tolerance
  4. C) psychological dependence
  5. D) physical dependence

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

% correct  74     a = 1  b = 1  c = 22  d =  74     r = .30

 

 

 

  1. After taking a drug for several years, Bruce decides to quit taking the drug. He begins to experience a variety of physical symptoms, psychological symptoms such as irritability, and a strong craving for the substance. What term is used to describe what Bruce is experiencing?
  2. A) tolerance

Incorrect. Drug tolerance occurs when, over time, one needs more and more of a drug to get high.

  1. B) psychological dependence
  2. C) drug detoxification
  3. D) withdrawal

Correct. Withdrawal occurs when one stops using a drug and is characterized by irritability, nausea, and other symptoms.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. Ward notices that as his supply of marijuana decreases he starts thinking more and more about where he can get another supply, and he starts feeling upset that he does not have “enough” marijuana. This is an example of __________.
  2. A) withdrawal
  3. B) psychological dependence

Correct. He is thinking and feeling things about his drug. These are psychological issues.

  1. C) tolerance
  2. D) physical dependence

Incorrect. Physical dependence causes physical symptoms.

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. Unemployed people are at relatively high risk for alcohol abuse, and may use alcohol to cope with being out of work. The reverse may also be true, however, and the use of alcohol may be responsible for people losing their jobs. This uncertainty of the direction of relationship between variables demonstrates which principle of critical thinking?
  2. A) Occam’s Razor
  3. B) ruling out rival hypotheses

Incorrect. Considering multiple hypotheses is an important part of this discussion, but the best answer to this question is correlation vs. causation.

  1. C) replicability
  2. D) correlation vs. causation

Correct. There may be a relationship between these two variables, but it’s impossible to know exactly which one causes the other. It may also be possible that both variables cause each other, or a third variable intervenes. This is why correlation does not imply causation.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. The aldehyde 2 (ALDH2) gene may have a mutation that causes a distinctly unpleasant response to the ingestion of alcohol, including facial flushing, heart palpitations, and nausea. This gene is present in about 40 percent of people of __________ descent, who are at low risk for alcoholism and tend to drink less than people in most other ethnic groups.
  2. A) Asian
  3. B) Hispanic
  4. C) Native-American
  5. D) African-American

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. Which of the following drugs is categorized as a depressant?
  2. A) cocaine
  3. B) LSD
  4. C) alcohol
  5. D) marijuana

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. Even though many assume that alcohol is primarily a ___________, it is, in fact, primarily a(n) __________.
  2. A) depressant; psychedelic
  3. B) depressant; stimulant

Incorrect. This is the opposite of the correct answer.

  1. C) stimulant; depressant

Correct. Many people believe alcohol to be a stimulant because it seems to encourage behaviors that otherwise might not occur, but this is actually result of depression of inhibitions.

  1. D) stimulant; opiate

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

% correct  94     a = 0  b = 3  c = 94  d = 3      r = .26

% correct  88     a = 0  b = 12  c = 88  d = 0    r = .31

 

 

 

  1. Behaviors such as flirting while using alcohol result primarily from __________.
  2. A) one’s genetic characteristics and how they interact with alcohol consumption
  3. B) an individual’s expectancies about the effects of alcohol

Correct. Research has shown that even people without real alcohol in their system will behave as if they are intoxicated when they believe they have had alcohol to drink.

  1. C) physiological effects of the alcohol

Incorrect. While the physiological effects of alcohol are well-documented, the research has also suggested that psychological effects from the belief that one has had alcohol to drink can change one’s behavior.

  1. D) physiological effects of the alcohol in combination with gender role differences

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. If one is experiencing difficulty sleeping, like with insomnia, he or she may go to their family doctor. What type of drug is the doctor most likely to prescribe to assist the person in falling asleep?
  2. A) narcotics

Incorrect. Narcotics are prescribed for the relief of pain, and should not be used as sleep aids.

  1. B) psychedelics
  2. C) sedative-hypnotics

Correct. Sedative-hypnotics are prescribed for symptoms including difficulty sleeping as well as excessive anxiety.

  1. D) stimulants

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. Which class of psychoactive drugs works by increasing activity within the nervous system?
  2. A) depressants
  3. B) opiates
  4. C) psychedelics
  5. D) stimulants

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

 

 

  1. Nicotine is classified as a __________.
  2. A) sedative
  3. B) narcotic
  4. C) hallucinogen
  5. D) stimulant

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

% correct  82     a = 18  b = 0  c = 0  d = 82      r = .43

 

  1. The most powerful natural stimulant is __________.
  2. A) cocaine
  3. B) LSD
  4. C) marijuana
  5. D) tobacco

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. Although its use would be illegal and highly ill-advised, who might benefit from cocaine use in the short term?
  2. A) Ullie, who is depressed

Correct. Cocaine is a stimulant, which produces short bouts of euphoria and indifference to pain. Even though cocaine might make Ullie feel better for a short time, this is a very ill-advised treatment for depression symptoms.

  1. B) Kellan, who is schizophrenic
  2. C) Kira, who is narcissistic
  3. D) Mindy, who is paranoid

Incorrect. The ingestion of cocaine would not be of any benefit to someone who suffers from paranoid symptoms.

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning cocaine use in the United States?
  2. A) During the Civil War, many Confederate soldiers bought cocaine from Union soldiers.
  3. B) At one time, cocaine was an ingredient in Coca-Cola.
  4. C) Cocaine was used by early Greek philosophers.
  5. D) One of the powerful addictive ingredients in cocaine is heroin.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. Crystal is trying to study for her biology final tomorrow. She is exhausted but knows that she has to pass that test. What drug is she likely to turn to?
  2. A) cocaine

Incorrect. Cocaine may be a stimulant, but it will not have the desired effect. Amphetamines is the best answer to this question, though she really should not take them.

  1. B) amphetamines

Correct. Amphetamines are stimulants and are used to postpone fatigue, elevate mood while performing an unpleasant task, cram for a test, or experience well-being.

  1. C) LSD
  2. D) Quaaludes

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. You just found out that your friend Willard is using crystal meth. What is your number-one concern?
  2. A) He will experience withdrawal.
  3. B) He will become depressed.

Incorrect. Depression is not an effect of the use of crystal methamphetamine.

  1. C) He will overdose.

Correct. Crystal meth carries a high risk of overdose and dependence.

