Project Management Achieving Competitive Advantage 3rd Edition by Jeffrey K. Pinto – Test Bank

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Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage, 3e (Pinto)

Chapter 5   Scope Management

 

5.1   True/False Questions

 

1) Scope management is the function controlling a project in terms of its goals and objectives during the execution phase.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Section:  5.0 Introduction

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

2) The statement of work is a detailed narrative description of the work required for a project.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

3) A comprehensive statement of work includes an estimate of time and costs, resource requirements, and the scope of the work to be performed.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

4) Until a project has gone through work breakdown structure, it is impossible to determine the relationships among the constituent activities.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

5) The scope baseline is a document that provides a summary description of each reporting relationship along with a schedule for meetings and reports.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

6) A work package may be composed of one or more subdeliverables.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

7) A work package may consist of more than one milestone.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

8) Work authorization functions as the formal “It’s OK to begin work,” on the project.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  5.3 Work Authorization

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

9) The terms lump-sum contract and turnkey contract are interchangeable.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  5.3 Work Authorization

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

10) A lump-sum contract requires the customer to pay for the full delivered price of the project before any work is done.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  5.3 Work Authorization

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

11) Scope reporting not only identifies the type of information that will be reported, but also to whom it will be reported and with what frequency.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  5.4 Scope Reporting

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

12) Controls can be established at any point during a project but should follow the maxim “more control is better.”

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

13) A baseline is the project’s scope fixed at a specific point in time.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

14) The project closeout step requires project managers to consider the types of records and reports they and their clients will require at the completion of a project.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  5.6 Project Closeout

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

5.2   Short Answer Questions

 

1) Work content and expected outcomes are called ________ in project management.

Answer:  scope

Diff: 1

Section:  5.0 Introduction

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

2) ________ is the process that addresses project objectives by finding the best ways to meet them.

Answer:  Conceptual development

Diff: 1

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

3) The ________ is a detailed narrative description of the work required for a project.

Answer:  Statement of Work (SOW)

Diff: 1

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

4) ________ are formally defined as “any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that must be produced to complete a project or part of a project.”

Answer:  Deliverables

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

5) ________ divides a project into its component substeps in order to begin establishing interrelationships among its constituent activities.

Answer:  Work breakdown structure

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

6) ________ are the lowest level in the work breakdown structure, composed of short duration tasks that have a defined beginning and end.

Answer:  Work packages

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

7) The ________ is a document that provides a summary description of each component of the project’s goal.

Answer:  scope baseline

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

8) The leader for team A isn’t sure offhand who needs to approve the next step in their work package, but he knows that if he consults the ________, he can determine who has approval authority for the necessary purchase of that pair of weasels.

Answer:  responsibility assignment matrix (RAM)

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

9) When Marge agreed to help move her brother’s worldly possessions from Omaha to Seattle she stipulated that at the end of the drive he would reimburse her for the truck rental, all gasoline, and road expenses and give her an additional $500, effectively creating a(n) ________ contract between the two.

Answer:  cost-plus

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

10) As a highly successful college graduate you have no time to paint your house, so one of your old fraternity brothers offer to do the job for $2000. You have no idea what the actual cost of the materials might be, but $2000 seems reasonable and if the paint, brushes and dropcloths cost more, it comes out of his pocket. An added benefit is that it gets him off your couch in the afternoons, so you give him the go-ahead on this ________ contract between the two.

Answer:  turnkey or lump-sum

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

11) The type of information that will be reported regularly, who will receive it, and how the information will be collected and disseminated falls under the umbrella of ________.

Answer:  scope reporting

Diff: 2

Section:  5.4 Scope Reporting

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

12) ________ includes procedures that monitor emerging project scope against original baseline scope.

Answer:  Configuration control

Diff: 2

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

13) Three years and $250,000 later, the homeowner’s simple two-bedroom bungalow project had morphed into a state-of-the-art sprawling ranch. The construction manager was able to keep track of all the changes along the way and keep all subcontractors up-to-date thanks to meticulous ________.

Answer:  configuration management

Diff: 3

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

14) ________ follows a formal reporting structure, including study and documentation of the project’s performance in terms of cost, schedule adherence, and technical specifications as part of project closeout.

Answer:  Post project analysis

Diff: 3

Section:  5.6 Project Closeout

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

5.3   Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) Which statement about scope management is best?

