Psychology 4th Edition by Saundra K. Ciccarelli – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

 

5 Learning

 

 

Key: Answer, Page, Type, Learning Objective, Level

 

Type

A=Applied

C=Conceptual

F=Factual

Level

(1)=Easy; (2)=Moderate; (3)=Difficult

 

LO=Learning Objective

p=page

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

Definition of Learning

Learning Objective 5.1 – What does the term learning really mean?

 

  1. ________ is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice.
  2. a) Learning

Correct. Experience or practice that leads to a long-term behavior change is referred to as learning.

  1. b) Adaptation

Incorrect. Adaptation is a sensory effect that describes a perceptual change to a given stimulus level. Perceptual changes are not behavioral changes and, thus, are not considered to be learning.

  1. c) Memory enhancement
  2. d) Muscle memory

ANS: a, p. 176, F, LO=5.1, (1)

% correct 95      a= 95  b= 3  c= 1  d= 1      r = .21

% correct 96      a= 96  b= 4  c= 0  d= 0      r = .19

APA=1.1

 

  1. Learning is said to be a relatively permanent change in behavior because ________.
  2. a) it is thought that learning changes the nerve fiber patterns in your muscles
  3. b) once you learn something, you will never fail to remember it or carry out the correct action

Incorrect. Unfortunately, learning something does not mean that you won’t fail to remember it.

  1. c) it is thought that when learning occurs, some part of the brain physically changes

Correct. These changes in the brain make a temporary record of what was learned.

  1. d) memory processes, unlike learning processes, are not permanent

ANS: c, p. 176, C, LO=5.1, (2)

% correct 64      a= 11  b= 9  c= 64  d= 15      r = .23

% correct 95      a= 2  b= 0  c= 95  d= 3      r = .30

APA=1.1

 

  1. Changes controlled by a genetic blueprint, such as an increase in height or the size of the brain, are examples of ________.
  2. a) maturation

Correct. Alterations due to a genetic blueprint would be examples of maturation.

  1. b) learning
  2. c) habituation
  3. d) growth cycles

Incorrect. Growth cycles is not a term used in our text.

ANS: a, p. 176, C, LO=5.1, (3)

% correct 51      a= 51  b= 1  c= 11  d= 36      r = .23

APA=1.1

 

  1. Which of the following statements about learning is NOT true?
  2. a) Learning is another word for “maturation.”

Correct. Unlike learning, maturation is a biologically and genetically based process and not an experiential one. 

  1. b) Learning is relatively permanent.
  2. c) Learning involves changes in behavior.
  3. d) Learning involves experiences.

Incorrect. Learning does involve experience, and the statement is true. The question asks which statement is NOT true.

ANS: a, p. 176, C, LO=5.1, (1)

% correct 93      a= 93  b= 4  c= 3  d= 0      r = .19

APA=1.1

 

It Makes Your Mouth Water: Classical Conditioning

 

Learning Objective 5.2 – How was classical conditioning first studied, and what are the important elements and characteristics of classical conditioning?

 

  1. As an infant, Stephanie received many penicillin injections from the doctor. When she later saw a photographer in a white coat that was similar to the doctor’s coat, she started to cry. This is an example of ________.
  2. a) instrumental learning
  3. b) observational learning

Incorrect. Observational learning involves watching others in a learning experience; in this example, Stephanie experienced these events herself.

  1. c) classical conditioning

Correct. Stephanie’s experience is an example of classical conditioning.

  1. d) habituation

ANS: c, p. 177, A, LO=5.2, (1)

% correct 90      a= 3  b= 4  c= 90  d= 3      r = .22

% correct 83      a= 2  b= 9  c= 83  d= 4      r = .27

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. One might expect that classical conditioning was discovered by a psychologist. However, it was discovered by a ________.
  2. physician who was studying the age at which children start to walk
  3. physiologist who was studying memory processes in monkeys
  4. physiologist who was studying digestion

Correct. Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning and he was a physiologist.

  1. dog trainer who was trying to come up with the best way to reward animals for their performances in his shows

Incorrect. Ivan Pavlov, a well-known Russian physiologist, discovered classical conditioning. Although some dog trainers may have had a reasonably pragmatic set of training principles, they didn’t scientifically study them or publish their findings.

ANS: c, p. 177, F, LO=5.2, (2)

% correct 74      a= 1  b= 0  c= 74  d= 24      r = .45

% correct 79      a= 1  b= 5  c= 79  d= 15      r = .41

APA=1.2

 

  1. The researcher responsible for discovering classical conditioning was ________.
  2. a) Skinner

Incorrect. Skinner was a well-known contributor to the study of learning, but his work centered on operant or instrumental conditioning.

  1. b) Tolman
  2. c) Kohler
  3. d) Pavlov

Correct. The researcher responsible for discovering classical conditioning was Pavlov.

ANS: d, p. 177, F, LO=5.2, (1)

% correct 96      a= 1  b= 3  c= 0  d= 96      r = .19

APA=1.2

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding Pavlov is accurate?
  2. a) Pavlov was studying salivation in dogs as part of a research program on digestion.

Correct. Pavlov was studying digestion, and salivation is one of the initial processes in digestion.

  1. b) Pavlov was elated when his student first noticed that the dogs were salivating before tasting the food.
  2. c) Pavlov continued his Nobel Prize-winning research on digestion after documenting conditioning.
  3. d) Pavlov stressed the importance of speculating about the dog’s feelings toward the food.

Incorrect. Pavlov was not concerned with feelings or any other internal mental states in his initial experiments. He was studying the physiology of digestion.

ANS: a, p. 177, F, LO=5.2, (2)

% correct 15      a= 64  b= 15  c= 7  d= 15      r = .51

APA=1.2

 

  1. Normally, when food is placed in the mouth of any animal, the salivary glands start releasing saliva to help with chewing and digestion. In terms of Pavlov’s analysis of learning, salivation would be referred to as ________.
  2. a) an unconditioned response

Correct. The unconditioned response is a naturally occurring process when the animal is stimulated. Salivation is such a process in response to food.

  1. b) a voluntary response
  2. c) a conditioned response
  3. d) a digestive reflux

Incorrect. Although salivation is part of digestion, the best answer is the unconditioned response because it is more specific and part of Pavlov’s conceptualization.

ANS: a, p. 177, A, LO=5.2, (3)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than to the original, natural stimulus is called ________.
  2. a) classical conditioning

Correct. A classically conditioned response occurs when the subject learns to make a reflexive response to a new stimulus.

  1. b) operant conditioning

Incorrect. Operant conditioning deals with voluntary behavior and not reflexive responses that occur automatically. Classical conditioning entails learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original.

  1. c) memory linkage
  2. d) adaptation

ANS: a, p. 177, F, LO=5.2, (1)

% correct 77      a= 77  b= 12  c= 2  d= 8      r = .42

% correct 82      a= 82  b= 11  c= 0  d= 7      r = .19

APA=1.1

 

  1. Which of the following events most intrigued Pavlov and led to his discoveries?
  2. a) The dogs seemed to enjoy the food.
  3. b) The assistant salivated along with the dogs when the dogs started to eat.

Incorrect. Pavlov was not studying his assistant’s reactions; he was interested in the salivation of the dogs.

  1. c) The dogs stopped salivating after seeing the assistant so many times.
  2. d) The dogs started to salivate when they saw Pavlov’s assistant and before they got the food.

Correct. Pavlov was fascinated with why the dogs learned this connection between the assistant and the food.

ANS: d, p. 177, C, LO=5.2, (1)

% correct 100      a= 0  b=0  c= 0  d= 100      r = .00

APA=1.2

 

  1. Pavlov placed meat powder in the mouths of dogs, and they began to salivate. The food acted as a (an)

________.

  1. a) unconditioned response
  2. b) unconditioned stimulus

Correct. The food acted as an unconditioned stimulus that automatically evoked the conditioned response. Food automatically causes one to salivate.

  1. c) conditioned response
  2. d) conditioned stimulus

Incorrect. The food acted as an unconditioned stimulus that automatically evoked salivation. The conditioned stimulus is previously neutral and food is not a neutral stimulus.

ANS: b, p. 177, A, LO=5.2, (1)

% correct 86      a= 14  b= 86  c= 0  d= 0      r = .36

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. The abbreviation UCS stands for ________.
  2. a) unconditional statement

Incorrect. Unconditional statement is not a term associated with learning theory.

  1. b) uniform conditioned subject
  2. c) unconditional sensation
  3. d) unconditioned stimulus

Correct. UCS stands for unconditioned stimulus.

ANS: d, p. 177, F, LO=5.2, (1)

APA=1.1

 

  1. In the context of classical conditioning, which of the following components “elicits” a response?
  2. a) UCR
  3. b) UCS
    The unconditioned stimulus is one of three types of stimulating classical conditioning that can produce a response. The other two are a conditioned stimulus and a neutral stimulus.
  4. c) CER

Incorrect. CER refers to a conditioned emotional response, which is not a form of a stimulus.

  1. d) CSR

ANS: b, p. 177, C, LO=5.2, (3)             

APA=1.1

 

  1. In a conditioning experiment, a sound is paired with a brief puff of air to the eye of the rabbit. After several pairings, the rabbit ultimately blinks its eye when it hears the sound. Which of the following is true?
  2. a) The blinking of the eye serves as stimulus.
  3. b) The puff of air serves as the unconditioned stimulus.

Correct. The puff of air elicits a reflexive response without learning taking place, so it is an unconditioned stimulus.

  1. c) The puff of air serves as the conditioned stimulus.
  2. d) The blinking of the eye serves as the conditioned stimulus.

Incorrect. The blinking of the eye is a response, not a stimulus.

ANS: b, p. 177, A, LO=5.2, (2)               

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. The abbreviation UCR stands for ________.
  2. a) unconditional reinforcement

Incorrect. UCR stands for unconditioned response, which is a part of the classical conditioning paradigm. The abbreviation is not used for a reinforcement term.

  1. b) uniform conditioned rule
  2. c) unconditional retention
  3. d) unconditioned response

Correct. UCR stands for unconditioned response.

ANS: d, p. 177, F, LO=5.2, (1)

APA=1.1

 

  1. Every time Maricella goes to work in the morning, she notices that her dog sulks in the corner of the room and looks very sad. Over several weeks, she notices that the dog gets unhappy when she picks up her car keys, immediately before leaving the house. Which phenomenon of learning best describes the dog’s behavior?
  2. a) classical conditioning

Correct. The dog has come to associate the sound of the keys with the departure of Maricella, and his sadness has become a conditioned response.

  1. b) innate learning
  2. c) punishment by removal

Incorrect. While the dog may experience the departure of Maricella as a punishment, this does not explain his association with the sound of her car keys.

  1. d) instinctive drift

ANS: a, p. 177, A, LO=5.2 (2)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Alan always turns the aquarium light on before putting fish food into the tank. After a while, he notices

that the fish swim to the top to look for the food as soon as he turns on the light. In this example, the

________ is the unconditioned stimulus.

  1. a) presence of Alan near the aquarium

Incorrect. Alan’s presence is not what brings about a response, either conditioned or unconditioned, in this example.

  1. b) fish swimming to the top
  2. c) aquarium light
  3. d) fish food

Correct. The fish food is the unconditioned stimulus because, by definition, food is an unconditioned stimulus.

ANS: d, p. 177, A, LO=5.2, (3)

% correct 49      a= 1  b= 3  c= 46  d= 49      r = .53

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. When Pavlov placed meat powder or other food in the mouths of canine subjects, they began to salivate. The

salivation was a(n) ________.

  1. a) unconditioned response

Correct. The salivation was reflexive to the presentation of food and, thus, was an unconditioned response.

  1. b) unconditioned stimulus
  2. c) conditioned response

Incorrect. Because salivation was initially reflexive for food and not to another stimulus, such as a sound, salivation would be considered an unconditioned response.

  1. d) conditioned stimulus

ANS: a, p. 177, A, LO=5.2, (1)   

% correct 83      a= 83  b= 5  c= 11  d= 1      r = .38

% correct 93      a= 93  b= 7  c= 0  d= 0      r = .30

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Sue noticed that whenever she opened the door to the pantry, her dog would come into the kitchen and act hungry, by drooling and whining. She thought that because the dog food was stored in the pantry, the sound of the door had become a(n) ________.
  2. a) unconditioned stimulus
  3. b) conditioned stimulus

Correct. A conditioned stimulus is one that has been a signal for the UCS. In this case the door sound signals food.

  1. c) unconditioned response
  2. d) conditioned response

Incorrect. The sound cannot be a response because the sound was a stimulus presented to the dog.

ANS: b, p. 177, A, LO=5.2, (1)

% correct 87      a= 7  b= 87  c= 0  d= 6      r = .39

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Imagine that you flinch after seeing lightning because in previous instances the lightning is followed by thunder, which scared you. In this scenario, lightning can be interpreted as being a(n):
  2. a) unconditioned stimulus.

Incorrect. In this example, the thunder is the unconditioned stimulus because it elicits a response before learning occurs.

  1. b) unconditioned response.
  2. c) conditioned stimulus.

Correct. The conditioned, or learned stimulus, is lightning because it only elicited a response after learning took place.

  1. d) conditioned response.

ANS: c, p. 177, A, LO=5.2, (2)               

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Imagine that you try to condition someone so that a particular sound elicits a literal “knee jerk response.” Which of the following is accurate?
  2. a) The initial strike to the knee is the CS.
  3. b) The initial knee jerk response is the CR.

Incorrect. Because the initial knee jerk took place without learning, it is a US.

  1. c) The sound is the CS.

Correct. If you learned to respond to the sound with a previously reflexive response, the sound becomes a conditioned stimulus.

  1. d) The anticipation of being struck in the knee is the CSR.

ANS: c, p. 177, A, LO=5.2, (3)               

APA=1.1

 

  1. Harmony notices that her cat salivates as soon as it hears the sound of Harmony opening a can with an

electric can opener. In this example, the ________ is the conditioned stimulus.

  1. a) can of cat food
  2. b) sound of the electric can opener

Correct. The sound of the can opener is a stimulus that causes a conditioned response in the cat.

  1. c) dish that Harmony puts the food in

Incorrect. Although the dish might also have become a conditioned stimulus, in this example Harmony noticed that salivation came in response specifically to the sound of the can opener.