  1. D) He will become paranoid.

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

 

 

  1. There is a famous quote from the movie Titanic that says “I am the king of the world!” What drug produces this same feeling?
  2. A) LSD
  3. B) Ecstasy

Incorrect. Ecstasy is more likely to cause a feeling of contentment and well-being.

  1. C) marijuana
  2. D) heroin

Correct. Heroin is a powerful narcotic and produces a sense of euphoria that lasts 3 to 4 hours.

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. Drugs derived from the opium poppy are called __________.
  2. A) stimulants
  3. B) depressants
  4. C) narcotics
  5. D) psychogenic

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. What general category of drug is used in the controlling of pain?
  2. A) depressants and sedative-hypnotics
  3. B) narcotics
  4. C) psychedelics
  5. D) stimulants

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. Morphine is classified as a __________ because it relieves pain and induces sleep.
  2. A) sedative
  3. B) narcotic
  4. C) stimulant
  5. D) hallucinogen

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

% correct  53     a = 41  b = 53  c = 6  d = 0      r = .35

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following people is LEAST likely to become addicted to the opiate drugs he or she is using?
  2. A) Demetria, who uses heroin frequently to avoid the painful withdrawal symptoms
  3. B) Phyllis, who is using morphine to help control her pain levels after a recent surgery

Correct. The use of morphine for legitimate medical purposes is not necessarily associated with the development of addiction.

  1. C) Trevor, who desires the extreme euphoria and high he gets when using OxyContin
  2. D) Xavier, who is using narcotics to forget about the problems in his social and work life

Incorrect. The use of a narcotic for this sort of psychological pain runs a significant risk of the development of addiction.

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. Which type of drug could also be labeled “hallucinogens”?
  2. A) depressants
  3. B) narcotics
  4. C) psychedelics
  5. D) stimulants

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. The effects of LSD are similar to those of which of the following drugs?
  2. A) CHT
  3. B) Methadone
  4. C) PCP
  5. D) heroin

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. What is the most frequently used illegal drug in the United States?
  2. A) alcohol
  3. B) cocaine
  4. C) marijuana
  5. D) methamphetamine

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following pairs belong together?
  2. A) marijuana; tetrahydrocannabinol

Correct. THC is the active ingredient in marijuana.

  1. B) marijuana; psilocybin
  2. C) marijuana; acetylcholine
  3. D) MDMA; acetylcholine

Incorrect. MDMA is ecstasy and acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that is not associated with it.

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

% correct  53     a = 53  b = 0  c = 35  d = 12      r = .66

 

  1. Marijuana is often referred to as a mild hallucinogenic drug and differs from other hallucinogens in that it may also __________.
  2. A) create alterations in perception and mood
  3. B) bring about a strong rush of pleasure
  4. C) cause people to become quiet and introspective
  5. D) result in diminished fatigue with a sense of well-being

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. What drug was once investigated for use as a possible mind control device by the CIA in the United States?
  2. A) cocaine
  3. B) heroin
  4. C) LSD
  5. D) marijuana

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

 

 

  1. Franky is at the fair. He is inside the house of mirrors. Which drug may duplicate the images he is seeing?
  2. A) cocaine
  3. B) amphetamines
  4. C) crystal meth

Incorrect. Crystal methamphetamine is a stimulant, and does not cause the hallucinogenic qualities that Franky might be experiencing in the house of mirrors.

  1. D) LSD

Correct. LSD can produce hallucinations and flashbacks.

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. With the use of even the tiniest amounts of which of the following drugs would a person experience extreme changes in perceptions and consciousness?
  2. A) alcohol
  3. B) cocaine
  4. C) LSD
  5. D) marijuana

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. What is the best pharmacological explanation scientists have been able to come up with to explain the experience of flashbacks after taking LSD?
  2. A) To date, no pharmacological explanation has been discovered.
  3. B) The ingestion of LSD changes the fundamental makeup of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus.
  4. C) The ingestion of LSD changes the way the thalamus routes incoming sensory information to the cerebral cortex.
  5. D) The ingestion of LSD impairs the occipital lobe of the cerebrum, where the visual processing centers are located.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

 

 

  1. MDMA, or methylenedioxymethamphetamine, is the chemical name for which popular street drug?
  2. A) LSD
  3. B) Slippies
  4. C) Ecstasy
  5. D) Hashish

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

% correct  82     a = 12  b = 6  c = 82  d = 0      r = .35

 

  1. Chavonne has recently ingested a large dose of a popular designer drug. The drug is causing her to experience an enhanced state of well-being and self-confidence, and she is feeling highly empathetic toward others at the rave that she has attended. The drug she has most likely taken is __________.
  2. A) Ecstasy

Correct. These are some of the effects of MDMA, though it does have serious risks of physical injury as well.

  1. B) marijuana

Incorrect. These are not the effects that one would experience when high on marijuana.

  1. C) PCP
  2. D) LSD

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

Fill-in-the-Blank

 

  1. One’s awareness of both the subjective world around them as well as themselves is what psychologists refer to as __________.

Answer: consciousness

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: Introduction

Topic: Introduction

 

  1. The daily release of hormones, as well as the regulation of one’s body temperature, brain waves, and drowsiness follow a(n) __________ rhythm.

Answer: circadian

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

 

  1. Vivid dreams are most likely to be experienced during __________ sleep.

Answer: rapid eye movement (REM)

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. Sleep spindles are a type of brain activity that are associated with stage __________ of the sleep cycle.

Answer: 2 (or NREM–2 or N2)

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. As we proceed through the sleep cycle during the night, the amount of time one spends in REM sleep __________.

Answer: increases

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. As he sleeps, Chauncey begins dreaming. In his dream, he shows up late to his Introductory Psychology final. As he enters the room, Chauncey realizes he is dreaming and subsequently directs himself to approach the teacher to discuss why he was late for the final. This is an example of __________.

Answer: lucid dreaming

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. The most commonly reported sleep problem is __________.

Answer: insomnia

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

  1. The sleep disorder __________ would be the most problematic for a taxi driver to be diagnosed with.

Answer: narcolepsy

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. The sleep disorder(s) most likely to be diagnosed during childhood is/are __________.

Answer: night terrors

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

  1. The __________ theory focuses entirely on the biological underpinnings of dreams.

Answer: activation–synthesis

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. According to the activation–synthesis theory, the fact that our dream has any coherent story or focus is largely the result of __________.