  1. A) Scope management must take place during the conceptual development, full definition, execution, and termination phases.
  2. B) Project goals don’t matter in scope management as long as the budget is not exceeded.
  3. C) Scope management is accomplished in a single step by any one project team member.
  4. D) Scope management can begin once a project hits operational level.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  5.0 Introduction

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

2) The Scope Management chapter begins and ends with the quote, “It’s a dream until you write it down. Then it’s…”

  1. A) “… etched in stone.”
  2. B) “… a scope statement.”
  3. C) “… a documented dream.”
  4. D) “… a goal.”

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  5.0 Introduction

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

3) Scope management for a project begins with:

  1. A) a work package.
  2. B) an organization breakdown structure.
  3. C) a statement of goals.
  4. D) a configuration statement.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

4) Restrictions that affect project development are:

  1. A) problems.
  2. B) constraints.
  3. C) stop-limits.
  4. D) limitations.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

5) The cat-skinning project management team considers the many ways to accomplish their objective before settling on one technique as part of their:

  1. A) information gathering step.
  2. B) need statement step.
  3. C) project objectives step.
  4. D) alternative analysis step.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

6) There were conceivably an infinite number of courses he could take during his final semester, but since he worked 8-5, Jake needed to take night classes. He also needed to ensure that the class was offered at the Edmond campus rather than Midwest City, so he could get home in time for his favorite programs. This whittled down the list of possibilities to Systems Analysis Design and Differential Equations. “Neither of these courses is very attractive. I may have to rethink my priorities,” Jake wondered aloud. “The work schedule and wrestling schedule are significant:

  1. A) scope statements.”
  2. B) alternatives.”
  3. C) constraints.”
  4. D) goals.”

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

7) Conceptual development for a project concludes with:

  1. A) project objectives.
  2. B) alternative analysis.
  3. C) project delivery.
  4. D) team dissolution.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

8) One consequence of conceptual development that proceeds with a problem that is poorly understood is:

  1. A) problem restatement.
  2. B) cost overruns.
  3. C) problem clarification.
  4. D) task confusion.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

9) Which statement about conceptual development is best?

  1. A) A project goal of “significantly increase computer performance” is better than “improve processing speed 20%” because the team may exceed 20%.
  2. B) It is vital that a best approach to solving a problem be locked in as soon as possible to save analysis time downstream.
  3. C) Conceptual development begins with the process of reducing the project’s overall complexity to a more basic level.
  4. D) Project goals should be optimistic to the point of excess.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

10) The statement of work should contain:

  1. A) information on the key objectives for the project.
  2. B) a brief and general description of the work to be performed.
  3. C) expected project outcomes.
  4. D) All of these are elements of a statement of work.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

11) A statement of work identifies:

  1. A) a need.
  2. B) a project organization.
  3. C) members of the project team.
  4. D) alternatives.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

12) Which of these is NOT a typical element of a statement of work?

  1. A) introduction and background
  2. B) a list of activities needed to complete the project
  3. C) technical description of the project
  4. D) timeline and milestones

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

13) The description and scope section of a statement of work would contain statements regarding:

  1. A) environmental risks.
  2. B) termination of project information.
  3. C) expected benefits.
  4. D) major milestones.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

14) Expected commitments from other departments in support of the project would most likely be detailed in the:

  1. A) approach section of the SOW.
  2. B) risks and concerns section of the SOW.
  3. C) acceptance criteria section of the SOW.
  4. D) resource requirements section of the SOW.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

15) A testing plan would be outlined in which section of a statement of work?

  1. A) acceptance criteria
  2. B) risks and concerns
  3. C) description and scope
  4. D) approach

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

16) Any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that must be produced to complete a project or part of a project is a:

  1. A) product.
  2. B) deliverable.
  3. C) tangible.
  4. D) work product.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

17) Which of the following is NOT a project goal criteria?

  1. A) cost
  2. B) schedule
  3. C) team membership
  4. D) review and approval gates

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

18) The organizational structure for the project team, including policies and procedures, is the:

  1. A) work breakdown structure.
  2. B) rules statement.
  3. C) scope statement.
  4. D) management plan.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

19) Which of these scope statement steps creates the all-important bureaucracy for a project?

  1. A) the management plan
  2. B) the work breakdown structure
  3. C) the scope baseline
  4. D) the project goal criteria

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

20) The mountaineers all agreed that their quest to build a bridge between the two peaks of Mount Kilimanjaro was a noble one, but they had no idea how long it would take to complete until they finished their:

  1. A) project goal criteria.
  2. B) work breakdown structure.
  3. C) scope baseline.
  4. D) management plan.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

21) The new Magic Pan coming soon to your area usually serves 20,000 customers in the first year of operation. Construction plans include site selection, foundation, framing, finishing, egg-laying, and chicken acquisition. The scope statement step that determines relationships among these steps, e.g. does the chicken acquisition come before the egg laying, etc., is the:

  1. A) project goal criteria.
  2. B) management plan.
  3. C) work breakdown structure.
  4. D) scope baseline

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

22) Budget and schedule information for each activity in a project is contained in the:

  1. A) project goal criteria.
  2. B) management plan.
  3. C) work breakdown structure.
  4. D) scope baseline.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

23) The final step in the process of systematically laying out all pre-work information is the creation of the:

  1. A) scope baseline.
  2. B) work breakdown structure.
  3. C) management plan.
  4. D) project goal criteria.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

24) The PMBoK definition stating, “a process that sets a project’s scope by breaking down its overall mission into a cohesive set of synchronous, increasingly specific tasks,” is for the:

  1. A) project plan.
  2. B) work breakdown structure.
  3. C) deliverable statement.
  4. D) scope expansion.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

25) What are work breakdown structure elements that must be completed to conclude the project deliverables?