  1. d) cat scurrying into the kitchen

ANS: b, p. 177, A, LO=5.2, (1)

% correct 95      a= 5  b= 95  c= 0  d= 0      r = .20

% correct 97      a=0   b= 97  c= 0  d= 3      r = .20

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. The abbreviation CS stands for ________.
  2. a) conditioned stimulus

Correct. CS stands for conditioned stimulus, which refers to an event that produces a response after learning has taken place.

  1. b) correlated stimulus
  2. c) conventional structure

Incorrect. Conventional structure is not a term that is used in learning theory.

  1. d) conditional situation

ANS: a, p. 177, F, LO=5.2 (1)

% correct 98     a= 98  b= 1  c= 0  d= 1      r = .49

APA=1.1

 

  1. Pavlov placed meat powder in the mouths of the dogs, and they began to salivate. Pavlov’s student noticed that

after a few days the dogs began to salivate at the sound of the student’s footsteps. The salivation to the sound of the

footsteps was a ________.

  1. a) primary reinforcer
  2. b) positive reinforcer
  3. c) conditioned response

Correct. Since salivation is not a natural reflexive response to footsteps, the situation was one in which salivation became a response to the sound and, thus, is referred to as a conditioned response.

  1. d) secondary reinforcer

Incorrect. A reinforcer is a stimulus, whereas the salivation is a response—in this case, a conditioned response.

ANS: c, p. 178, A, LO=5.2, (1)

% correct 100      a= 0  b= 0  c= 100  d= 0      r = .00

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. The abbreviation CR stands for ________.
  2. a) conditional reinforcement

Incorrect. CR stands for conditioned response. The abbreviation is specifically defined as conditioned response even though conditioned reinforcement is a term used in learning theory.

  1. b) contingent reflex
  2. c) conditioned response

Correct. CR stands for conditioned response.

  1. d) contingent reflection

ANS: c, p. 178, F, LO=5.2, (1)

APA=1.1

 

  1. In Pavlov’s classic experiments, the repeated presentations of the metronome along with the food formed the ________ step of the classical conditioning process.
  2. a) acquisition

Correct. In the acquisition step, there is a repeated pairing of the NS and the UCS, and the organism is in the process of acquiring learning. Repeated presentations of the metronome paired with the food caused the animals to acquire the conditioned response.

  1. b) testing
  2. c) extinction
  3. d) spontaneous recovery

Incorrect. Spontaneous recovery occurs when the conditioned response reappears after extinction.

ANS: a, p. 178, F, LO=5.2, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.2

 

  1. You decide that you are going to condition your dog to salivate to the sound of a metronome. You sound the metronome and then several minutes later you give the dog a biscuit. You do this several times but no conditioning seems to occur. This is probably because ________.
  2. a) the metronome was not a distinctive sound
  3. b) the metronome should have been sounded after the animal ate the biscuit

Incorrect. The CS occurring after the UCS has been found not to yield strong classical conditioning.

  1. c) you should have had an even longer interval between the metronome and the biscuit
  2. d) the biscuit was given too long after the sound of the metronome

Correct. Pavlov found that the CS and UCS must be only seconds apart in order to condition salivation. Longer intervals were not successful.

ANS: d, p. 179, A, LO=5.2, (1)

% correct 90      a= 0  b= 10  c= 0  d= 90      r = .19

% correct 86      a= 0  b= 11  c= 2  d= 86      r = .24

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. You decide that you are going to condition your dog to salivate to the sound of a metronome. You give the dog a biscuit, and then a second later you sound the metronome. You do this several times, but no conditioning seems to occur. This is probably because ________.
  2. a) the metronome was not a distinctive sound
  3. b) the metronome should have been sounded before the dog ate the biscuit

Correct. One of the basic principles of classical conditioning is that the CS must come before the UCS.

  1. c) you should have had a longer interval between the metronome and the biscuit
  2. d) Pavlov found that the CS and UCS must be only seconds apart in order to condition salivation

Incorrect. This statement is true but does not explain that the conditioning didn’t work because the CS must precede the UCS.

ANS: b, p. 179, A, LO=5.2, (3)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus is called ________.
  2. a) stimulus generalization

Correct. Responding to a similar stimulus is called stimulus generalization.

  1. b) stimulus adaptation
  2. c) response generalization

Incorrect. The subject is generalizing to a stimulus and, thus, the process is called stimulus generalization.

  1. d) transfer of habit strength

ANS: a, p. 179, F, LO=5.2, (1)

APA=1.1

 

  1. The fact that you prefer blondes because your last love interest had blonde hair best illustrates ________.
  2. a) stimulus generalization

Correct. Stimulus generalization occurs when we respond to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus.

  1. b) generalization gradient
  2. c) stimulus discrimination

Incorrect. Stimulus discrimination occurs when a person or animal recognizes that different stimuli should evoke different responses.

  1. d) discrimination gradient

ANS: a, p. 179, A, LO=5.2 (2)               

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. After Little Albert acquired a conditioned fear of rats, Watson wanted to see how he would react to a white rabbit, cotton wool, and a Santa Claus mask. He was studying whether or not ________ had occurred.
  2. a) behavior modification

Incorrect. Behavior modification is a clinical technique that uses conditioning. Stimulus generalization was the issue.

  1. b) stimulus discrimination
  2. c) extinction
  3. d) stimulus generalization

Correct. Stimulus generalization occurs when a conditioned response spreads to a similar stimulus. In this case, it was from rat to rabbit.

ANS: d, p. 179, A, LO=5.2, (2)

% correct       a= 14  b=0   c= 0  d= 86      r = .49

APA=1.2

 

  1. After Pavlov’s dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of the metronome, he experimented with sounding the metronome and then failing to present the dogs with any food right away. Soon they stopped salivating to the sound of the metronome. This represents the process called ________.
  2. a) acquisition
  3. b) testing

Incorrect. Testing is not a term used in this paradigm.

  1. c) extinction

Correct. Extinction occurs when the CR no longer predicts the CS and the organism no longer responds to the stimulus.

  1. d) spontaneous recovery

ANS: c, p. 180, C, LO=5.2, (2) 

APA=1.1; 1.2

 

  1. When the CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the UCS, the CR will “die out” in a process called ________.
  2. a) CR fading
  3. b) extinction

Correct. The CR will fade in a process known as extinction or when a repeated presentation of the CS leads to the fading of the CR.

  1. c) habituation
  2. d) generalization fading

Incorrect. Generalization fading is not a term used in our conditioning models.

ANS: b, p. 180, F, LO=5.2, (1)

APA=1.1

 

  1. You train your dog, Milo, to salivate at the sound of a bell. Then you ring the bell every five minutes and don’t follow the ringing with food for Milo. He salivates less and less and finally stops salivating at all when the bell rings. But the next morning, when you ring the bell, Milo salivates! What term is used to explain the reappearance of this response?
  2. a) counterconditioning

Incorrect. Counterconditioning would have occurred if the animal was conditioned to some other stimuli, but this was not the case.

  1. b) instinctive drift
  2. c) spontaneous recovery

Correct. Milo’s response spontaneously recovered.

  1. d) stimulus discrimination

ANS: c, p. 180, A, LO=5.2, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.3

  1. The reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred is called ________.
  2. a) counterconditioning

Incorrect. Counterconditioning occurs when the animal is conditioned to some other stimulus.

  1. b) instinctive drift
  2. c) spontaneous recovery

Correct. The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction is called spontaneous recovery.

  1. d) stimulus discrimination

ANS: c, p. 180, F, LO=5.2, (1)

% correct 98      a= 1  b= 0  c= 98  d= 1      r = .19

% correct 96      a= 2  b= 3  c=96   d= 0      r = .43

APA=1.1

 

  1. An animal is conditioned to salivate to a metronome using Pavlovian procedures. After the conditioning is established, the animal is then put through an extinction procedure and the conditioned salivation disappears. Then the animal is removed from the test situation for several days. When returned to the test situation, the conditioned response is seen again. The effect is known as ________.
  2. a) spontaneous recovery

Correct. When a conditioned response briefly reappears after it has been extinguished, this is called spontaneous recovery.

  1. b) higher-order conditioning

Incorrect. Higher-order conditioning refers to a chain of conditioned responses established from the first pairing, which is not the situation described here. The reappearance of an extinguished response is called spontaneous recovery.

  1. c) extinction
  2. d) stimulus generalization

ANS: a, p. 180, A, LO=5.2, (1)

% correct 95      a= 95  b= 2  c= 1  d= 2      r = .35

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. What could John Watson have done to eliminate Little Albert’s conditioned fear?
  2. a) Show Albert a toy dog instead of a live rat.

Incorrect. The toy dog wasn’t a conditioned stimulus because seeing it repeatedly probably wouldn’t have helped Albert. He needed to see the rat repeatedly.

  1. b) Let Albert touch a Santa Claus beard repeatedly.
  2. c) Show Albert a rat many times without a loud noise following so that extinction would occur.

Correct. Showing Albert a rat without the loud noise would teach Albert that nothing scary coincides with the presence of the rat.

  1. d) Have Albert hear a loud noise many times without a rat present.

ANS: c, p. 180, A, LO=5.2, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. What would you predict about Little Albert based on the principle of spontaneous recovery?
  2. a) Even after his fear of a rat was extinguished, the fear could come back.

Correct. In spontaneous recovery, the conditioned response can briefly reappear when the original CS returns, although the response is usually weak and short-lived.

  1. b) After his fear of loud noises was extinguished, the fear could come back.
  2. c) His fear of rats would disappear if he saw a rat without hearing a loud noise.

Incorrect. Although the statement is true, it doesn’t answer the question about spontaneous recovery, which involves the resurfacing of the fear even after it has seemingly been extinguished.

  1. d) His fear of loud noises would disappear if he heard a loud noise without a rat present.

ANS: a, p. 180, A, LO=5.2, (1)

% correct 86      a= 86  b= 0  c= 13  d= 1      r = .19

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. After a CS comes to elicit the CR, the CS now can be paired with a new neutral stimulus and this second neutral stimulus will start to elicit a CR. This process is called ________.
  2. a) higher-order conditioning

Correct. This process is called higher-order conditioning because another, or higher, layer of associations is being added.

  1. b) neoclassical conditioning
  2. c) generalization

Incorrect. Responding to a similar stimulus is called generalization; in this case, it is not a similar stimulus but an entirely new stimulus that is paired with the original.

  1. d) operant conditioning

ANS: a, p. 180, F, LO=5.2, (3)

% correct 57      a= 57  b= 6  c= 11  d= 26      r = .45

APA=1.1

 

  1. When a strongly conditioned CS is used to make another stimulus into a second CS, the effect is known as ________.
  2. a) spontaneous recovery
  3. b) higher-order conditioning

Correct. The use of a strong CS to create a second CS is called higher-order conditioning.

  1. c) extinction
  2. d) stimulus generalization

Incorrect. Stimulus generalization doesn’t involve pairing a CS with another different CS. It refers to stimuli that are similar to the CS evoking a CR without that similar stimulus ever having been used as part of the conditioning process.

ANS: b, p. 180, F, LO=5.2, (2)

% correct 62      a= 3  b= 62  c= 2  d= 32      r = .30

% correct 76      a= 2  b= 76  c= 0  d= 20      r = .28

APA=1.1

 

  1. Pavlov conditioned a dog to salivate at a metronome sound that was paired with a meat stimulus. After the CS–UCS connection was strongly established, Pavlov then presented the dog with several flashes of a light followed by the metronome sound. After a few days, when the light flashes were presented by themselves, the dog salivated. This is an example of ________.
  2. a) higher-order conditioning

Correct. This process of using a neutral stimulus with a conditioned stimulus to create a new conditioned stimulus out of the neutral stimulus is called higher-order conditioning.

  1. b) neoclassical conditioning
  2. c) generalization
  3. d) operant conditioning

Incorrect. Operant conditioning refers to voluntary responses, such as bar presses for food, not involuntary responses, such as salivation.

ANS: a, p. 180, A, LO=5.2, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

Learning Objective 5.3 – What is a conditioned emotional response, and how do cognitive psychologists explain classical conditioning?

  1. The learning of phobias is a very good example of which certain type of classical conditioning?
  2. a) instinctive drift

Incorrect. Instinctual drift deals primarily with animal behavior, not phobias.

  1. b) innate learning
  2. c) conditioned taste aversion
  3. d) conditioned emotional response

Correct. Conditioned emotional responses are some of the earliest forms of learning and fear is a basic emotion that appears very early in our lives

ANS: d, p. 183, C, LO=5.3, (2)

APA=1.1

 

  1. In the “Little Albert” study, the fear-producing stimulus used as a UCS was the ______.
  2. a) white rat

Incorrect. Albert did not have a reflexive fear response to the rat so it couldn’t be the unconditioned stimulus. He did have a reflexive fear response to the noise, and that was the unconditioned stimulus.

  1. b) loud noise

Correct. Noise was the unconditioned stimulus, as it automatically evoked fear.

  1. c) fear of the rat
  2. d) fear of the noise

ANS: b, p. 183, A, LO=5.3, (2)

% correct 76      a= 21  b= 76  c= 2  d= 1      r = .25

APA=1.2

 

  1. Little Albert was conditioned to fear a ______.
  2. a) white mouse

Incorrect. In fact, little Albert was conditioned to fear a white rat, not a white mouse.

  1. b) brown mouse
  2. c) white rat

Correct. The case of Little Albert is famous for demonstrating the ability to condition a phobia of a white rat.

  1. d) white puppy

ANS: c, p. 183, A, LO=5.3, (1)               

APA=1.2

 

  1. John Watson offered a live, white rat to Little Albert and then made a loud noise behind his head by striking a steel bar with a hammer. The white rat served as the ________ in his study.
  2. a) discriminative stimulus
  3. b) counterconditioning stimulus
  4. c) conditioned stimulus

Correct. The child was conditioned to respond to this stimulus with fear, even though he was not originally afraid of the rat.

  1. d) unconditioned stimulus

Incorrect. An unconditioned stimulus is one that the child automatically responds to with fear, such as a loud noise.

ANS: c, p. 183, A, LO=5.3, (3)

% correct 51      a= 3  b= 3  c= 51  d= 43      r = .21

% correct 57      a= 18  b= 0  c= 57  d= 25      r = .19

APA=1.1; 1.2

 

  1. Little Albert’s acquired fear of a white rat was a classic example of a(n) ________ response.
  2. a) classical counterconditioned

Incorrect. Counterconditioning does not necessarily deal with emotional responses like the one seen in the case of Little Albert.