Answer: the forebrain

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

 

12. The __________ theory of dreaming might suggest that your dog, Barker, dreams about his favorite bone.

Answer: neurocognitive

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. The __________ perspective on dreaming says that the complexity of our dreams is directly related to one’s mental abilities and capacities.

Answer: neurocognitive

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.2

TEXT LO: 5.2b Explain three major theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

 

 

 

  1. Claims of consciousness outside of the body during an out-of-body experience (OBE) are __________ by controlled empirical research.

Answer: refuted (any appropriate synonym would be acceptable)

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 2.2

TEXT LO: 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. The critical thinking principle of __________ requires that claims of near-death experiences should be interpreted as physiological changes within a dying brain rather than an altered state of consciousness.

Answer: Occam’s Razor

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. Research documenting that hypnosis fails to make amazing or unusual things happen, or that many hypnotic phenomena are not as unique as hypnotists would have an audience believe, provides supportive evidence for the __________ of hypnosis.

Answer: sociocognitive theory

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.2

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. The ___________ theory rejects claims that hypnosis is a true altered state of consciousness by demonstrating, through empirical research, that hypnotized behavior is largely a function of one’s expectancies.

Answer: sociocognitive

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.2

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

  1. Researchers who are dubious of Hilgard’s and others’ claims of why hypnosis occurs have suggested that the __________ observer arises because the hypnotist suggests it, either directly or indirectly.

Answer: hidden

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

 

 

  1. __________ drugs alter our conscious experience by altering the chemical processes in neurons.

Answer: Psychoactive

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. Clark is trying to cut back his consumption of caffeine. Within a couple of days of stopping drinking caffeine entirely, he experiences a headache and feels extremely fatigued. Clark is experiencing __________.

Answer: withdrawal

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. Your textbook authors identified __________ as the most widely used and abused drug.

Answer: alcohol

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. Using tobacco produces physiological changes, including reported increases in alertness as well as increases in heart rate and blood pressure. It is most correct, therefore, to label tobacco as a ___________.

Answer: stimulant

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. For several years around 1900, many health professionals and psychologists advocated the use of __________. It was even found as a key ingredient in a major soft drink.

Answer: cocaine

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. The use of __________ represents the most commonly abused illegal drug in the United States.

Answer: marijuana

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

  1. Both infrequent and habitual use of __________ may cause users to experience distortions in visual, auditory, or any other mode of perception.

Answer: psychedelics (or hallucinogens)

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

  1. In addition to having hallucinogenic properties, Ecstasy (MDMA) also has the qualities of a __________.

Answer: stimulant

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

Essay

 

  1. Describe the typical night’s sleep cycle, including the defining characteristics of each stage of sleep.

Answer: Answers will vary but should include the following information for full credit.

The human sleep cycle lasts approximately 90 minutes and is repeated several times over the course of eight to nine hours of sleep. This cycle is comprised of two different types of sleep: non-REM and REM sleep.

The non-REM sleep comprises four different stages. In stage 1 sleep, the person is transitioning from wakefulness to sleep. This stage of sleep is quite brief, marked by the presence of theta waves, and sees brain activity decline by up to 50 percent.

The majority of our sleep is spent in stage 2 sleep, which is marked by a continued slowing of brain wave activity that lasts between 10–30 minutes each time we pass through it. Every so often a person may experience sudden, quick, intense bursts of activity known as sleep spindles. Our brain activity decelerates, our heart rate slows, our body temperature drops, and our muscles relax further.

Stages 3 and 4 are marked by deep, slow-wave sleep (delta waves). Stage 3 is denoted by delta waves occupying 20–50 percent of the brain activity, and stage 4 sleep is denoted by more than 50 percent delta waves. This type of sleep helps us to feel fully rested the next morning.

REM sleep is characterized by high-frequency brain wave activity and the movement of our eyes under our eyelids. This stage is also characterized by increased heart rate and blood pressure levels and rapid, irregular breathing. Dreaming occurs more often during this sleep stage than any other.

The initial REM sleep stage lasts between 10 and 20 minutes but each subsequent REM sleep stage increases in length.

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

 

  1. Compare and contrast Freud’s wish fulfillment theory of dreaming with Hobson and McCarley’s activation–synthesis theory of dreaming.

Answer: Answers will vary but should contain the following information for full credit.

The one area of agreement between the two theories is that they both say that dreams are a real phenomena that occur as we sleep.

The two perspectives differ in terms of a) general explanation for why we dream, b) the function of dreams, and c) the meaning of the content of dreams.

Freud’s wish fulfillment approach is a largely psychological approach to why we dream. The psychological function of dreams is to protect the dreamer from his or her more inappropriate or socially unacceptable urges and desires. The ego protects sleep by using manifest content to cover the unacceptable id impulses that comprise the latent content and provide the ultimate meaning of one’s dreams.

Hobson and McCarley’s activation–synthesis approach is a largely biological approach to why we dream. Dreams simply represent the brain activation that is occurring as we sleep and develop through the forebrain’s efforts to provide coherence and understanding of these random, internally generated signals during REM sleep. The content of the dreams therefore is less meaningful and, in fact, only involves meaning because the brain tries to impart that meaning, not knowing that there is no need to understand this internal activity.

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.2

TEXT LO: 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.; 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. Discuss how several of the principles of critical thinking apply to a discussion of altered states of consciousness such as out-of-body experiences, near-death experiences, or hypnosis.

Answer: Answers will vary but should contain discussion of at least three of the principles of critical thinking and how they apply to these alterations of consciousness. The examples could be either based on material from the text or a student’s own original example.

Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence: This principle requires that claims that differ greatly from what is accepted about human consciousness require greater evidence for such claims to be accepted.

Occam’s Razor/parsimony: This principle says that we choose the explanation that makes the fewest assumptions.

Replicability: This implies that others are able to take the basic elements of our research and produce similar results with different people. If positive results cannot be verified by others, scientists come to doubt the existence of the particular phenomenon.

Ruling out rival hypotheses: This principle requires that the data are not open to more than one particular interpretation.

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied/Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

 

  1. Discuss how one’s expectations of the influence of a drug affect one’s subsequent behavior after using that drug.

Answer: Answers will vary but should include the following information, along with supporting discussion, for full credit.

The authors mention the importance of mental sets, that is, one’s beliefs and expectations, as an important influence on their behavior after taking that drug.

The authors mentioned the importance of culturally learned expectancies that are most influential at low alcohol dose levels. People “act” as if they are more inebriated than they really, physiologically speaking, are.

The authors also mentioned that marijuana users have to “learn” what it is to be high rather than automatically experiencing a high the first time they smoke it.

Diff: 2

Skill:  Conceptual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Topic: Drugs and Consciousness

 

Critical Thinking

 

  1. Design an intervention to help a person who is complaining of insomnia.

Answer: Answers will vary but should contain the following information for full credit. The depth of this answer assumes that further detail was covered by the instructor during his or her discussion of sleep or the sleep disorder, insomnia.

There are several suggestions made to overcome insomnia that were identified by the authors from the sleep research literature. The student should identify at least two in his or her answer. See below for the general points that should be made.

  • hide clocks to avoid becoming preoccupied with the amount of time it takes to fall asleep
  • sleep in a cool room
  • go to sleep and wake up at regular times
  • avoid caffeine, naps during the day, reading in bed, and watching television or surfing the Web before bedtime

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Topic: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

 

  1. Discuss how the neurocognitive perspective on dreaming differs from the dream protection and activation–synthesis theories of dreaming.

Answer: Answers will vary but should contain the following information for full credit.

The neurocognitive perspective argues that one’s information-processing abilities influence the content of one’s dreams. The neurocognitive perspective argues that the information contained in one’s dreams represents the concerns of one’s daily life—such as issues in relationships, school, or at work—rather than the deep, dark secrets and symbolic imagery that Freud said were housed within our unconscious mind and occupied the content of our nightly dreams.

The neurocognitive perspective, unlike activation–synthesis theory, does assert that these dreams are somewhat psychologically meaningful to people, because a person is ruminating over a lost phone number or concert ticket rather than just experiencing random content within the dream. The activation–synthesis theory, by contrast, suggests that the content of dreams is more random and any meaning is created by the forebrain in its attempt to bring coherence to one’s internal world, much like it brings coherence to our external and internal worlds during waking consciousness.

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.2

TEXT LO: 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.; 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Topic: Dreams

 

  1. Why are many psychologists skeptical of claims that hypnosis represents a true altered state of consciousness?

Answer: Answers will vary but should contain the following information for full credit.

One key point of contention is that the ability to experience hypnosis is related to one’s receptivity to suggestibility. Therefore, unlike dreams, it is a state of consciousness that only some people, not all, will experience.

A second key point is the fact that much of what occurs during the hypnotic state involves one responding to cues from the hypnotist. For many, this seems to support the idea of role-playing rather than altered consciousness.

Also, there is no unique brain state identified with being hypnotized as one might expect if it were, in fact, different from normal consciousness.

Last, the idea of a hidden observer may serve as an additional cue to the person about how to act rather than represent a true, unique state of consciousness. Some have suggested that the “hidden observer” model actually represents suggestions that are made directly or indirectly by the hypnotist.

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Topic: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

 

CHAPTER 5: CONSCIOUSNESS

________________________________________________________________________

 

Altered States: Sleep

 

  1. Our awareness of various mental processes such as making decisions, daydreaming, reflecting, and concentrating is called __________.
  2. intelligence
  3. consciousness
  4. self-awareness
  5. creativity

Answer  b     % correct 75      a= 5  b= 75  c= 0  d= 0      r = .48

 

  1. Daydreaming, meditation, intoxication, sleep, and hypnosis are all types of __________.
  2. altered states of consciousness
  3. self-awareness
  4. waking consciousness
  5. self-absorption

Answer  a     % correct 100      a= 100  b= 0  c= 0  d= 0      r = .0

 

  1. Researchers investigating sleep __________.
  2. have observed a decrease in protein synthesis while we sleep
  3. have identified a substance destroyed during sleep
  4. have found a substance created only during sleep
  5. have not been able to fully explain why we sleep

Answer  d     % correct  55     a= 10  b= 5  c= 30  d= 55      r = .58

 

  1. Our sleeping-waking cycle follows a(n) __________ rhythm.
  2. infradian
  3. circadian
  4. diurnal
  5. ultradian

Answer  b     % correct 85      a= 0  b= 85  c= 15  d= 0      r = .59

 

  1. The low-voltage brain waves produced during relaxed wakefulness or the twilight stage between waking and sleeping are called __________ waves.
  2. alpha
  3. beta
  4. delta
  5. theta

Answer  a     % correct 10      a= 10  b= 25  c= 65  d= 0      r = .35

 

  1. The deepest stage of sleep is __________ sleep.
  2. Stage 1
  3. Stage 2
  4. REM
  5. Stage 4

Answer  d     % correct 80      a= 0  b= 0  c= 20  d= 80      r = .55

 

 

 

  1. The stage of sleep marked by the production of very slow delta waves is __________ sleep.
  2. Stage 1
  3. Stage 2
  4. Stage 3
  5. Stage 4

Answer  d     % correct 55      a= 0  b= 25  c= 20  d= 55      r = .40

 

 

 

Altered States: Psychoactive Drugs

 

  1. Chemical substances that change moods and perceptions are called __________ drugs.
  2. psychosomatic
  3. analgesic
  4. psychoactive
  5. prescription

Answer  c     % correct 59      a= 29  b= 0  c= 59  d= 10      r = .74

 

  1. The most frequently used drug in Western societies is __________.
  2. alcohol
  3. nicotine
  4. cocaine
  5. marijuana

Answer a      % correct 57      a= 57  b= 42  c= 0  d= 0      r = .29

 

  1. __________ are used today for treating insomnia, epilepsy and other disorders.
  2. Barbiturates
  3. Opiates
  4. Hallucinogens
  5. Stimulants

Answer  a     % correct 60      a= 50  b= 38  c=0   d= 12      r = .40

 

  1. Amphetamines are __________.
  2. barbiturates
  3. stimulants
  4. hallucinogens
  5. opiates

Answer b      % correct 69      a= 19  b= 69  c= 8  d= 4      r = .24

 

  1. Cocaine is a(n) __________.
  2. opiate
  3. stimulant
  4. barbiturate
  5. hallucinogen

Answer  b     % correct 81      a= 8  b= 81  c= 4  d= 7      r = .27

 