  1. b) conditioned emotional

Correct. The case of Little Albert was used to demonstrate conditional emotional responses.

  1. c) positively reinforced
  2. d) negatively reinforced

ANS: b, p. 183, C, LO=5.3 (1)

APA=1.1; 1.2

 

  1. What was the conditioned stimulus (CS) in the case of Little Albert?
  2. a) a white rat

Correct. The white rat was a neutral stimulus that at first didn’t elicit a fear response but that, after conditioning, became a conditioned stimulus.

  1. b) a loud noise

Incorrect. The UCS was the loud noise because it automatically evoked a fear response.

  1. c) a high chair
  2. d) a small enclosed space

ANS: a, p. 183, A, LO=5.3, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.2

 

  1. Watson’s experiment with Little Albert demonstrated that fears might be __________.
  2. a) based on classical conditioning

Correct. Watson took a neutral stimulus, the rat, and paired it with a fear-producing noise to make the rat a fear-inducing stimulus.

  1. b) deeply rooted in the innate unconscious of infants

Incorrect. There was no focus on the unconscious in Watson’s experiment. He was demonstrating the relationship of classical conditioning to phobias.

  1. c) based on the principle of observational learning
  2. d) based on Skinner’s analysis of positive reinforcement

ANS: a, p. 183, C, LO=5.3, (1)

% correct 86      a= 86  b= 4  c= 9  d= 1      r = .40

APA=1.2

 

  1. The learning of phobias is a very good example of which certain type of classical conditioning?
  2. a) instinctive drift
  3. b) innate learning

Incorrect. While it is possible to learn phobias through innate learning, the best answer is conditioned emotional response.

  1. c) conditioned taste aversion
  2. d) conditioned emotional response

Correct. Fears often develop as a result of classical conditioning, a process known as a conditioned emotional response.

ANS: d, p. 183, C, LO=5.3 (1)

APA=1.1

 

  1. It is even possible to become classically conditioned by simply watching someone else respond to a stimulus in a process called ________.
  2. a) vicarious conditioning

Correct. You can become conditioned by watching through a process called vicarious conditioning.

  1. b) conditioned emotional responses
  2. c) stimulus generalization
  3. d) higher-order conditioning

Incorrect. Higher-order conditioning involves linking one conditioned stimulus to another. It does not involve watching someone.

ANS: a, p. 183, F, LO=5.3, (2)

% correct 61      a= 61  b= 13  c= 12  d= 15      r = .38

APA=1.1

 

  1. Which learning theorist is responsible for the discovery of conditioned taste aversions?
  2. a) Seligman

Incorrect. Seligman is known for his work on learned helplessness. Garcia was responsible for the discovery of taste aversions.

  1. b) Garcia

Correct. Garcia was responsible for the discovery of taste aversions.

  1. c) Skinner
  2. d) Watson

ANS: b, p. 184, F, LO=5.3, (1)

APA=1.2

 

  1. Last month, Walter became sick after eating two chili dogs, so he no longer likes chili dogs. Walter has experienced ____________.
  2. a) blocking
  3. b) conditioned taste-aversion

Correct. Taste aversion is the term for a learned aversion to a particular food based on a previous bad experience with that food.

  1. c) operant taste conditioning

Incorrect. Operant conditioning relates to voluntary behavior, whereas a taste aversion, such as the one Walter experienced, is an involuntary response.

  1. d) noncontingent conditioning

ANS: b, p. 184, A, LO=5.3, (1)

% correct 95      a= 0  b= 95  c= 5  d= 0      r = .48

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. An important example of conditioned taste aversions might be ________.
  2. a) chemotherapy patients losing their appetites for food served around the same time they had their treatments
  3. b) farmers leaving out sheep meat laced with a nauseating substance for coyotes to find in hopes of teaching them not to eat sheep
  4. c) Both of these are examples of taste aversions.

Correct. Both choices involve being conditioned to avoid certain tastes associated with nausea.

  1. d) Neither of these are examples of conditioned taste aversions.

Incorrect. Both choices involve being conditioned to avoid certain tastes associated with nausea.

ANS: c, p. 184, A, LO=5.3, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. A farmer is being troubled by coyotes eating his sheep. In an attempt to solve the problem, he kills a sheep and laces its body with a nausea-inducing drug. He leaves the sheep out where he knows the coyotes roam. He hopes they will learn to not eat the sheep. The farmer is attempting to apply the research of ________ to accomplish this.
  2. a) Bandura
  3. b) Skinner

Incorrect. Skinner studied operant conditioning, whereas this effect is a classical conditioning phenomenon.

  1. c) Tolman
  2. d) Garcia

Correct. Garcia worked on taste aversion.

ANS: d, p. 184, A, LO=5.3, (2)

APA=1.2, 1.3

 

  1. A farmer is being troubled by coyotes eating his sheep. In an attempt to solve the problem, he kills a sheep and laces its body with a nausea-inducing drug. He leaves the sheep out where he knows the coyotes roam. He hopes they will learn to not eat the sheep. The farmer is attempting to apply the principle of _________ to accomplish this.
  2. a) observational learning
  3. b) latent learning

Incorrect. Latent learning has occurred when an animal or person seems not to learn something but later demonstrates the learned behavior in question. In this example, the farmer is attempting to cause a conditioned taste aversion in local coyotes to protect his sheep.

  1. c) instrumental conditioning
  2. d) conditioned taste aversions

Correct. The farmer hopes that the taste of the sheep will evoke a conditioned response.

ANS: d, p. 184, A, LO=5.3, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Conditioned taste aversions are an example of something called ________.
  2. a) biological preparedness

Correct. Biological preparedness for fear of objects that are dangerous makes sense for survival.

  1. b) inherited conditioned dispositions
  2. c) long-term spontaneous recovery
  3. d) vicarious classical conditioning

Incorrect. Vicarious conditioning involves learning by observation

ANS: a, p. 184, C, LO=5.3, (1)

APA=1.1

     

  1. Human beings generally have an aversion to bitter and sour foods. Some researchers suggest that this is because foods that are inedible or even poisonous are often bitter or sour. The tendency of human beings to find these potentially harmful foods repulsive is an example of ________.
  2. a) classical conditioning
  3. b) vicarious conditioning
  4. c) conditioned emotional response

Incorrect. The question does not refer to any emotional reaction as a consequence of the unpleasant taste.

  1. d) biological preparedness

Correct. The survival value associated with learning to avoid dangerous foods is an example of biological preparedness.

ANS: d, p. 185, C, LO=5.3 (3)

APA=1.1

 

  1. Conditioned taste aversions are an example of something called __________.
  2. a) biological preparedness

Correct. Conditioned taste aversions are an example of biological preparedness, referring to the tendency of animals to learn certain associations based on taste, sight, or smell that are relevant to their survival.

  1. b) inherited conditioned dispositions

Incorrect. Inherited conditioned dispositions is not a term used in discussing conditioned taste aversions. The correct term is biological preparedness.

  1. c) long-term spontaneous recovery
  2. d) single repetition conditioning

ANS: a, p. 185, C, LO=5.3, (2)

APA=1.1

 

  1. Pavlov’s model of classical conditioning was based on the idea that the conditioned stimulus, through its association close in time with the unconditioned stimulus, came to activate the same place in the animal’s brain that was originally activated by the unconditioned stimulus. This was known as ________.
  2. a) stimulus substitution

Correct. This was known as stimulus substitution.

  1. b) the cognitive perspective
  2. c) the Skinner model
  3. d) higher-order conditioning

ANS: a, p. 185, C, LO=5.3, (3)

APA=1.2

 

  1. The current view of why classical conditioning works the way it does, advanced by Rescorla and others, adds the concept of ________ to conditioning theory.
  2. a) generalization

Incorrect. Generalization, or the spread of the response to various stimuli, isn’t a new addition to the theory.

  1. b) habituation
  2. c) memory loss
  3. d) expectancy

Correct. Rescorla explained that animals must have an expectancy created by the pairing of a stimulus (or absence of a stimulus) with an unpleasant experience.

ANS: d, p. 185, C, LO=5.3, (3)  

APA=1.2

 

  1. Rescorla’s modern conceptualization of classical conditioning is based on the idea that ________.
  2. a) the CS substitutes for the UCS

Incorrect. Rescorla theorized that the CS has to provide information about the coming of the UCS and predict the latter’s coming. Substitution was an earlier theory of Pavlov’s.

  1. b) there is a biological readiness for conditioning to occur between the CS and UCS
  2. c) the CS has to provide information about the coming of the UCS
  3. d) reinforcement must occur by providing a pleasant event

ANS: c, p. 185, C, LO=5.3, (2)

APA=1.2

 

  1. Some researchers believe that classical conditioning takes place only because:
  2. a) the pairing of the CS and US does not provide useful information about the likelihood of occurrence of the US.
  3. b) the pairing of the CS and UR provides useful information about the likelihood of occurrence of the CS.
  4. c) the pairing of the CS and US provides useful information about the likelihood of occurrence of the US.

Correct. This cognitive model suggests that expectation underlies the entire phenomenon of classical conditioning.

  1. d) the pairing of the US and UR provides information about the likelihood of occurrence of the US.

Incorrect. It is the pairing of the CS and US that is thought to provide information about the occurrence of the US in the future that underlies the cognitive explanation of classical conditioning.

ANS: c, p. 185, C, LO=5.3, (3)               

APA=1.1

 

  1. Which theorist proposed the cognitive perspective that explains that classical conditioning occurs because of expectancy?
  2. a) Pavlov

Incorrect. Pavlov suggested that stimulus substitution, and not expectancy, explained classical conditioning.

  1. b) Garcia
  2. c) Rescorla

Correct. The cognitive explanation of classical conditioning was proposed by Robert Rescorla.

  1. d) Skinner

ANS: c, p. 185, F, LO=5.3 (2)

APA=1.2

 

  1. According to Rescorla’s theory, the CS must _______ the UCS or conditioning does not occur.
  2. a) replace
  3. b) come after
  4. c) appear simultaneously with

Incorrect. Rescorla found that the CS must predict the UCS for conditioning to take place. A simultaneous appearance would not give any information useful in prediction.

  1. d) predict

Correct. Rescorla found that the CS must predict the UCS for conditioning to take place.

ANS: d, p. 185, C, LO=5.3, (3)

APA=1.2

 

What’s in It for Me? Operant Conditioning

Learning Objective 5.4 – How does operant conditioning occur, and what were the contributions of Thorndike and Skinner?

 

  1. ________ classical conditioning, operant conditioning requires the organism to voluntarily produce the ________.
  2. a) Like; response

Incorrect. This answer is incorrect, because classical and operant conditioning are not alike in this manner.

  1. b) Unlike; response

Correct. Classical and operant conditioning are different in that classical conditioning requires reflexive responses, whereas operant conditioning deals with voluntary responses.

  1. c) Unlike; consequence
  2. d) Like; stimulus

ANS: b, p. 186, C, LO=5.4, (2)               

APA=1.1

 

  1. There are two kinds of behavior that all organisms are capable of doing. If Inez blinks her eyes because a gnat flies close to them, that’s ________. But if she then swats at the gnat, that’s _________.
  2. a) voluntary; involuntary

Incorrect. Blinking is a reflex (involuntary), whereas swatting is purposeful (voluntary) behavior.

  1. b) involuntary; voluntary

Correct. Blinking is a reflex (involuntary), whereas swatting is purposeful (voluntary) behavior.

  1. c) operant; instrumental
  2. d) instrumental; classical

ANS: b, p. 186, A, LO=5.4, (1)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. The kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior is called ________.
  2. a) operant conditioning

Correct. Operant conditioning involves a choice to move and is, thus, voluntary behavior.

  1. b) classical conditioning

Incorrect. Classical conditioning involves involuntary responses, such as salivation.

  1. c) effective based learning
  2. d) spontaneous recovery

ANS: a, p. 186, F, LO=5.4, (1)

% correct 89      a= 89  b= 7  c= 4  d= 0      r = .32

APA=1.1

 

  1. Who was one of the first researchers to explore and outline the laws of voluntary responses?
  2. a) Pavlov
  3. b) Watson
  4. c) Skinner

Incorrect. Thorndike first explored and outlined the laws of voluntary behavior. Skinner later greatly expanded on his work.

  1. d) Thorndike

Correct. Thorndike was the pioneer of the laws of voluntary behavior.

ANS: d, p. 186, F, LO=5.4, (2)

APA=1.2

 

  1. Thorndike was known for his work with ________.
  2. a) a Skinner box
  3. b) a puzzle box

Correct. Thorndike was known for his work with a puzzle box.

  1. c) modeling

Incorrect. Modeling was a much later process proposed for observational learning.

  1. d) monkeys

ANS: b, p. 186, F, LO=5.4, (2)

% correct 72      a= 7  b= 72  c= 7  d= 14      r = .27

APA=1.2

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of operant behavior?
  2. a) a child doing her homework after she receives her teacher’s approval for her behavior
  3. b) a rat pressing a bar after receiving food for this behavior
  4. c) a dog blinking its eyes after a flash of light is presented

Correct. The dog’s blinking its eyes is not operant behavior because it is reflexive, involuntary behavior, whereas operant behavior is voluntary.

  1. d) a rat pressing a bar after avoiding a shock for this behavior

Incorrect. The rat’s pressing the bar is operant behavior because it is voluntary.

ANS: c, p. 186, A, LO=5.4, (2)

% correct 80      a= 6  b= 4  c= 80  d= 10      r = .44

% correct 64      a= 11  b= 14  c= 64  d= 7      r = .34

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. A child learns that whenever he eats all of his dinner he gets a cookie for dessert. This type of learning is BEST explained by ________.
  2. a) classical conditioning
  3. b) operant conditioning

Correct. The child’s voluntary behavior—eating his dinner—is rewarded with the cookie.

  1. c) biofeedback theory
  2. d) social learning theory

Incorrect. If this were an example of social learning, the child would have to watch someone else get a reward for eating dinner.

ANS: b, p. 186, A, LO=5.4, (1)

% correct 83      a= 14  b= 83  c= 0  d= 3      r = .41

% correct 92      a= 8  b= 92  c= 0  d= 0      r = .19

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Skinner was to rats as Thorndike was to ________.
  2. a) cats

Correct. Thorndike put cats in a puzzle box to demonstrate his Law of Effect.

  1. b) rabbits
  2. c) dogs

Incorrect. Seligman is the theorist most noted for using dogs in his demonstration of learned helplessness.