  1. The active ingredient in marijuana is __________.
  2. PCB
  3. THC
  4. LSD
  5. PCP

Answer  b     % correct 92      a= 0  b= 92  c= 0  d= 7      r = .22

 

 

 

 

 

 

Altered States: Hypnosis

 

  1. The trancelike state in which a subject responds readily to suggestions is __________.
  2. Stage 4 sleep
  3. hypnosis
  4. coma
  5. meditation

Answer  b     % correct 100      a= 0  b= 100  c= 0  d= 0      r = .0

 

 

 

 

Quiz 5.1: The Biology of Sleep

 

Key: Answer, Page, Type, Learning Objective, Level

 

Type

A=Applied

C=Conceptual

F=Factual

Level

(1)=Easy; (2)=Moderate; (3)=Difficult

 

LO=Learning Objective

SG=Used in Study Guide

p=page

 

Quiz: The Biology of Sleep

 

 

Multiple Choice Single Select

 

EOM Q5.1.1
Most people need between 7 and 10 hours of sleep each night. The exception to this rule of thumb are __________, who need around 16 hours out of every 24.

  1. a)  newborns
  2. b)  adolescents
  3. c)  the middle-aged
  4. d)  the elderly

 

ANS: a

Topic=The Biology of Sleep

Skill=Remember the Facts

Objective=LO 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks

Difficulty=Easy

Consider This: Think about the maintenance, rejuvenative, and health-related benefits that sleep confers. LO 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

 

 

 

 

EOM Q5.1.2
A region of about 20,000 neurons in the hypothalamus makes a person feel sleepy or alert during particular times of day. This area of the brain is more commonly known as the __________.

  1. a)  biological clock
  2. b)  circadian center
  3. c)  frontal lobe
  4. d)  delta wave center

 

ANS: a

Topic=The Biology of Sleep

Skill=Understand the Concepts

Objective=LO 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: The hypothalamus is pretty small, and this refers to a small area within that small structure. But it is a quite important and rather timely area. LO 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

 

 

EOM Q5.1.3
Researchers using brain imaging have found that during a lucid dream, the parts of the dreamer’s cerebral cortex associated with __________ become active.

  1. a)  self-perceptions
  2. b)  paradoxical thinking
  3. c)  K-complexes
  4. d)  circadian rhythms

 

ANS: a

Topic=The Biology of Sleep

Skill=Analyze It

Objective=LO 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Difficulty=Difficult

Consider This: This discovery suggests that a certain level of awareness is maintained during sleep and dreaming. LO 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

 

 

 

 

EOM Q5.1.4
Stage 5 sleep is more commonly known as __________.

  1. a)  REM sleep
  2. b)  NREM sleep
  3. c)  K-active sleep
  4. d)  cataplexic sleep

 

ANS: a

Topic=The Biology of Sleep

Skill=Apply What You Know

Objective=LO 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: Think about the features that define each stage of sleep during a given night. LO 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

 

 

EOM Q5.1.5
Cindy Lou’s parents were awakened by screams and crying coming from the 4-year-old’s bedroom. Rushing in, they found Cindy Lou sweating, glassy-eyed, disoriented, and agitated. Just as her parents reached for the telephone to dial either a hospital or an exorcist, Cindy Lou fell back into a deep sleep. Confused, her parents did a little research and discovered Cindy Lou had experienced __________.

  1. a)  a night terror
  2. b)  an episode of sleep apnea
  3. c)  the first signs of Kleine-Levin Syndrome
  4. d)  a narcoleptic attack

 

ANS: a

Topic=The Biology of Sleep

Skill=Understand the Concepts

Objective=5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: Recall the characteristics of the various sleep disorders you read about. 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

 

 

 

Quiz 5.2: Dreams

 

Key: Answer, Page, Type, Learning Objective, Level

 

Type

A=Applied

C=Conceptual

F=Factual

Level

(1)=Easy; (2)=Moderate; (3)=Difficult

 

LO=Learning Objective

SG=Used in Study Guide

p=page

 

Quiz: Dreams

 

 

Multiple Choice Single Select

 

EOM Q5.2.1
__________ believed that dreams revealed hidden wishes and desires.

  1. a)  Sigmund Freud
  2. b)  William James
  3. c)  Heinrich Muller
  4. d)  John B. Watson

 

ANS: a

Topic=Dreams

Skill=Remember the Facts

Objective=LO 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams

Difficulty=Easy

Consider This: The person in question wrote an entire book on the subject, called The Interpretation of Dreams. LO 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

 

 

EOM Q5.2.2
Freud argued that dreams have two levels of interpretation, which he called the __________ and the __________.

  1. a)  manifest content; latent content
  2. b)  central content; peripheral content
  3. c)  masked content; revealed content
  4. d)  psychoanalytic content; psychotherapeutic content

 

ANS: a

Topic=Dreams

Skill=Apply What You Know

Objective=LO 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: Freud thought that what you experienced in a dream was not necessarily what the dream signified. LO 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

 

 

EOM Q5.2.3
Which theory of dreaming specifically implicates the pons, thalamus, brain stem, amygdala, and other brain regions in explaining why we dream?

  1. a)  activation-synthesis theory
  2. b)  psychoanalytic theory
  3. c)  neurocognitive approach
  4. d)  forebrain activation

 

ANS: a

Topic=Dreams

Skill=Remember the Facts

Objective=LO 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: This theory was one of the first major challenges to Freud’s view of dreaming. LO 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

 

 

EOM Q5.2.4
Evidence from studies of people with brain injuries reveals that damage to the forebrain can have the effect of __________.

  1. a)  eliminating dreams entirely
  2. b)  causing people to dream only in black and white
  3. c)  making people more likely to forget their dreams the next morning
  4. d)  increasing the frequency of dreams during NREM sleep

 

ANS: a

Topic=Dreams

Skill=Apply What You Know

Objective=LO 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Difficulty=Difficult

Consider This: This evidence presents a challenge to some other major theories of dreaming. LO 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

 

 

EOM Q5.2.5
REM sleep is activated by surges of the neurotransmitter __________.

  1. a)  acetylcholine
  2. b)  melatonin
  3. c)  serotonin
  4. d)  norepinephrine

 

ANS: a

Topic=The Biology of Sleep

Skill=Analyze It

Objective=LO 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Difficulty=Difficult

Consider This: This neurotransmitter activates nerve cells in the pons, located at the base of the brain. LO 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

 

 

 

Quiz 5.3: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

Key: Answer, Page, Type, Learning Objective, Level

 

Type

A=Applied

C=Conceptual

F=Factual

Level

(1)=Easy; (2)=Moderate; (3)=Difficult

 

LO=Learning Objective

SG=Used in Study Guide

p=page

 

Quiz: Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

 

 

Multiple Choice Single Select

 

EOM Q5.3.1
__________ are realistic waking perceptions that take place in the absence of any external stimuli.

  1. a)  Hallucinations
  2. b)  OBEs
  3. c)  NDEs
  4. d)  Hypnotic trance states

 

ANS: a

Topic=Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

Skill=Remember the Facts

Objective=LO 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Difficulty=Easy

Consider This: These perceptions are primarily visual or auditory, although they can affect any sensory modality. LO 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

 

 

 

 

EOM Q5.3.2
In an experiment investigating alterations of consciousness, neuroscientists gave the hallucinogenic drug __________ to 36 participants in an effort to induce an experience that would seem mystical.

  1. a)  psilocybin
  2. b)  heroin
  3. c)  cannabis
  4. d)  LSD

 

ANS: a

Topic=Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

Skill=Understand the Concepts

Objective=LO 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: This research was a way of studying what might otherwise be a very momentary, difficult-to-capture phenomenon. LO 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

 

 

EOM Q5.3.3
What evidence makes it likely that near-death experiences (NDEs) are not a genuine glimpse of what happens after death, but rather are constructed from the beliefs of the person having the experience?

  1. a)  NDEs are not the same for all people from all cultures.
  2. b)  Tunnels are only seen by native Pacific Islanders.
  3. c)  Most people report meeting the same “spiritual being” during an NDE.
  4. d)  NDEs are painful and people who experience them are unwilling to discuss the event.

 

ANS: a

Topic=Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

Skill=Analyze It

Objective=LO 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Difficulty=Difficult

Consider This: Reports of NDEs have been collected from people from many different parts of the world. LO 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

 

 

 

 

EOM Q5.3.4
Before undergoing hypnosis to attempt to treat pain, anxiety, or smoking, it is important to be aware that __________.

  1. a)  there is no evidence that hypnosis all by itself is an effective treatment for these ailments
  2. b)  many people have been cured of addiction by hypnosis alone
  3. c)  you might not remember the treatment
  4. d)  the hypnotist might give you a suggestion to do something you would never do in real life

 

ANS: a

Topic=Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

Skill=Understand the Concepts

Objective=LO 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Difficulty=Difficult

Consider This: The applications of hypnosis are growing along with our understanding of hypnosis, but there is a lot more to learn about this state of consciousness. LO 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

 

 

EOM Q5.3.5
Which term means a division of consciousness, a condition in which a person could carry out attention, effort, and planning without being aware of it?

  1. a)  dissociation
  2. b)  hallucination
  3. c)  hypnotic trance
  4. d)  out-of-body experience

 

ANS: a

Topic=Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

Difficulty=Easy

Skill=Analyze It

Objective=LO 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Consider This: This is one of the principle explanations for hypnotic phenomena. LO 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

 

 

 

Quiz 5.4: Drugs and Consciousness

 

Key: Answer, Page, Type, Learning Objective, Level

 

Type

A=Applied

C=Conceptual

F=Factual

Level

(1)=Easy; (2)=Moderate; (3)=Difficult

 

LO=Learning Objective

SG=Used in Study Guide

p=page

 

Quiz: Drugs and Consciousness

 

 

Multiple Choice Single Select

 

EOM Q5.4.1
Which term refers to unpleasant side effects that happen when someone who is addicted to a drug stops taking it?

  1. a)  withdrawal
  2. b)  tolerance
  3. c)  substance abuse
  4. d)  physical dependence

 

ANS: a

Topic=Drugs and Consciousness

Skill=Remember the Facts

Objective=LO 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Difficulty=Easy

Consider This: Although the symptoms vary somewhat with the drug used, the experience is similar. LO 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

 

 

 

 

EOM Q5.4.2
Benny feels intense cravings for alcohol, even though his drinking has caused major problems in his personal relationships, work productivity, and levels of achievement. Benny is exhibiting signs of __________.

  1. a)  psychological dependence
  2. b)  physical dependence
  3. c)  physiological dependence
  4. d)  tolerance acceptance

 

ANS: a

Topic=Drugs and Consciousness

Skill=Apply It

Objective=LO 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: What are Benny’s main motives for drinking? Is it only to avoid feeling physically ill? LO 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

 

 

EOM Q5.4.3
Crystal meth is more powerful than __________, and carries a high risk of both dependence and overdose.

  1. a)  amphetamines
  2. b)  narcotics
  3. c)  depressants
  4. d)  opiates

 

ANS: a

Topic=Drugs and Consciousness

Skill=Understand the Concepts

Objective=LO 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: What type of drug is being described, and what kinds of effects does it have? LO 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

 

 

EOM Q5.4.4
Psychoactive drugs that produce dramatic alterations of perception, mood, and thought are called __________.

  1. a)  psychedelics
  2. b)  opiates
  3. c)  stimulants
  4. d)  depressives

 

ANS: a

Topic=Drugs and Consciousness

Skill=Understand the Concepts

Objective=LO 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Difficulty=Easy

Consider This: The major categories of psychoactive drugs are usually characterized by their principal effects on behavior. LO 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

 

 

EOM Q5.4.5
Heroin, opium, morphine, and codeine are all examples of __________.

  1. a)  narcotics
  2. b)  psychedelics
  3. c)  stimulants
  4. d)  depressants

 

ANS: a

Topic=Drugs and Consciousness

Skill=Analyze It

Objective=LO 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Difficulty=Difficult

Consider This: All of these drugs belong to the same major drug classification. LO 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

 

 

 

Chapter 5 Quiz: Consciousness

 

Key: Answer, Page, Type, Learning Objective, Level

 

Type

A=Applied

C=Conceptual

F=Factual

Level

(1)=Easy; (2)=Moderate; (3)=Difficult

 

LO=Learning Objective

SG=Used in Study Guide

p=page

 

Chapter Quiz: Consciousness

 

 

Multiple Choice Single Select

 

EOC Q5.1
Latin for about a day, the __________ rhythm refers to the cyclical changes to our biological processes that occur on a 24-hour basis.