  1. d) pigeons

ANS: a, p. 186, C, LO=5.4 (1)

APA=1.2

 

  1. The person MOST closely associated with the Law of Effect is ________.
  2. a) Watson

Incorrect. Watson is best known for work that was done much later than that of Thorndike.

  1. b) Skinner
  2. c) Pavlov
  3. d) Thorndike

Correct. Thorndike proposed the Law of Effect.

ANS: d, p. 187, F, LO=5.4, (1)

% correct 89      a= 3  b= 3  c= 5  d= 89      r = .26

APA=1.2

 

  1. When good things happen to someone, the probability of repeating the behavior that occurred before the good things increases. This best illustrates:
  2. a) Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.

Incorrect.  This is a principle from physics, not psychology.

  1. b) the Law of Effect.

Correct. The Law of Effect suggests that behaviors that are followed by pleasant outcomes will tend to be repeated, while behaviors that are followed by unpleasant outcomes will tend not to be repeated.

  1. c) generalization.
  2. d) the Law of Desirable Consequences.

ANS: b, p. 187, C, LO=5.4, (2)               

APA=1.1

 

  1. Any behavior that is voluntary is referred to as a(n) ________.
  2. a) response

Incorrect. A response could be voluntary or involuntary (reflexive).

  1. b) antecedent
  2. c) operant

Correct. An operant is any behavior that is voluntary.

  1. d) stimulus

ANS: c. p. 187, F, LO=5.4 (1)

APA=1.1

 

  1. “If a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated. If a response is followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated.” This is a statement of ________.
  2. a) the Law of Positive Reinforcement

Incorrect. Although it sounds like a statement of positive reinforcement, it is not. Positive reinforcement is defined differently.

  1. b) Rescorla’s cognitive perspective
  2. c) Thorndike’s Law of Effect

Correct. Thorndike’s Law of Effect speaks to both pleasurable and unpleasurable consequences.

  1. d) Garcia’s conditional emotional response

ANS: c, p. 187, F, LO=5.4, (1)

% correct 89      a= 9  b= 2  c= 89  d= 0      r = .19

% correct 90      a=7   b= 0  c= 90  d= 2      r = .24

APA=1.1

 

Learning Objective 5.5 – What are the important concepts in operant conditioning?

  1. A Skinner box is most likely to be used in research on ________.
  2. a) classical conditioning

Incorrect. Classical conditioning involves involuntary responses and Skinner boxes use voluntary responses to study operant conditioning.

  1. b) operant conditioning

Correct. A Skinner box is most likely to be used in research on operant conditioning. Skinner developed the box in his work on operant conditioning.

  1. c) vicarious learning
  2. d) cognitive learning

ANS: b, p. 188, F, LO=5.5, (1)

% correct 79      a= 16  b= 79  c= 2  d= 3      r = .39

APA=1.2

 

  1. In operant conditioning, ________ is necessary to create the association between the stimulus and the repetition of a voluntary response.
  2. a) reinforcement

Correct. Reinforcement causes the association between the stimulus and the voluntary response to be learned.

  1. b) the Law of Negative Effect
  2. c) conditional emotional linkages

Incorrect. Although principles like the Law of Effect suggest emotional linkages, the correct answer needs to consider reinforcement as the necessary principle.

  1. d) a long time delay

ANS: a, p. 188, C, LO=5.5, (2)

% correct 100      a= 100  b= 0  c= 0  d= 0      r = .00

% correct 98      a= 98  b=   c= 2  d= 0      r = .03

APA=1.1

 

  1. A ________ reinforcer is any reward that satisfies a basic, biological need, such a hunger, thirst, or touch.
  2. a) primary

Correct. A primary reinforcer satisfies basic, biological needs.

  1. b) negative
  2. c) positive
  3. d) secondary

Incorrect. A secondary reinforcer gains its value through an association with a primary reinforcer.

ANS: a, p. 188, F, LO=5.5 (1)

APA=1.1

 

  1. Of the following, ________ would serve as a primary reinforcer for most people.
  2. a) food

Correct. A primary reinforcer is one that satisfies a basic biological or survival need.

  1. b) praise

Incorrect. Because praise does not satisfy one of our innate, unlearned needs, it is not a primary reinforcer.

  1. c) money
  2. d) attention

ANS: a, p. 188, F, LO=5.5, (2)               

APA=1.1

 

  1. Secondary reinforcers differ from primary reinforcers in that secondary reinforcers ________.
  2. a) can potentially reinforce or punish behavior

Incorrect. Reinforcers do not punish behavior, whether they are primary or secondary.

  1. b) do not satisfy physical needs whatsoever
  2. c) do not inherently satisfy physical needs

Correct. Secondary reinforcers are not required for survival, and often get their value through an association with a primary reinforcer.

  1. d) only pertain to intangible objects or events, such as praise

ANS: c, p. 188, C, LO=5.5, (2)               

APA=1.1

 

  1. Kelsey just told her family a really funny joke that she made up herself. In order to use a primary reinforcer to encourage her in her joke-telling, Kelsey’s dad might ________.
  2. a) offer her money
  3. b) applaud her appropriate behavior
  4. c) offer her praise for a job well done

Incorrect. Praise is not a biologically-based necessity, such as food or drink.

  1. d) offer her a piece of candy

Correct. A primary reinforcer is one that relates to food, drink, shelter, touch, or other biologically-based necessities.

ANS: d, p. 188, A, LO=5.5, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. ________ is an example of a primary reinforcer, whereas ________ is an example of a secondary reinforcer.
  2. a) A cupcake; a certificate of achievement given to a student

Correct. A cupcake relates to food, drink, shelter, touch, and other biologically-based needs, whereas a certificate does not.

  1. b) A kiss; money
  2. c) Water; food
  3. d) A gold star; cupcake

Incorrect. A gold star is an example of a secondary reinforcer, whereas a cupcake is an example of a primary reinforcer.

ANS: a, p. 188, A, LO=5.5, (2)

% correct 68      a= 68  b= 14  c= 11  d= 8      r = .27

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. A ________ reinforcer, such as money or praise, gets its value through an association with a(n) ________ reinforcer.
  2. a) positive; negative

Incorrect. Both positive and negative reinforcers can be primary or secondary. This is not the best answer.

  1. b) primary; secondary
  2. c) natural; artificial
  3. d) secondary; primary

Correct. Secondary reinforcers get their value through an association with a primary reinforcer that satisfies a biological need.

ANS: d, p. 188, C, LO=5.5 (2)

APA=1.1

 

  1. Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer?
  2. a) water
  3. b) food
  4. c) shelter

Incorrect. A gold star is a secondary reinforcer because it is learned to be reinforcing. Shelter meets a basic biological need for comfort and, therefore, is a primary reinforcer.

  1. d) a gold star

Correct. A gold star is a secondary reinforcer because it has no intrinsic biological value.

ANS: d, p. 188, A, LO=5.5, (1)

% correct 95      a= 2  b=2   c= 1  d= 95      r = .31

APA=1.1

 

  1. Under what circumstances will a reinforcer make the target response more likely to occur again?
  2. a) if it is a primary reinforcer
  3. b) if it is a positive reinforcer

Incorrect. Any reinforcer makes the target response more likely to occur again regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer.

  1. c) if it is a negative reinforcer
  2. d) regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer, a reinforcer makes a response more likely to occur

Correct. Any reinforcer makes the target response more likely to occur again regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer.

ANS: d, p. 189, F, LO=5.5, (3)

% correct 50      a= 0  b= 47  c= 3  d= 50      r = .18

APA=1.1

 

  1. A grandmother gives her grandchild a cookie because the child cleaned her room. What is the cookie in this example?
  2. a) punisher
  3. b) positive reinforcer

Correct. The cookie is a positive reinforcer because it increases the probability that the child will clean her room.

  1. c) negative reinforcer
  2. d) conditioned response

Incorrect. A conditioned response is an involuntary behavior in response to a conditioned stimulus.

ANS: b, p. 189, A, LO=5.5, (1)

% correct 100     a= 0  b= 100  c= 0  d= 0      r = .00

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Positive reinforcement is to _______ as negative reinforcement is to _______.
  2. a) good outcomes; bad outcomes
  3. b) increasing reinforcement; decreasing reinforcement

Incorrect. Reinforcement attempts to increase behavior, while punishment attempts to decrease a behavior.

  1. c) rewarding behavior; punishing behavior
  2. d) presenting good results; removing aversive stimuli

Correct. A positive operant outcome occurs when a person is given something, and a negative outcome occurs when a person has to be removed from them.

ANS: d, p. 189, C, LO=5.5, (2)               

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. A negative reinforcer is a stimulus that is ________ and, thus ________ the probability of a response.
  2. a) removed; increases

Correct. Negative reinforcement entails removing a noxious stimulus to get the subject to learn to do a behavior.

  1. b) removed; decreases
  2. c) presented; increases
  3. d) presented; decreases

Incorrect. A negative reinforcer is one that is already present and then is removed in order to increase the probability of a response. A stimulus whose presentation decreases the probability of a response would be an example of positive punishment.

ANS: a, p. 189, F, LO=5.5, (2)   

% correct 76      a= 76  b= 4  c= 6  d= 12      r = .46

APA=1.1

 

  1. Bill hates to clean up after dinner. One night, he volunteers to bathe the dog before cleaning up. When he finishes with the dog and returns to the kitchen, his wife has cleaned everything up for him. Which of the following statements is most likely true?
  2. a) Bill will start cleaning up the kitchen before he bathes the dog.
  3. b) Bill’s wife has positively reinforced him for bathing the dog.

Incorrect. Positive reinforcement would occur if Bill’s wife gave him something to reward him for bathing the dog, but in this case she removed something unpleasant—his having to do the dishes.

  1. c) Bill’s wife has negatively reinforced him for bathing the dog.

Correct. Bill’s wife negatively reinforced him for bathing the dog by removing something unpleasant—the task of cleaning up the kitchen.

  1. d) Bill will never bathe the dog again.

ANS: c, p. 189, A, LO=5.5, (3)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. When Joe thinks about his sorely missed girlfriend, he drinks alcohol, which helps dull his feelings. This best illustrates:
  2. a) positive reinforcement.

Incorrect. Nothing is being given to Joe in this example, so it could not be a positive operant outcome.

  1. b) negative reinforcement.

Correct. Drinking the alcohol “takes away” Joe’s pain, so he is more likely to drink when he thinks about his girlfriend in the future. This demonstrates negative reinforcement.

  1. c) positive punishment.
  2. d) negative punishment.

ANS: b, p. 189, A, LO=5.5, (2)               

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Fred is afraid of spiders. He won’t even watch a nature show on TV about them. When he sees a picture of a spider, he has a panic attack, but when he avoids looking at the image, his panic goes away. Fred’s avoidance of spiders is being ________.
  2. a) extinguished, because he feels anxious after doing so
  3. b) recovered spontaneously, because he will never get better
  4. c) positively reinforced, because he is rewarded by his anxiety going down

Incorrect. Positive reinforcement occurs when someone gets something positive as a reward for certain behavior. In this case, Fred is not getting anything, rather he is having his anxiety removed by his avoidance of spiders.

  1. d) negatively reinforced, because he is rewarded by his anxiety going down

Correct. The termination of a stimulus, in this case panic, is negative reinforcement.

ANS: d, p. 189, A, LO=5.5, (2)

% correct 83      a= 0  b= 3  c= 14  d= 83      r = .48

% correct 78      a= 0  b= 0  c= 22  d= 78      r = .57

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. A reinforcer is a consequence that ________ a behavior, while a punisher is a consequence that ________ a behavior.
  2. a) motivates; stimulates
  3. b) weakens; strengthens

Incorrect. A reinforcer strengthens a behavior, while a punisher weakens a behavior.

  1. c) inhibits; motivates
  2. d) strengthens; weakens

Correct. A reinforcer strengthens a behavior, while a punisher weakens a behavior.

ANS: d, pp. 189 & 194, C, LO=5.5 & 5.7(3)

APA=1.1

 

  1. Mark and Kathy take their 2-year-old son to the supermarket every Saturday. Each week, the same sequence of events unfolds: Their son screams, demanding that they buy him treats. Although they refuse to give in to his demands, he continues to scream. Finally, either Mark or Kathy gets in their son’s face and yells at the top of their lungs “Shut up!” He stops screaming instantly. What operant conditioning concepts are illustrated in this story?
  2. a) The parents are using negative reinforcement to increase their son’s screaming.

Incorrect. The parents are not attempting to increase their son’s screaming, but rather to make it stop.

  1. b) The parents are in a very dysfunctional marriage; their child’s screaming is his way of trying to get his parents to remain married.
  2. c) The parents are using punishment to suppress the screaming; their use of punishment is negatively reinforced by the cessation of screaming.

Correct. The parents are using punishment, and they are negatively reinforced as cessation of screaming is a classic negative reinforcer.

  1. d) Their son probably learned how to scream by observing his parents at home, and now he is reinforced on a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement.

ANS: c, pp. 189 & 194, A, LO=5.5 & 5.7, (3)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

Learning Objective 5.6 – What are the schedules of reinforcement?

 

  1. What kind of reinforcement is used if Sally’s parents give her $10 every time she accumulates six A’s on her tests?
  2. a) gradual reinforcement

Incorrect. Gradual reinforcement is not a term used in the conditioning paradigm.

  1. b) sporadic reinforcement
  2. c) continuous reinforcement
  3. d) partial reinforcement

Correct. Sally is on a partial reinforcement schedule because she is not reinforced for every behavior; she is reinforced only after a certain number of behaviors.

ANS: d, p. 191, A, LO=5.6, (3)

% correct 46      a= 4  b= 4  c= 47  d= 46      r = .40

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. You walk up to a soda machine and put in a dollar, and are rewarded with a bottle of root beer. When you put in another dollar, you get another soda. Assuming that the machine has a limitless supply of root beer, which kind of reinforcement schedule does this machine operate on?
  2. a) partial reinforcement

Incorrect. Partial reinforcement occurs when the reinforcement is received after some, but not all, responses.

  1. b) interval reinforcement
  2. c) continuous reinforcement

Correct. Each and every response is followed by a reinforcer.

  1. d) ratio reinforcement

ANS: c, p. 191, A, LO=5.6 (1)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true about operant conditioning?
  2. a) Neither partial nor continuous reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist for long periods of time.
  3. b) Continuous reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through partial or intermittent reinforcement.

Incorrect. Continuous reinforcement leads to very quick extinction as the animal or subject quickly learns the conditioning contingency is no longer operative. Extinction is delayed by partial reinforcement.

  1. c) Partial reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through continuous reinforcement.

Correct. Partial reinforcement leads to behaviors that persist longer as the subject keeps looking for eventual reinforcement.

  1. d) Continuous reinforcement and partial reinforcement lead to behaviors that persist for equally long periods of time.

ANS: c, p. 191, C, LO=5.6, (3)

% correct 35      a= 1  b= 57  c= 35  d= 6      r = .36

APA=1.1

 

  1. The partial reinforcement effect refers to the fact that a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses ________.
  2. a) will be more resistant to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response)

Correct. The response will be more resistant to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response).

  1. b) will be less resistant to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response)

Incorrect. The response will be more resistant to extinction than when a reinforcer is given for each and every correct response as in a continuous schedule. The variable schedules teach the animal or subject to persevere at the behavior in order to get a reward.

  1. c) will be more variable in its resistance to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response)
  2. d) will be totally resistant to extinction, unlike a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response)

ANS: a, p. 191, F, LO=5.6, (2)

% correct 76      a= 76  b=22   c= 0  d= 2      r = .30

APA=1.1

 

  1. When the number of responses is important to a schedule of reinforcement, that schedule is called a ________ schedule.
  2. a) ratio

Correct. Ratio schedules’ reinforcement is based on the number of responses made by a subject.

  1. b) interval

Incorrect. Interval schedules are based on the time between responses. Ratio schedules’ reinforcement is based on the number of responses made by a subject.

  1. c) conditioned
  2. d) time-delayed

ANS: a, p. 191, F, LO=5.6, (2)

% correct 79      a= 79  b= 15  c= 4  d= 3      r = .39

% correct 75      a= 75  b= 21  c= 3  d= 2      r = .39

APA=1.1

 

  1. A monthly paycheck best represents a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
  2. a) fixed interval

Correct. In this case, the reinforcement is received after a specific amount of time has passed. This demonstrates a fixed interval schedule of partial reinforcement.

  1. b) variable interval

Incorrect. If the paycheck were received after a changing amount of time, this would demonstrate a variable interval schedule of reinforcement.

  1. c) fixed ratio
  2. d) variable ratio

ANS: a, p. 191, A, LO=5.6, (2)               

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Reinforcement that is given for a response emitted after each hour and half (e.g., 10 a.m., 11:30 a.m., 1 p.m.) in time is most likely to be a ________ schedule.
  2. a) variable ratio
  3. b) variable interval

Incorrect. If the reinforcement were received after a changing amount of time, this would demonstrate a variable interval schedule of reinforcement.

  1. c) fixed interval

Correct. In this case, the reinforcement is received after a specific amount of time has passed. This demonstrates a fixed interval schedule of partial reinforcement.

  1. d) fixed ratio

ANS: c, p. 191, A, LO=5.6, (2)

APA=1.1

             

  1. Unlike other schedules of reinforcement, ________ results in a “scalloped” pattern of responses on a cumulative frequency graph.
  2. a) fixed ratio

Incorrect. A fixed ratio schedule will produce rather consistent patterns of responding.

  1. b) fixed interval

Correct. A fixed interval schedule of reinforcement will produce this sort of response pattern.

  1. c) variable interval
  2. d) variable ratio

ANS: b, p. 192, F, LO=5.6, (1)               

APA=1.1

 

  1. Catching fish when fishing in a lake would most likely represent which of the following schedules of reinforcement?
  2. a) variable interval

Correct. Because you never know how long you’ll have to sit with your line in the water before you get a fish, this demonstrates variable interval reinforcement.

  1. b) fixed ratio
  2. c) fixed interval

Incorrect. If there were a way to guarantee that a fish would bite on your line after a specific amount of time had passed, this would demonstrate a fixed interval reinforcement.

  1. d) interval ratio

ANS: a, p. 192, A, LO=5.6, (2)     

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Maricella works as a seamstress. Her boss tells her that every time she completes five shirts, she will receive $5. When done with the five shirts, she dumps them into a bin and gets paid. Her pattern of shirt completion is most likely to be ________.
  2. a) rapid shirt completion with a short break after each five completed

Correct. In a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement, the pattern is rapid response and short breaks after each reinforcement. In this case, the $5 represents the reinforcement.

  1. b) long pauses after she receives the $5

Incorrect. Her pattern of shirt completion is most likely to be rapid shirt completion with a short break after each five completed.

  1. c) a slow, steady rate of shirt-making without pauses
  2. d) a fast, steady rate of shirt-making without pauses

ANS: a, p. 193, A, LO=5.6, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Al must build 25 radios before he receives $20. What schedule of reinforcement is being used?
  2. a) a variable-ratio schedule
  3. b) a fixed-ratio schedule

Correct. A fixed-ratio schedule demands a set number of responses, in this case 25.

  1. c) a fixed-interval schedule

Incorrect. A fixed-interval schedule is based on the time between responses.

  1. d) a continuous schedule

ANS: b, p. 193, A, LO=5.6, (1)

% correct 86      a= 8  b= 86  c= 14  d= 1      r = .27

% correct 81      a= 0  b= 81  c= 19  d= 0      r = .38

% correct 88      a= 10  b= 88  c= 1  d= 0      r = .38

APA=1.1; 1.3

      

  1. Which schedule of reinforcement tends to get the highest response rate?
  2. a) fixed interval

Incorrect. This schedule tends to produce a “scalloped” response pattern.

  1. b) variable ratio
  2. c) variable interval
  3. d) fixed ratio

Correct. Because the person knows how many responses are required to earn a reward, this schedule produces the highest response rate.

ANS: d, p. 193, F, LO=5.6, (1)               

APA=1.1

 

  1. For every 5 times that you go to the gym each week, you reward yourself with a treat. This best illustrates which of the following schedules of reinforcement?
  2. a) fixed ratio

Correct. This example demonstrates reinforcement being given after a specific number of behaviors has occurred. This demonstrates fixed ratio reinforcement.

  1. b) variable ratio
  2. c) variable interval
  3. d) fixed interval

Incorrect. If you gave yourself the reward every seven days, irrespective of the number of times you went to the gym, this would demonstrate fixed interval reinforcement.

ANS: a, p. 193, A, LO=5.6, (2)               

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Getting paid for each basket of apples you gather represents which schedule of reinforcement?
  2. a) fixed interval

Incorrect. A fixed-interval schedule is based on the time between responses.

  1. b) fixed ratio

Correct. A fixed-ratio schedule demands a set number of responses before reinforcement is received.

  1. c) variable ratio
  2. d) variable interval

ANS: b, p. 193, A, LO=5.6, (1)               

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

Learning Objective 5.7 – What is punishment and how does it differ from reinforcement?

 

  1. Reinforcement is to punishment as:
  2. a) decrease is to increase.
  3. b) increase is to decrease.

Correct. Reinforcement attempts to increase behavior, while punishment attempts to decrease a behavior.

  1. c) positive is to negative.

Incorrect. A positive operant outcome occurs when a person is given something, and a negative outcome occurs when a person has to be removed from them.

  1. d) giving is to receiving.

ANS: b, p. 194, C, LO=5.7, (3)                

APA=1.1

 

  1. What has occurred when there is a decrease in the likelihood or rate of a target response?
  2. a) punishment

Correct. Punishment is defined as a stimulus that causes a decrease in the likelihood of a behavior.

  1. b) positive reinforcement
  2. c) negative reinforcement

Incorrect. Negative reinforcement increases the probability of a response.

  1. d) positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement

ANS: a, p. 194, F, LO=5.7, (1)

APA=1.1

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of punishment by removal?
  2. a) receiving harsh criticism for lying to your parents
  3. b) losing telephone privileges for breaking curfew

Correct. Having something taken away as a means of reducing the behavior is an example of punishment by removal.

  1. c) getting stung by a bee when walking barefoot outside and stepping on the bee
  2. d) getting pepper-sprayed for making a lewd comment to a stranger

Incorrect. This would be an example of positive punishment, because being sprayed in the face is being given something rather than having something taken away.

ANS: b, p. 195, A, LO=5.7, (2)               

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. A stimulus presented to a person or animal that decreases the probability of a particular response is known as ________.
  2. a) punishment by application

Correct. Punishment is defined as a stimulus that causes a decrease in the likelihood of a behavior, and punishment involving a stimulus that is presented or applied is punishment by application.

  1. b) punishment by removal
  2. c) negative reinforcement

Incorrect. Negative reinforcement, which is often mistaken for punishment, increases the probability of response by removing a noxious stimulus.

  1. d) negative expectation

ANS: a, p. 195, F, LO=5.7, (3)

% correct 32      a= 32  b= 18  c= 46  d= 4      r = .26

APA=1.1

 

  1. When a stimulus is removed from a person or animal resulting in a decrease in the probability of response, it is known as ________.
  2. a) punishment by application
  3. b) punishment by removal

Correct. A decrease in response is accomplished by punishment, and when that punishment involves the removal of some stimulus, it is punishment by removal.

  1. c) negative reinforcement

Incorrect.  Although the term “negative” implies removal, reinforcement always increases the probability of a response.

  1. d) punishing reinforcement

ANS: b, p. 195, F, LO=5.7, (2)

APA=1.1

 

Learning Objective 5.8 – What are some of the problems with using punishment?

  1. A child is punished and temporarily stops his or her well-established bad behavior. However, the child soon goes back to acting badly. This is probably because ________.
  2. a) the effects of punishment have habituated
  3. b) punishment is known only to temporarily suppress or inhibit a behavior

Correct. Punishment seems to have temporary effects and, thus, is not recommended as the only method of behavior change.

  1. c) the bad behavior has spontaneously recovered

Incorrect. Punishment is known only to temporarily suppress or inhibit a behavior. Spontaneous recovery refers to an extinguished response that recovers strength. That is not the case here. We are dealing with punishment and not extinction. They are different effects.

  1. d) the conditional emotional response to the punishment has generalized to another behavior

ANS: b, p. 197, A, LO=5.8, (1)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Why does fear caused by punishment make the punishment ineffective in changing behavior?
  2. a) Fear leads the child to forget the behavior that was punished.
  3. b) Fear produces resentment that makes the child rebellious and disobedient.

Incorrect. Although fear may produce resentment, the more immediate reason why fear makes punishment ineffective is that it interferes with the child’s ability to learn from the punishment.

  1. c) Fear interferes with the child’s ability to learn from the punishment.

Correct. Fear interferes with the child’s ability to learn from the punishment due to the emotions and unpleasant sensations generated by the punishment.

  1. d) The use of punishment negates the possibility of using reinforcement in similar situations in the future.

ANS: c, p. 197, C, LO=5.8, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following criteria helps to increase the effectiveness of punishment?
  2. a) when it immediately follows the undesirable behavior

Correct. As your authors point out, making the punishment occur quickly after the undesirable behavior increases the effectiveness of the punishment.

  1. b) when it is inconsistent

Incorrect. As your authors point out, consistent punishment is effective punishment.

  1. c) when it is given with classical conditioning
  2. d) when it is vicarious

ANS: a, p. 198, C, LO=5.8, (2)               

APA=1.1

 

  1. Olivia is punished for spilling her cereal. Her parents give her a spanking and send her to her room where she cries. Later, her puppy makes a mess on the floor. Olivia kicks her puppy and puts it out in the yard where it whines sadly. Which of the following statements explains her behavior toward the puppy?
  2. a) Olivia is correctly applying Skinnerian principles of negative reinforcement to change her dog’s behavior.

Incorrect. Olivia’s punishment led her to be aggressive. In any case, kicking the dog outside is punishment and not negative reinforcement.

  1. b) Olivia is using negative punishment on her dog and it will change the dog’s behavior.
  2. c) Olivia is modeling the aggressive behavior her parents demonstrated to her.

Correct. Olivia is modeling the aggressive behavior and that is a problem with punishment.

  1. d) Olivia’s parents probably think that the best way to raise kids is “spare the rod, spoil the child.”

ANS: c, p. 198, A, LO=5.8, (1)

% correct 94      a= 1  b= 5  c= 94  d= 0      r = .21

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. An expert on parenting is addressing parents at the local grade school. When the topic of punishment is discussed, what is one outcome of punishment the expert is likely to note for the parents to consider?
  2. a) Punishment can also lead to the child acting aggressively.

Correct. Punishment can also lead to the child acting aggressively.

  1. b) Punished children tend to do really well in school.
  2. c) Punishment motivates the child to focus on schoolwork.
  3. d) Punishment tends to increase the number of nightmares experienced.

Incorrect. This answer might make sense, but increased nightmares haven’t been reported. Aggression has.

ANS: a, p. 198, A, LO=5.8, (1)

% correct 93      a= 93  b= 0  c= 7  d= 0      r = .23

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Which strategy will NOT increase the effects of punishment?
  2. a) making the punishment occur only on a partial, sporadic schedule

Correct. Making the punishment only occur on a partial, sporadic schedule will not increase its effects.

  1. b) making the punishment consistent
  2. c) pairing punishment of the wrong behavior with reinforcement of the correct behavior

Incorrect. This pairing will increase the efficacy of punishment.

  1. d) having the punishment immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish

ANS: a, p. 198, C, LO=5.8, (1)

% correct 89      a= 89  b= 1  c= 9  d= 1      r = .21

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. For years, parents have wondered whether physical discipline of their children (spanking, for example) was an effective and acceptable practice. What findings from many research studies have promoted the idea that spanking a child may be a bad idea?
  2. a) Children who were spanked at the age of 5 were more likely to show symptoms of depression at the age

of 10.

  1. b) Spanking showed far more negative long-term effects when used on daughters as opposed to sons.

Incorrect. The research cited in the textbook does not distinguish between the effects of using physical punishment on boys and girls.

  1. c) Girls who were spanked as a form of punishment in toddlerhood were more likely to experience a premature entry into puberty.
  2. d) Children who were spanked at the age of 3 showed more aggressive tendencies by the age of 5.

Correct. These findings have suggested that physical discipline may have the unintended outcome of teaching aggression and/or violence.

ANS: d, p. 198, F, LO=5.8, (2)

APA=1.3

 

  1. How did the research of Taylor, Manganello, Lee, and Rice (2010) differ substantially from those who had come before in the exploration of the impact of spanking on children?
  2. a) This research examined only boys who were spanked as children.
  3. b) This research controlled for other maternal risk factors, such as neglect and drug use.