  1. a)  circadian
  2. b)  Caesarian
  3. c)  circumferential
  4. d)  Cistercian

 

ANS: a

Topic=The Biology of Sleep

Skill=Remember the Facts

Objective=LO 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Difficulty=Easy

Consider This: The Latin stems for this word are “circa” and “diem.” LO 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

 

 

 

 

EOC Q5.2
An analysis of the contents of tens of thousands of dreams demonstrated that adult dreams are to a great extent occupied with __________, emotional concerns, and preoccupations.

  1. a)  everyday activities
  2. b)  prophetic or psychic messages
  3. c)  unfulfilled wishes
  4. d)  deeply rooted desires

 

ANS: a

Topic=Dreams

Skill=Understand the Concepts

Objective=LO 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: Recall the three major theories of dreaming, and think about which one would be supported by this evidence. LO 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

 

 

EOC Q5.3
A drug that enhances positive emotional reactions and minimizes negative ones, such as nicotine, is said to have __________.

  1. a)  adjustive value
  2. b)  stimulant effects
  3. c)  powerful reinforcement
  4. d)  responsivity

 

ANS: a

Topic=Drugs and Consciousness

Skill=Apply What You Know

Objective=LO 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: Nicotine is a very popular drug; why might that be? LO 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

 

 

EOC Q5.4
Rowan and Martin are chatting over lunch one day. “Man, I had the weirdest dream last night,” Rowan offered. “I was being chased by snakes and a gigantic blimp, and a creature who was a mix of my mother and father kept firing arrows at me until I finally jumped down a hole and fell through a long tunnel.” “Ah,” replied Martin, “you are frustrated by your sexual inadequacies and afraid of death.” What theory of dreaming does Martin most likely subscribe to?

  1. a)  Freud’s dream protection theory
  2. b)  activation-synthesis theory
  3. c)  augmented construction theory
  4. d)  neurocognitive theory

 

ANS: a

Topic=Dreams

Skill=Apply What You Know

Objective=LO 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

Difficulty=Easy

Consider This: Think about what Rowan said, and what Martin actually heard. LO 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

 

EOC Q5.5
Hypnosis increases the amount of information we recall. Most of this information is __________.

  1. a)  inaccurate
  2. b)  correct
  3. c)  from witnesses to crime
  4. d)  about forgotten childhood experiences

 

ANS: a

Topic=Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

Skill=Analyze It

Objective=LO 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Difficulty=Difficult

Consider This: “Remembering a lot” is not the same as “remembering what matters.” LO 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

 

 

EOC Q5.6
How many non-REM stages of sleep occur before the vivid dreaming stage of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep?

  1. a)  4
  2. b)  6
  3. c)  1
  4. d)  3

 

ANS: a

Topic=The Biology of Sleep

Skill=Understand the Concepts

Objective=LO 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: Think about which “position” REM sleep occupies during a typical night’s sleep. LO 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

 

 

EOC Q5.7
Sometimes people who suffer from narcolepsy also experience __________, a complete loss of muscle tone that can result in falls.

  1. a)  cataplexy
  2. b)  orexin
  3. c)  hypnagogic states
  4. d)  REM rebuttal

 

ANS: a

Topic=The Biology of Sleep

Skill=Apply What You Know

Objective=LO 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: As you might imagine, this can pose a danger to people with this condition. LO 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

 

 

EOC Q5.8
Emily and Richard stop at their local bar for a drink after a hard day’s work. Two drinks in, Emily is slurring her words and having a difficult time holding her head up, whereas Richard appears in control of his faculties and speaks coherently. Both Emily and Richard drank the same amount of alcohol; why are their reactions so different?

  1. a)  Individual differences in body weight, mental set, or genetics can modulate the effects of alcohol on an individual.
  2. b)  Emily is an alcoholic.
  3. c)  The environmental setting differed across their drinking experiences, and therefore influences their reactions.
  4. d)  Richard “preloaded” with an additional three drinks before they left the office.

 

ANS: a

Topic=Drugs and Consciousness

Skill=Apply What You Know

Objective=LO 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: Chemical properties alone do not account for the effects of drugs on a person. LO 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

 

 

EOC Q5.9
A __________ is described as feeling at one with the world, usually in a spiritual way.

  1. a)  mystical experience
  2. b)  hypnotic trance
  3. c)  lucid dream
  4. d)  hallucination

 

ANS: a

Topic=Other Alterations Of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

Skill=Understand the Concepts

Objective=LO 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: Many people would like to endorse non-scientific explanations for these events. LO 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

 

 

 

 

EOC Q5.10
Many dream theories propose that dreams reflect the circumstances of our lives. But studies of __________ have shown that this is not, in fact, true.

  1. a)  disabled people
  2. b)  young children
  3. c)  people with forebrain damage
  4. d)  people with high IQs

 

ANS: a

Topic=Dreams

Skill=Apply What You Know

Objective=LO 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: This is evidence against the dream-continuity hypothesis. LO 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

 

 

EOC Q5.11
Chronic heavy use of marijuana can impair __________.

  1. a)  attention and memory
  2. b)  energy
  3. c)  growth
  4. d)  the ability to sleep

 

ANS: a

Topic=Drugs and Consciousness

Skill=Apply What You Know

Objective=LO5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: These losses are restored after a period of abstinence. LO5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

 

 

EOC Q5.12
Traveling across time zones can disrupt a person’s biological clock, resulting in a phenomenon commonly called __________.

  1. a)  jet lag
  2. b)  circadian rhythms
  3. c)  hypersomnia
  4. d)  insomnia

 

ANS: a

Topic=The Biology of Sleep

Skill=Understand the Concepts

Objective=LO 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

Difficulty=Easy

Consider This: Think about what would happen during such travel. LO 5.1a Explain the role of the circadian rhythm and how our bodies react to a disruption in our biological clocks.

 

 

EOC Q5.13
Sigmund Freud made a distinction between what dreams seem to be about and what they were really about. He called this hidden meaning __________.

  1. a)  latent content
  2. b)  manifest content
  3. c)  wish fulfillment
  4. d)  dream work

 

ANS: a

Topic=Dreams

Skill=Remember the Facts

Objective=LO 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams

Difficulty=Easy

Consider This: Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar, but sometimes it is not. LO 5.2a Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

 

 

EOC Q5.14
Placebo studies show that much of what we think of as “drunken behavior” is strongly influenced by __________.