Correct. By controlling for other maternal risk factors, this research painted a clearer picture of the direct relationship between spanking and the emergency of childhood aggressive tendencies.

  1. c) This research examined only girls who were spanked as children.

Incorrect. The research noted in this question did not distinguish between boys and girls.

  1. d) This research examined only occasions where children were spanked by their fathers, and not by their mothers.

ANS: b, p. 198, F, LO=5.8, (2)

APA=1.3, 2.4

 

Learning Objective 5.9 – How do operant stimuli control behavior, and what are some other concepts that can enhance or limit operant conditioning?

 

  1. A discriminative stimulus is typically viewed as ________.
  2. a) something negative

Incorrect. This is incorrect because a discriminative stimulus can be used to cue a reinforcement or a punishment.

  1. b) a cue

Correct. A discriminative stimulus can help a person or animal distinguish which behaviors would elicit reinforcements and which behaviors would elicit punishments. In other words, they are there to queue specific behaviors.

  1. c) promoting punishment
  2. d) a warning

ANS: b, p. 199, C, LO=5.9, (2)               

APA=1.1

 

  1. Professor Rochelle told her students that if her door was closed it meant that she was unavailable to them and would be angry if they knocked on her door. But if her door was open, it meant that she was in a rare good mood and would answer questions at that time. Professor Rochelle’s door being open was a ___________ for _______________.
  2. a) discriminative stimulus; asking questions

Correct. Professor Rochelle’s door being open was a discriminative stimulus for asking questions because it let students know what response to make—flee from her wrath or ask her a question.

  1. b) discriminative stimulus; not asking questions
  2. c) discriminative response; asking questions

Incorrect. Professor Rochelle’s door being open was a discriminative stimulus and not a discriminative response.

  1. d) discriminative response; not asking questions

ANS: a, p. 199, A, LO=5.9, (2)

% correct 75      a= 75  b= 5  c= 18  d= 2      r = .20

% correct 74      a= 74  b= 0  c= 21  d= 8      r = .28

APA=1.3

 

  1. A discriminative stimulus is a stimulus that ________.
  2. a) provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement

Correct. A discriminative stimulus lets one know whether a particular stimulus will lead to reinforcement.

  1. b) leads a person to discriminate against one group of people based on ethnicity or race
  2. c) cues the person into which schedule of reinforcement is being used in operant conditioning

Incorrect. A discriminative stimulus is not a cue for a reinforcement schedule.

  1. d) Watson used to make Little Albert scared of all fuzzy things

ANS: a, p. 199, F, LO=5.9, (2)

APA=1.1

 

  1. An example of a discriminative stimulus might be ________.
  2. a) a stop sign

Correct. A stop sign is a discriminative stimulus because one has to determine the different response that a stop sign should elicit when compared to all other signs.

  1. b) the stimulus that acts as a UCS in classical conditioning
  2. c) the white rat in Watson’s Little Albert study of producing phobias

Incorrect. The rat did not have to be picked from a set of other stimuli and, thus, was not a discriminative stimulus. A stop sign is a discriminative stimulus because one has to decide what to do from all the other signs.

  1. d) a knee jerk

ANS: a, p. 199, A, LO=5.9, (1)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Mary’s parents want her to put her books in her bookcase. At first, they praise her for putting the books together in one pile. Then they praise her for getting the books on the same side of the room as the bookcase. When she gets the books on top of the bookcase, she gets praise. Finally, her parents praise her when she puts her books in the bookcase. This is an example of ________.
  2. a) negative reinforcement

Incorrect. Negative reinforcement involves terminating an unpleasant stimulus.

  1. b) punishment
  2. c) extinction
  3. d) shaping

Correct. Mary is given praise for every step that gets her closer to the desired behavior, a process called shaping.

ANS: d, p. 199, A, LO=5.9, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. ________ is an operant-conditioning procedure in which successive approximations of a desired response are reinforced.
  2. a) Shaping

Correct. Shaping uses approximations of a response to generate a complex behavior.

  1. b) Spontaneous recovery
  2. c) Stimulus generalization

Incorrect. Stimulus generalization refers to a subject’s responding to stimuli that are similar to the original UCS.

  1. d) Stimulus discrimination

ANS: a, p. 199, F, LO=5.9, (2)

% correct 88      a= 88  b= 2  c= 9  d= 1      r = .56

% correct 71      a= 71  b= 10  c= 6  d= 13      r = .46

APA=1.1

 

  1. In the process of shaping, behaviors are ordered in terms of increasing similarity to the desired response. These behaviors are called ________.
  2. a) primary reinforcers
  3. b) successive approximations

Correct. These behaviors are called successive approximations.

  1. c) secondary reinforcers

Incorrect. Secondary reinforcers are previously neutral stimuli that have acquired reinforcing qualities by being paired with primary reinforcers.

  1. d) unconditioned stimuli

ANS: b, p. 200, F, LO=5.9, (3)

% correct 53      a=30  b= 53  c= 11  d= 6      r = .46

% correct 92      a= 3  b= 92  c= 2  d= 2      r = .41

APA=1.1

 

  1. Bob has learned that he can usually get what he wants from his parents if he keeps whining for something. One day Bob starts whining in the toy store because he wants a GI Joe action figure. His father refuses to give it to him and ignores his whining. What will happen?
  2. a) generalization
  3. b) extinction

Correct. The whining will extinguish because the behavior is not being reinforced.

  1. c) spontaneous recovery

Incorrect. The behavior will extinguish. It might show spontaneous recovery later after Bob’s father extinguishes his behavior, but the initial situation as presented will lead to extinction.

  1. d) discrimination

ANS: b, p. 200, A, LO=5.9, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. The first time José sees a cat, his mother tells him, “That’s a cat. Can you say cat?” He repeats the word gleefully, and his mother praises him. The next day, he is watching a cartoon and sees a tiger on the television. He points at the tiger and says, “Cat!” This is an example of ________.
  2. a) generalization

Correct. This is an example of generalization, the process in which the same reinforced response is evoked by similar stimuli.

  1. b) spreading activation
  2. c) categorization
  3. d) discrimination

Incorrect. Discrimination occurs when subjects are trained not to respond to similar stimuli.

ANS: a, p. 200, A, LO=5.9, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. When Keller and Marian Breland, two psychologists who became animal trainers, decided that it would be cute to have a pig drop a big wooden coin into a box, they found that _______________.
  2. a) food was not an effective reinforcer for the pig and so learning didn’t occur
  3. b) when given edible roots as reinforcers, the pig learned the task in less than ten trials
  4. c) the pig displayed instinctive drift by dropping the coin and pushing it around with its nose

Correct. Despite Skinner’s views, the pig had some built-in behaviors that came to the fore—the principle of instinctive drift.

  1. d) the pig showed intrinsic interest in the task and so reinforcement was unnecessary

Incorrect. Reinforcement was necessary.

ANS: c, p. 201, F, LO=5.9, (2)

APA=1.2

 

  1. A behavioral psychologist tries to train a bird to climb a tree to get a reward of a piece of fruit. At first, the bird learns how to climb the tree with its legs and beak. After a while, it starts flapping its wings and hopping around before it starts to climb. Eventually, the bird flies up to the piece of fruit, even though that prevents it from getting the fruit. According to the Brelands’ analysis of biological constraints, the bird is demonstrating ________.
  2. a) response generalization
  3. b) that it was reverting to behavior that was instinctual for it

Correct. The Brelands discovered that animals revert to instinctual behavior in gathering food, a phenomenon they called instinctive drift.

  1. c) the power of negative reinforcement
  2. d) the Law of Effect

Incorrect. The Law of Effect was proposed by Thorndike; since the bird isn’t getting the fruit, that principle is not applicable here.

ANS: b, p. 201, A, LO=5.9, (3)

APA=1.2, 1.3

 

Learning Objective 5.10 – What is behavior modification, and how can behavioral techniques be used to modify involuntary biological responses?

  1. Which of the following statements is true about behavior modification?
  2. a) It involves the process of shaping.

Correct. Behavior modification involves the process of shaping to encourage slow change in behavior for the desired therapeutic result.

  1. b) It is useful only for teaching autistic children.
  2. c) It is different from behavior modification.
  3. d) It cannot be used with animals.

Incorrect. There are animal trainers who use principles quite similar to shaping.

ANS: a, p. 201, F, LO=5.10, (1)

% correct 98      a= 98  b= 1  c= 1  d= 0      r = .21

% correct 97      a= 97  b= 3  c= 1  d= 0      r = .23

APA=1.1

 

  1. A school issues tokens to the children for good behavior. This issue of a token is an example of ________.
  2. a) classical conditioning
  3. b) instinctive drift
  4. c) primary reinforcement

Incorrect. Primary reinforcement satisfies a basic need, such as hunger, which is not the case here; the token is a secondary reinforcer.

  1. d) behavior modification

Correct. Behavior modification is the use of operant conditioning to bring about desired behavior, which is exactly what the school is trying to do.

ANS: d, p. 202, A, LO=5.10, (1)

% correct 86      a= 8  b= 7  c= 0  d= 86.      r = .24

APA=1.1

 

  1. In order to get her 3rd grade students to memorize the poem written on the chalkboard, Mrs. Thyberg gives the students stickers for each poem they can recite from memory. After earning 5 stickers, a student gets to pick a prize out of the goody box. Mrs. Thyberg is using a(n) ________ to modify the children’s behaviors.
  2. a) token economy

Correct. The teacher is using tokens as rewards for desired behaviors.

  1. b) applied behavior analysis
  2. c) negative reinforcement

Incorrect. The students are being reinforced for their behaviors, but the reinforcement is positive, not negative.

  1. d) classical conditioning technique

ANS: a, p. 202, A, LO=5.10 (3)

% correct 72      a= 72  b= 8  c= 7  d= 12      r = .43

% correct 55      a= 55  b= 13  c= 6  d= 26      r = .51

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Ellen, an adult who has an intellectual disability, has just received a “token.” Based on this information, it is most reasonable to assume that Ellen ________.
  2. a) just received praise from a co-worker or family member
  3. b) literally has received a token that can be traded for some good or privilege

Correct. Token economies exchange tokens for desirable behaviors.

  1. c) is homeless, has been begging for money, and received a special coin to use
  2. d) has successfully just completed a therapy program

Incorrect. This is not an appropriate example to demonstrate the token economy system of behavior modification.

ANS: b, p. 202, A, LO=5.10, (2)    

APA=1.1; 1.3          

 

  1. Molly is sometimes loud and disruptive in class, and her teacher thinks she acts this way when she wants attention. The teacher worries that yelling at Molly might serve as a positive reinforcer for her bad behavior because it is giving Molly the attention she wants. One behavior modification that might help with this child is ________.
  2. a) use of partial reinforcement
  3. b) use of classical conditioning by shocking the child so that she stops speaking out

Incorrect. Punishment by shocking will lead to all the problems associated with the use of severe punishment.

  1. c) use of instinctive drift therapy
  2. d) use of time-outs to remove the positive reinforcement that even a scolding gives the child

Correct. Time-outs would isolate Molly, giving her the exact opposite of what she wants, and would remove the positive reinforcement that a scolding gives her.

ANS: d, p. 202, A, LO=5.10, (1)

% correct 86      a= 7  b= 5  c= 19  d= 86      r = .48

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has been used to help children with autism. The basic principle of this form of behavior modification is ________.
  2. a) partial reinforcement

Incorrect. The basic principle is shaping because you need to slowly change the behavior of such children as they are not capable of more extensive behavioral changes.

  1. b) classical conditioning
  2. c) negative punishment
  3. d) shaping

Correct. The basic principle is shaping because you need small changes that are within the child’s capacity to implement.

ANS: d, p. 203, C, LO=5.10, (3)  

APA=1.3

 

  1. An operant conditioning technique in which a learner gains conscious control over his or her own biological response is ________.
  2. a) biofeedback

Correct. Biofeedback is an operant conditioning technique that allows someone to control his or her own biological response.

  1. b) contingency training

Incorrect. Contingency training is too generic a term. The more specific term is biofeedback as it refers to control of a biological response.

  1. c) cellular training
  2. d) social learning

ANS: a, p. 203, F, LO=5.10, (1)

APA=1.3

 

  1. A key element in the use of biofeedback is teaching a person to induce a state of ________ to help gain control over biological functions.
  2. a) sleep
  3. b) anxiety
  4. c) relaxation

Correct. Inducing a state of relaxation is a key in the process of biofeedback.

  1. d) heightened awareness

Incorrect. While becoming more aware of the body’s processes is the goal of biofeedback, this is achieved first by gaining a heightened state of relaxation.

ANS: c, p. 203, C, LO=5.10 (2)

APA=1.3

 

  1. Which of the following would be most appropriate for the use of biofeedback procedures?
  2. a) conditioning coyotes to stay away from sheep
  3. b) conditioning delinquents to be less aggressive
  4. c) conditioning children to be on time for school

Incorrect. Getting to school on time is a voluntary response, whereas biofeedback techniques involve involuntary, biological responses.

  1. d) conditioning executives to reduce their blood pressure

Correct. Conditioning executives to reduce their blood pressure would be an appropriate use of biofeedback because they are trying to control a biological process that normally isn’t under voluntary control.

ANS: d, p. 203, A, LO=5.10, (2)

APA=1.3

 

  1. Neurofeedback, a newer type of biofeedback, involves trying to change ________.
  2. a) brain wave activity

Correct. Neurofeedback attempts to change brain wave activity.

  1. b) blood pressure
  2. c) heart rate

Incorrect. Neurofeedback does not involve monitoring the heart rate; rather, it focuses on neural activity such as brain wave alteration. Cardiac changes would be typical of biofeedback.

  1. d) body temperature

ANS: a, p. 203, F, LO=5.10, (1)

APA=1.3

 

  1. A person is connected to an electroencephalograph, a machine that records the brain’s electrical activity. The person is reinforced when his or her pattern of brain waves changes in order to treat a disorder such as epilepsy. This technique is best called _________.
  2. a) biofeedback

Incorrect. Biofeedback usually is reserved for conditioning systems other than the nervous system.

  1. b) behavior modification
  2. c) operant conditioning
  3. d) neurofeedback

Correct. Neurofeedback involves monitoring brain waves.

ANS: d, p. 203, A, LO=5.10, (2)

APA=1.3

 

  1. Which of the following types of brain imaging techniques does your textbook note can be used for neurofeedback data collection?
  2. a) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Correct. This neuroimaging technique has been useful in gathering data from neurofeedback procedures.

  1. b) positron emission tomography (PET)
  2. c) computed axial tomography (CAT)
  3. d) electromyography (EMG)

Incorrect. This is the study of the electrical activity of different muscles.

ANS: a, p. 203, F, LO=5.10, (3)

APA=1.3

 

  1. In order to treat a child’s attention problems in a classroom, a technique that uses the EEG and video game-style technology called ________ has been employed.
  2. a) neurogenetics
  3. b) neurofeedback

Correct. Neurofeedback uses techniques that resemble video games to help change brain wave activities.

  1. c) biofeedback

Incorrect. Neurofeedback uses techniques that resemble video games to help change brain wave activities.

  1. d) videographics

ANS: b, p. 203, A, LO=5.10 (2)

APA=1.3

 

Cognitive Learning Theory

Learning Objective 5.11 – How do latent learning, insight, and learned helplessness relate to cognitive learning theory?

  1. The concept of latent learning was developed by ________.
  2. a) Watson

Incorrect. Watson would have been opposed to studying latent learning because he focused only on observable behaviors.

  1. b) Skinner
  2. c) Thorndike
  3. d) Tolman

Correct. Tolman, in contrast to the behaviorists of his time, thought that latent learning was important and demonstrated the role of cognition in learning.

ANS: d, p. 205, F, LO=5.11, (3)

% correct 50      a= 12  b= 21  c= 17  d= 50      r = .21

APA=1.2

 

  1. Learning that occurs but is not immediately reflected in a behavior change is called ________.
  2. a) insight

Incorrect. Insight refers to a sudden realization of a solution in a problem-solving situation.

  1. b) innate learning
  2. c) vicarious learning
  3. d) latent learning

Correct. Since the learning was not observable, it was deemed to be latent.

ANS: d, p. 206, F, LO=5.11, (1)

APA=1.1

 

  1. The idea that learning occurs and is stored up, even when behaviors are not reinforced, is called ________.
  2. a) insight
  3. b) latent learning

Correct. Since the learning was not observable, it was deemed to be latent.

  1. c) placebo learning
  2. d) innate learning

Incorrect. Innate learning would imply a genetically-based process. Latent learning referred to the animal not making a response to a situation but demonstrating that it had retained information about that situation.

ANS: b, p. 206, F, LO=5.11, (1)

% correct 65      a= 5  b= 65  c= 4  d= 26      r = .53

APA=1.1

 

  1. Who is best known for studying the phenomenon of insight in animals?
  2. a) Köhler

Correct. Köhler is best known for studying insight in animals.

  1. b) Tolman

Incorrect. Tolman’s work focused on latent learning.

  1. c) Seligman
  2. d) Skinner

ANS: a, p. 207, F, LO=5.11, (3)

% correct 27      a= 27  b= 23  c= 13  d= 38      r = .27

APA=1.2

 

  1. You spend days wandering aimlessly around a park with many different paths that end at different parts of the park. One day when you arrive at the park, you get a call on your cell phone from your cousin whom you haven’t seen for years, and she says she is waiting for you in a particular section of the park. Even though the paths are complicated and twisted, you manage to find the shortest route to your cousin. Tolman would explain your efficient passage through the park as an example of ________.
  2. a) spontaneous recovery
  3. b) insight

Incorrect. Tolman postulated that such an example would be due to the formation of a cognitive map. Cognitive maps were his explanation of latent learning effects.

  1. c) formation of a cognitive map

Correct. Tolman postulated the concept of the cognitive map, which was in marked contrast to the behaviorist views of the time.

  1. d) unconscious trial-and-error imagery

ANS: c, p. 206, A, LO=5.11, (3)

APA=1.2, 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following is true of research on insight?
  2. a) Researchers have found that only human beings are capable of insight learning.

Incorrect. Insight was first studied with chimps.

  1. b) Researchers have found support for the existence of both human and animal insight learning.

Correct. Humans and apes are capable of insight learning. We are very similar genetically and have a common evolutionary ancestor.

  1. c) Researchers have found that apes are capable of insight only after being taught this by humans.
  2. d) Researchers have proven that all creatures, even one-celled organisms such as the amoeba, are capable of insight learning.

ANS: b, p. 207, F, LO=5.11, (2)

APA=1.1

 

  1. The “aha!” experience is known as ________.
  2. a) latent learning

Incorrect. The “aha!” experience is known as insight learning. Latent learning was an effect studied by Tolman.

  1. b) insight learning

Correct. The “aha!” experience is known as insight learning.

  1. c) thoughtful learning
  2. d) serial enumeration

ANS: b, p. 207, F, LO=5.11, (2)

% correct 74      a= 20  b= 74  c= 4  d= 2      r = .40

APA=1.1

 

  1. You need to remove a broken light bulb from a lamp. Without a pair of gloves, you are likely to cut yourself on the jagged glass. Suddenly, it occurs to you that you can use a cut potato to remove the light bulb from the socket. You have just demonstrated ________.
  2. a) generalization
  3. b) discrimination
  4. c) latent learning

Incorrect. The “aha!” experience or sudden realization is known as insight learning. Latent learning was an effect studied by Tolman.

  1. d) insight learning

Correct. You have just demonstrated insight learning similar to Kohler’s chimps.

ANS: d, p. 207, A, LO=5.11, (2)

% correct 61      a= 4  b= 0  c= 34  d= 61      r = .38

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. John has been working on a math problem late at night without success; he falls asleep. Upon awakening, John suddenly realizes how to answer the problem. This best illustrates which of the following?
  2. a) observational learning
  3. b) latent learning

Incorrect. Latent learning demonstrates the ability to acquire information without demonstrating an immediate behavioral response. It is not relevant to this question.

  1. c) insight learning

Correct. The “aha” moment when an answer suddenly hits you is called insight learning.

  1. d) cognitive learning

ANS: c, p. 207, A, LO=5.11, (2)               

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. The person most closely associated with research on learned helplessness is ________.
  2. a) Thorndike
  3. b) Wolpe
  4. c) Seligman

Correct. Seligman was the discoverer of the important phenomena of learned helplessness.

  1. d) Bandura

Incorrect. Bandura was most concerned with observational learning.

ANS: c, p. 207, F, LO=5.11, (3)

% correct 25      a= 33  b=2 1  c= 25  d= 21      r = .19

APA=1.2

 

  1. A researcher places dogs in a cage with metal bars on the floor. The dogs are randomly given electric shocks and can do nothing to prevent them or stop them. Later, the same dogs are placed in a cage where they can escape the shocks by jumping over a low hurdle. When the shocks are given, the dogs do not even try to escape. They just sit and cower. This is an example of ________.
  2. a) learned helplessness

Correct. Since the dogs did not try to escape even when they could, it is as if they learned to be helpless.

  1. b) avoidance learning
  2. c) aversive conditioning

Incorrect. The effect is one of learned helplessness because the dogs do not try to escape as you might predict in an aversive conditioning situation.

  1. d) vicarious learning

ANS: a, p. 207, A, LO=5.11, (1)  

% correct 97      a= 97  b= 0  c= 3  d= 0      r = .19

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. In an experiment, two groups of dogs are given shocks to their feet. One group is able to escape the shocks by jumping over a barrier. The second group is harnessed and cannot escape. After several trials, both groups are put in situations where they CAN escape. The first group escapes the shocks but the second group just sits and whines, refusing to attempt to escape. The response of the second group is due to ______.
  2. a) learned helplessness

Correct. Since the dogs did not try to escape even when they could, it is as if they learned to be helpless.

  1. b) contingency blocking
  2. c) latent learning

Incorrect. The effect is one of learned helplessness because the dogs do not try to escape as you might predict in a latent learning situation.

  1. d) response generalization

ANS: a, p. 207, A, LO=5.11, (1)

% correct 93      a= 93  b= 0  c= 4  d= 3      r = .38

APA=1.1

 

  1. College students faced with unsolvable problems eventually give up and make only half‑hearted attempts to solve new problems, even when the new problems can be solved easily. This behavior is probably due to ______.
  2. a) learned helplessness

Correct. Students’ lack of success in the past “taught” them to not even bother trying, a phenomenon Seligman called learned helplessness.

  1. b) contingency blocking
  2. c) latent learning

Incorrect. The students did not show that they learned the problems, so it could not be latent learning of the problem. Because they did not try, it was a case of learned helplessness.

  1. d) response generalization

ANS: a, p. 207, A, LO=5.11, (1)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Seligman expanded his theory of learned helplessness to explain __________.
  2. a) autism

Incorrect. Although learned helplessness seems to be applicable on the surface to autism, it is more applicable to depression as it may explain some of the latter’s processes.

  1. b) ADHD
  2. c) schizophrenia
  3. d) depression

Correct. One important implication of the theory of learned helplessness was its application to the understanding of depression.

ANS: d, p. 208, C, LO=5.11, (2)

% correct 70      a= 11  b= 10  c= 8  d= 70      r = .32

APA=1.2

 

  1. While watching the evening news, you see a story about domestic abuse and wonder, “Why would anyone stay in a relationship where they are being abused?” According to Seligman, one factor that may contribute to victims staying in abusive relationships is _____________________.
  2. a) observational learning
  3. b) learned helplessness

Correct. Because victims may feel helpless to control their situation, this would be an example of learned helplessness.

  1. c) conditioned emotional response

Incorrect. Although fear may well play into this situation, Seligman’s work focused on the concept of learned helplessness.

  1. d) instinctive drift

ANS: b, p. 208, A, LO=5.11, (2)

APA=1.2

 

Observational Learning

Learning Objective 5.12 – What occurs in observational learning, and what are the findings from Bandura’s classic Bobo doll study and the four elements of observational learning?

 

  1. Which type of learning occurs when we observe how other people act?
  2. a) insight learning

Incorrect. Insight refers to a rapid problem solution and does not necessarily involve observation of others.

  1. b) operant conditioning
  2. c) classical conditioning
  3. d) observational learning

Correct. Observational learning is based on seeing the actions of others and their consequences.

ANS: d, p. 209, F, LO=5.12, (1)

% correct 96      a= 2  b= 2  c= 0  d= 96      r = .21

APA=1.1

 

  1. Observational learning theory’s foremost proponent is ________.
  2. a) Watson
  3. b) Thorndike

Incorrect. Thorndike was responsible for the Law of Effect. Observational learning is one of Bandura’s discoveries.

  1. c) Skinner
  2. d) Bandura

Correct. Observational learning theory’s foremost proponent is Bandura, and this theory has contributed greatly to our knowledge of media effects on society.

ANS: d, p. 209, F, LO=5.12, (3)

% correct 54      a= 18  b= 12  c= 15  d= 54      r = .39

APA=1.2

 

  1. A girl learns that whenever her brother shares his cookie with her, her mother gives him a piece of candy. The girl starts sharing her treats with her friends when they come over in the hopes of getting a similar reward. The girl’s learning to share is an example of ________.
  2. a) classical conditioning
  3. b) operant conditioning
  4. c) contingency theory

Incorrect. The girl’s learning to share is an example of observational learning theory. Contingency theory is not related to the concept.

  1. d) observational learning

Correct. Learning by watching others is known as observational learning.

ANS: d, p. 209, A, LO=5.12, (1)

% correct 86      a=0   b= 0  c= 15  d= 86      r = .18

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Bandura conducted a classic study known as the “Bobo” doll study. The term Bobo refers to ________.
  2. a) Bandura’s pet name for the dog used in the study

Incorrect. The term Bobo refers to the inflatable doll that was used in the study.

  1. b) Bandura’s loyal but strange assistant that carried out the study
  2. c) Bandura’s nickname that his wife had given him
  3. d) the type of inflatable doll that was used in the study

Correct. The term Bobo refers to the inflatable doll that was used in the study.

ANS: d, p. 209, F, LO=5.12, (1)

% correct 86      a= 6  b= 4  c= 3  d= 86      r = .34

APA=1.2

 

  1. Learning that takes place without actual performance (a kind of latent learning) is called ________.
  2. the learning/performance distinction

Correct. Learning that takes place without actual performance (a kind of latent learning) is called the learning/performance distinction.

  1. the innate performance preference
  2. the delayed learning paradigm
  3. the observational delay effect

Incorrect. Learning that takes place without actual performance (a kind of latent learning) is called the learning/performance distinction.

ANS: a, p. 209, F, LO=5.12, (2)

APA=1.1

 

  1. In Bandura’s study with the Bobo doll, the children in the group who saw the model punished did not imitate the model at first. They would only imitate the model if given a reward for doing so. The fact that these children had obviously learned the behavior without actually performing it is an example of ________.
  2. a) latent learning

Correct. The children were demonstrating latent learning as Tolman first demonstrated.

  1. b) operant conditioning
  2. c) classical conditioning
  3. d) insight learning

Incorrect. Because it was not a rapid solution to a problem, it was not insight learning. It was a case of latent learning because they made a response that they had not made before.

ANS: a, p. 209, C, LO=5.12, (3)

% correct 86      a= 86  b= 6  c= 8  d= 0      r = .44

APA=1.2

 

  1. Michael grows up in a home where his father is generally unloving toward his mother. He observes his father yell and degrade his mother, and he notices that his mother never resists this treatment. Based on the work of Bandura, what might we predict about Michael’s own relationships when he is older?
  2. a) Michael will probably treat women very well, as he rebels against the behaviors he saw in his father.

Incorrect. Unless there is some sort of intervention where Michael is taught that his father’s actions are inappropriate, he is more likely to emulate them than to rebel against them.

  1. b) Michael may treat women with discourtesy and disrespect, as he repeats the behavior he saw in his

father.

Correct. Bandura’s concept of observational learning suggests that children tend to repeat the behaviors that they see in respected authority figures, including their parents.

  1. c) Michael will probably have no relationships with women, as his father has taught him that relationships

are not worth having.

  1. d) Michael will always be very distant from his father, as he has learned that his father does not care about

anyone but himself.

ANS: b, p. 210, A, LO=5.12 (3)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. A Congressional hearing is taking place in Washington, DC. The representatives are discussing whether the portrayals of violence on children’s TV shows are perhaps contributing to the violence we see in schools today. The work of what psychologist is most relevant to their discussions?
  2. a) Bandura

Correct. Bandura’s work is most relevant to their discussions.

  1. b) Tolman
  2. c) Skinner

Incorrect. Bandura’s work is most relevant to their discussions. Skinner was not concerned with observational learning, which is the core phenomenon under discussion.