  1. a)  culturally learned expectations
  2. b)  the type of drink consumed
  3. c)  the amount of alcohol in the drink
  4. d)  genetic factors

 

ANS: a

Topic=Drugs and Consciousness

Skill=Understand the Concepts

Objective=LO 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: Chemical properties of a drug alone are not the only things that contribute to drug effects. LO 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

 

 

EOC Q5.15
Which theory suggests that dreams are complex cognitive achievements that develop as our visual imagination and other advanced cognitive abilities develop?

  1. a)  neurocognitive theory
  2. b)  activation-synthesis approach
  3. c)  dream protection theory
  4. d)  metacognitive perspective

 

ANS: a

Topic=Dreams

Skill=Analyze It

Objective=LO 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Difficulty=Difficult

Consider This: Researchers adopting this perspective point out the differences between childhood and adult dream themes. LO 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

 

 

EOC Q5.16
The phenomenon of jamais vu is sometimes seen in neurological disorders such as amnesia or epilepsy. During jamais vu, people report experiencing __________.

  1. a)  something that should be familiar as unfamiliar
  2. b)  the feeling of having experienced something before
  3. c)  auditory hallucinations
  4. d)  olfactory hallucinations

 

ANS: a

Topic=Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

Skill=Remember the Facts

Objective=LO 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: The French translation of this phenomenon is “never seen.” LO 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

 

 

EOC Q5.17
Hypnotists use a(n) __________ to increase people’s suggestibility.

  1. a)  induction method
  2. b)  pocket watch
  3. c)  hypnotic suggestion
  4. d)  spinning disc

 

ANS: a

Topic=Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

Skill=Apply What You Know

Objective=LO 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis.

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: Most hypnotists use this method, which typically includes suggestions for relaxation, calmness, and well-being. LO 5.3b Distinguish myths from realities concerning hypnosis

 

 

EOC Q5.18
When people need to consume increased quantities of a drug in order to get the same results they used to get from a lower dose, they have developed __________.

  1. a)  tolerance
  2. b)  physical dependence
  3. c)  psychological dependence
  4. d)  an addiction

 

ANS: a

Topic=Drugs and Consciousness

Skill=Remember the Facts

Objective=LO 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

Difficulty=Easy

Consider This: People in this state are looking for the same kind of kick they used to get from the drug in question. LO 5.4a Identify possible influences on substance use.

 

 

 

 

EOC Q5.19
Sleep apnea causes airways to become blocked during sleep. This condition leads to __________.

  1. a)  multiple awakenings during the night
  2. b)  odd behavior such as eating or driving while asleep
  3. c)  sleepwalking
  4. d)  night terrors

 

ANS: a

Topic=The Biology of Sleep

Skill=Understand the Concepts

Objective=LO 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: If left untreated, this can be a very dangerous condition. LO 5.1c Identify the features and causes of sleep disorders.

 

 

EOC Q5.20
By studying people who had sustained damage to the __________, scientists were able to determine that it plays an important role in our ability to dream.

  1. a)  forebrain
  2. b)  brain stem
  3. c)  hypothalamus
  4. d)  amygdala

 

ANS: a

Topic=Our Body Senses: Touch, Body Position, and Balance

Skill=Understand the Concepts

Objective=LO 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

Difficulty=Difficult

Consider This: Patients who had various types of brain damage were studied to reach these conclusions. Their reports of dream experiences provided much valuable data. LO 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

 

 

EOC Q5.21
In the activation-synthesis model of dreaming, the “synthesis” part refers to __________.

  1. a)  the forebrain trying to create a meaningful narrative from signals sent to it from lower brain centers
  2. b)  the latent content that is hidden by the manifest content of the dream
  3. c)  the meaning a dreamer assigns to a dream upon awakening
  4. d)  solutions to problems that are recognized during the relaxed state of sleep

 

ANS: a

Topic=Dreams

Skill=Analyze It

Objective=LO 5.4 Describe Freud’s theory of dreams.

Difficulty=Difficult

Consider This: The brain is quite good at imposing structure even where none exists. LO 5.2b Explain three major modern theories of dreaming.

 

 

 

 

EOC Q5.22
The auditory hallucinations of psychotics differ from those of well-functioning nonpsychotics. Among psychotics, auditory hallucinations are much more __________ and perceived to be beyond the individual’s control.

  1. a)  negative
  2. b)  strange
  3. c)  specific
  4. d)  verbose

 

ANS: a

Topic=Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

Skill=Remember the Facts

Objective=LO 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

Difficulty=Easy

Consider This: Auditory hallucinations (those involving sound) can occur when patients mistakenly attribute their thoughts, or inner speech, to an external source. LO 5.3a Determine how scientists explain unusual and seemingly “mystical” alterations in consciousness.

 

 

EOC Q5.23
Stimulants include which of the following drugs?

  1. a)  cocaine
  2. b)  LSD
  3. c)  heroin
  4. d)  marijuana

 

ANS: a

Topic=Drugs and Consciousness

Skill=Apply What You Know

Objective=LO 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

Difficulty=Easy

Consider This: Recall the various classifications of drugs you read about. LO 5.4b Distinguish different types of drugs and their effects on consciousness.

 

 

EOC Q5.24
Jimmy often shows odd behavior while he is asleep. By all appearances he seems to be acting out the behaviors in his dreams, such as playing the banjo or feeding an imaginary baby. Having ruled out other disorders, his physician concluded that Jimmy is suffering from __________.

  1. a)  REM behavior disorder (RBD)
  2. b)  insomnia
  3. c)  narcolepsy
  4. d)  cataplexy

 

ANS: a

Topic=The Biology of Sleep

Skill=Remember the Facts

Objective=LO 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

Difficulty=Difficult

Consider This: Relatively few people suffer from this sleep disorder. LO 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

EOC Q5.25
If you know that you are dreaming when you are dreaming, you are experiencing a __________.

  1. a)  lucid dream
  2. b)  wish fulfillment dream
  3. c)  narcoleptic attack
  4. d)  withdrawal symptom

 

ANS: a

Topic=The Biology of Sleep

Skill=Understand the Concepts

Objective=LO 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each

Difficulty=Moderate

Consider This: Some dreamers can achieve this state of awareness. LO 5.1b Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming behaviors that occur in each.

 

 

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