  1. d) Pavlov

ANS: a, p. 210, A, LO=5.12, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. A Congressional hearing is taking place in Washington, DC. The representatives are discussing whether the portrayals of violence on children’s TV shows are perhaps contributing to the violence we see in schools today. What psychological process are the representatives probably considering as the reason that TV influences school violence?
  2. a) observational learning

Correct. They are worried that children will imitate the aggression they see modeled on TV, which is a process called observational learning.

  1. b) operant conditioning
  2. c) classical conditioning
  3. d) insight learning

Incorrect. Insight learning concerns rapid problem solving that is not necessarily based on observing others.

ANS: a, p. 210, A, LO=5.12, (2)

% correct 89      a= 89  b= 0  c= 0  d= 11      r = .19

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. For observational learning to occur, each of the following must happen EXCEPT ______.
  2. a) paying attention to what the model does
  3. b) remembering what the model did

Incorrect. Remembering is one of the four elements of observational learning.

  1. c) doing what the model did
  2. d) being reinforced for imitating the model

Correct. Being reinforced for imitating the model is not necessary.

ANS: d, p. 211, F, LO=5.12, (2)

APA=1.1

 

  1. Cheryl is trying to teach her son to do the laundry by watching her. According to observational learning theory, to be effective what must occur?
  2. a) Her son must always model the behavior immediately.

Incorrect. He does not have to model the behavior immediately in order to learn it; he can learn by watching over time.

  1. b) Her son must be motivated to learn how to do the laundry.

Correct. Bandura determined that motivation was necessary in order for observational learning to occur.

  1. c) Her son must be able to complete other tasks while watching her.
  2. d) Cheryl must show her son how to do the laundry while she is making dinner.

ANS: b, p. 211, A, LO=5.12, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. A young child watches her mother make pancakes. She wants to please her mother so she pays attention. However, when she goes to make them on her own, she can’t break the eggs for the batter without making a terrible mess and dropping them on the floor, no matter how hard she tries. Her attempt failed because of a problem with which part of the necessary components for observational learning?
  2. a) attention
  3. b) memory

Incorrect. She couldn’t imitate Mom and that was the problem. She remembered correctly what to do.

  1. c) imitation

Correct. Her attempt failed because of her inability to crack the eggs.

  1. d) desire

ANS: c, p. 211, A, LO=5.12, (1)

% correct 80      a= 5  b= 11  c= 80  d= 4      r = .20

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. A young boy is watching TV. In one show he sees a bully steal a lunch from another child. The bully then enjoys eating the other child’s lunch. Because this boy feels that his mother makes him a rather skimpy lunch and he is always hungry at school, he starts stealing other kids’ lunches at school. According to Bandura’s theory of observational learning, his hunger at lunchtime most influenced which factor?
  2. a) attention
  3. b) memory
  4. c) imitation

Incorrect. Imitation was not the major factor. Hunger is a motivational factor.

  1. d) desire

Correct. His hunger motivated him to become a bully.

ANS: d, p. 211, A, LO=5.12, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Dad is watching a home improvement show about how to install a new sink. He really wants to do it and watches the show intently. He knows that his wife will reward him when he is done. However, when he tests the new sink, water spurts everywhere. Taking the new sink apart, he finds that he has left out the crucial washers in the faucet assembly even though this was emphasized in the TV show. What part of Bandura’s theory of the necessary components of observational learning is most likely the reason for this disaster?
  2. a) attention
  3. b) memory

Correct. Dad’s memory failed him.

  1. c) imitation
  2. d) motivation

Incorrect. Dad’s memory failed him.

ANS: b, p. 211, A, LO=5.12, (2)

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Which letters correspond to the four elements of modeling from Bandura’s theory?
  2. a) MIMA

Incorrect. AMID: attention, memory, imitation, desire

  1. b) AMID

Correct. AMID: attention, memory, imitation, desire

  1. c) BANDURA
  2. d) MOMA

ANS: b, p. 211, F, LO=5.12, (2)

APA=1.2

 

  1. In Bandura’s study of observational learning, the abbreviation AMID stands for ________.
  2. a) attention, memory, imitation, desire

Correct. AMID: attention, memory, imitation, desire

  1. b) alertness, motivation, intent, monetary reward
  2. c) achievement, momentum, initiative, memory

Incorrect. AMID: attention, memory, imitation, desire

  1. d) achievement, motivation, intellectual capacity, memory

ANS: a, p. 211, F, LO=5.12, (2)

APA=1.2

 

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Can You Really Toilet Train Your Cat?

Learning Objective 5.13 – What is a real-world example of the use of conditioning?

  1. Karawynn Long attempted to toilet train her cat. The principle of learning that was in operation was ________.
  2. a) observational learning

Incorrect. Observational learning would have occurred if the cat had learned by observing someone else use the toilet, but that was not the case.

  1. b) classical conditioning
  2. c) AMIM
  3. d) shaping

Correct. Shaping involves breaking a desired behavior down into a series of small steps, as Long did with her cat.

ANS: d, p. 212, A, LO=5.13, (2)

APA=1.3

 

TRUE OR FALSE

 

  1. A change in behavior that is relatively permanent and brought about by experience is commonly referred to by psychologists as acquisition behavior.

ANS: F, p. 176, LO=5.1

APA=1.1

 

  1. Classical conditioning was accidentally discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov while he was studying salivation in dogs.

ANS: T, p. 177, LO=5.2

APA=1.2

 

  1. In Pavlov’s original experiment of classical conditioning, dogs learned to salivate at the sound of a metronome when the metronome was repeatedly paired with the presentation of food. The food is referred to as the unconditioned response.

ANS: F, p. 177, LO=5.2

APA=1.1; 1.2

 

  1. If one presented the conditioned stimulus (such as a metronome) after the presentation of the unconditioned stimulus (the food) in Pavlov’s learning experiment, little or no classical conditioning would occur.

ANS: T, p. 179, LO=5.2

APA=1.1; 1.2

 

  1. A conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the paired presentation of the UCS. After time, the subject no longer makes the conditioned response. This fading of the CR is known as habituation.

ANS: F, p. 180, LO=5.2

APA=1.1

 

  1. Albert was a little boy who was shown to be remarkably resistant to having his emotional responses conditioned by Watson. Watson presented Albert with a cute little furry rat and then rang a loud bell. Later, Albert should have become scared of the bell, but this never happened.

ANS: F, p. 183, LO=5.3

APA=1.2

 

  1. Conditioned emotional responses are some of the easiest forms of classical conditioning to accomplish, as demonstrated by the fact that our lives are so full of them.

ANS: T, p. 183, LO=5.3

APA=1.1

 

  1. Current views of conditioning by psychologists, such as Rescorla, indicate that learning is completely automatic and has nothing to do with cognitive processes.

ANS: F, p. 185, LO=5.3

APA=1.2

 

  1. The Law of Effect emphasized that responses were more likely to be made if they were followed by some pleasing consequence.

ANS: T, p. 187, LO=5.4

APA=1.2

 

  1. According to B. F. Skinner, negative reinforcement of a response makes you more likely to continue to make that response.

ANS: T, p. 189, LO=5.5

APA=1.2

 

  1. Using continuous reinforcement is the best way to prevent a response from becoming extinguished.

ANS: F, p. 191, LO=5.6

APA=1.1

 

  1. After graduating from college, you are hired to work in a factory as an industrial psychologist. The workers put together iPads. They can either be paid by the hour or by the number of iPads they put together in a day. You decide that you will do the latter (pay by the number of iPads put together). According to Skinner, you have put the workers on a fixed-ratio schedule.

ANS: T, p. 193, LO=5.6

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. A child is wetting his or her bed. According to our textbook, punishing the child would be the best way to permanently stop this behavior. You would recommend that the child be given no food on the day after a bedwetting incident. This is because punishment is guaranteed to stop bad behaviors.

ANS: F, pp. 197–198, LO=5.8

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. The Brelands tried to condition pigs to drop wooden coins into a bank. This turned out not to be easy, as the pigs tended to make instinctual responses as compared to the learned responses.

ANS: T, p. 201, LO=5.9

APA=1.2

 

  1. Biofeedback training is an application that uses the principles of operant conditioning.

ANS: T, p. 203, LO=5.10

APA=1.3

 

  1. The “aha!” moment that indicates insight learning was first hypothesized by Tolman.

ANS: F, p. 207, LO=5.11

APA=1.2

 

  1. Seligman’s concept of learned helplessness has been extended into the field of psychopathology to explain the emergence of schizophrenia in late adolescence.

ANS: F, pp. 205-206, LO=5.11

APA=1.2

 

  1. Bandura’s seminal study of observational learning involved watching children and their interactions with Bobo dolls.

ANS: T, p. 209, LO=5.12

APA=1.2

 

  1. Observational learning has been used to explain why children who watch violent television tend to behave more aggressively. Research has demonstrated that watching such television shows causes an increase in violent tendencies.

ANS: F, p. 210, LO=5.12

APA=1.1; 1.3, 2.4

 

  1. When Karawynn Long trained her cat Misha to use a toilet instead of a litter box, the last step in the training was teaching the cat to flush the toilet.

ANS: F, p. 212, LO=5.13

APA=1.3

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Why is learning described as a “relatively permanent” change?
  2. 176, LO=5.1

APA=1.1

 

  1. Give an example of an unconditioned stimulus.
  2. 177, LO=5.2

APA=1.1

 

  1. Give an example of an unconditioned response.
  2. 177, LO=5.2

APA=1.1

 

  1. Give an example of a conditioned stimulus.
  2. 177, LO=5.2

APA=1.1

 

  1. Give an example of a conditioned response.
  2. 178, LO=5.2

APA=1.1

 

  1. Describe what occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented over and over again without the unconditioned stimulus.
  2. 178, LO=5.2

APA=1.1

 

  1. What is spontaneous recovery in classical conditioning?
  2. 180, LO=5.2

APA=1.1

 

  1. Give an example of a conditioned taste aversion.
  2. 184, LO=5.3

APA=1.3

 

  1. What important factor in learning is Robert Rescorla best known for?
  2. 185, LO=5.3

APA=1.2

 

  1. What is the Law of Effect and who was responsible for its conceptualization?
  2. 186, LO=5.4

APA=1.2

 

  1. Why is money such a powerful secondary reinforcer? Why isn’t it a primary reinforcer?
  2. 188, LO=5.5

APA=1.1

 

  1. What is the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment?
  2. 189, LO=5.5

APA=1.1

 

  1. How can you tell the difference between an interval and a ratio schedule of partial reinforcement?
  2. 191, LO=5.6

APA=1.1

 

  1. Distinguish between the concepts of punishment of application and punishment by removal.
  2. 195, LO=5.7

APA=1.1

 

  1. List three potential problem outcomes of misusing punishment with children.
  2. 195, LO=5.8

APA=1.3

 

  1. What is instinctive drift and how did the Brelands discover it?
  2. 201, LO=5.9

APA=1.2

 

  1. Give an example of latent learning that you might see in your own life.
  2. 206, LO=5.11

APA=1.3

 

  1. What are the four factors that Bandura finds necessary for observational learning?
  2. 210–211, LO=5.12

APA=1.2

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Define learning. Given this definition, what types of behaviors would not be considered learning? How does the concept of instinctive drift relate to these examples? What types of behaviors would be included?
  2. 176 & 201, LO=5.1, 5.9

APA=1.1

 

  1. Describe Pavlov’s classical conditioning studies in terms of the UCS, UCR, CS, CR and his results. Briefly discuss two examples of classical conditioning in your own life, naming the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR.
  2. 177, LO=5.2

APA=1.2, 1.3

 

  1. One day as your professor is driving to work, another driver runs through a red light and hits his car. The professor is shaken up but survives the incident. However, the next time he starts to enter the intersection, he becomes nervous and fearful. Soon, he starts going to work via another route to avoid the intersection even though this route adds twenty minutes to his commute in each direction.

 

According to the principles of classical conditioning, why does the professor become scared of the previously harmless intersection? What can he do about this, as going via the other route is very time consuming? Be specific. Break down the situation into its parts, and show how the principles of learning apply.

  1. 180, LO=5.2

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. In what ways might higher-order conditioning explain why some words trigger emotional responses in us?

(a) Give an example of a positive response that could be formed through higher-order conditioning.

(b) Give an example of a negative response that could be formed through higher-order conditioning.

(c) In what ways might higher-order conditioning contribute to racism and prejudice?

  1. 180, LO=5.2

APA=1.3

 

  1. Explain the concept of conditioned taste aversions and how it might be applied to people undergoing chemotherapy or radiation treatments for cancer.
  2. 184, LO=5.3

APA=1.3

 

  1. Think about our prison systems. Many folks think the role of the prison system is to punish people who break the law, and that we should have more prisons to punish more people. But let’s look at what happens to the average burglar. If (s)he is caught, (s)he will probably not go to trial for a year or two, and then is likely to get probation or a light sentence. If (s)he does go to prison, (s)he is unlikely to learn any useful skills and will meet other criminals who will probably not be good role models. Additionally, (s)he may not end up serving his/her entire sentence due to overcrowding conditions in prisons. Given what you know about operant learning principles, reinforcement, and punishment, critique the way our current prison system works and suggest some better ideas. Be sure to be specific about the principles that you have learned from our textbook.
  2. 186, 187, & 194, LO=5.5, 5.7, & 5.8

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. After graduating from college, you are hired to work in a factory overseas as an industrial psychologist. The workers put together iPads. The boss wants to know the best pay schedule to get the maximum number of pieces made by his workers. The boss wants you to describe various schedules of payment to him and tell which might be best for the plant. Using the principles of operant conditioning, describe the various pay schedules and what would be the best one for his goal of getting the most production.
  2. 191, LO=5.6

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. Give an example of each of the four schedules of partial reinforcement, and comment on which schedule would be most likely to result in lasting behavioral change.
  2. 191, LO=5.6

APA=1.3

 

  1. Explain what learned helplessness is and describe how it develops. Also discuss the effects it has on people and animals once it is established.
  2. 207, LO=5.11

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

  1. After bringing home a new cat, you quickly realize that you don’t enjoy changing the litter box every few days. In order to avoid this odious task, you decide to attempt to train your pet to use a toilet. Thoroughly discuss the steps that you would use to train the animal, making sure to note which type of learning is being employed.
  2. 212, LO=5.13

APA=1.1; 1.3

 

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