  1. A) activities
  2. B) tasks
  3. C) work packages
  4. D) milestones

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

26) The lowest level in work breakdown structure contains the:

  1. A) atoms.
  2. B) activities.
  3. C) finite elements.
  4. D) work packages.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

27) The highest level of work breakdown structure is the:

  1. A) project.
  2. B) deliverable.
  3. C) subdeliverable.
  4. D) work package.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

28) The second level in work breakdown structure contains the:

  1. A) projects.
  2. B) deliverables.
  3. C) subdeliverables.
  4. D) work packages.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

29) In order to allocate costs more precisely, a company will assign:

  1. A) bar codes to each activity.
  2. B) activity codes to each subdeliverable.
  3. C) WBS codes to each activity.
  4. D) level 4 codes to each package element.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

30) Which of these statements about subdeliverables is best?

  1. A) Subdeliverables have durations of their own.
  2. B) Subdeliverables consume resources.
  3. C) Subdeliverables have direct assignable costs.
  4. D) Subdeliverables summarize the outcomes of work packages.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

31) The costs attached to subdeliverables:

  1. A) are the summary of the work packages that support it.
  2. B) are called phantom costs.
  3. C) should be subtracted directly from deliverable costs.
  4. D) are not recoverable unless explicitly stated in the work breakdown structure.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

32) When a supporting document functions as a project control device throughout the project’s development, it is not prepared in advance:

  1. A) due to time constraints.
  2. B) as it is a dynamic document.
  3. C) since micromanaging can occur.
  4. D) because control devices are left to project completion.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

33) When work is organized into cost control accounts:

  1. A) the work no longer needs to be tracked by the project manager.
  2. B) the subdeliverables become cost centers instead of profit centers for the project.
  3. C) these are assigned to the units performing project activities.
  4. D) these budgets can then be assigned back to the project manager’s department.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

34) Organizational breakdown structure (OBS) allows companies to:

  1. A) assign the duties of tracking costs to the customer’s accounting function.
  2. B) circumvent the onerous task of work breakdown structure.
  3. C) issue a preliminary TPS report.
  4. D) define the work to be accomplished.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

35) A project manager can identify personnel who will be directly responsible for each task in the project’s development by using a(n):

  1. A) responsibility assignment matrix.
  2. B) milestone designation chart.
  3. C) Merrill report.
  4. D) work package report.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

36) Project team members can identify who should be notified of task completion status by checking the:

  1. A) control account.
  2. B) linear responsibility chart.
  3. C) statement of work.
  4. D) monthly joint review report.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

37) The step that reflects the formal “go ahead” given to the project to commence once the scope definition, planning documents, and other contractual documents have been prepared and approved is the:

  1. A) go ahead.
  2. B) send off.
  3. C) work authorization.
  4. D) work release.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  5.3 Work Authorization

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

38) In the case of projects developed for external clients, work authorization typically addresses:

  1. A) budget linkage.
  2. B) audit trail establishment.
  3. C) resource requirements.
  4. D) contractual obligations.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  5.3 Work Authorization

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

39) All projects are promised in terms of the specific functionality or performance criteria they will meet. The key feature of the contractual documentation that specifies this functionality or criteria is the:

  1. A) contractual requirements.
  2. B) valid consideration.
  3. C) contracted terms.
  4. D) contractual performance.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Section:  5.3 Work Authorization

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

40) The exchange that is specified by the contractual documentation documents is:

  1. A) the terms.
  2. B) valid consideration.
  3. C) reciprocity.
  4. D) fair and unencumbered.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.3 Work Authorization

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

41) The section of the contractual documentation that identifies what are the excusable delays, allowable costs, and criteria for inspection is called the:

  1. A) bylaws.
  2. B) amendments.
  3. C) contracted terms.
  4. D) dissolution factors.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Section:  5.3 Work Authorization

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

42) A project management firm that promises to do everything for a major project and hand over a fully functional, ready-to-use deliverable is performing under a(n):

  1. A) umbrella contract.
  2. B) all-inclusive contract.
  3. C) cost-plus contract.
  4. D) turnkey contract.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Section:  5.3 Work Authorization

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

43) Which pair of statements is best?

  1. A) Cost-plus contracts are prone to budget overruns while turnkey contracts are typically underbid by the contractor.
  2. B) Cost-plus contracts are prone to a budget surplus while turnkey contracts are typically underbid by the contractor.
  3. C) Cost-plus contracts are prone to a budget surplus while turnkey contracts are typically overbid by the contractor.
  4. D) Cost-plus contracts are prone to budget overruns while turnkey contracts are typically overbid by the contractor.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Section:  5.3 Work Authorization

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

44) Your professor moonlights to make ends meet during the summer months and has a knack for painting houses. You agree to pay $500 over whatever the materials and equipment rental cost for the job and delight in sipping lemonade in the shade watching your poor professor perform under a(n):

  1. A) cost-plus contract.
  2. B) lump-sum contract.
  3. C) time and material contract.
  4. D) fixed wage contract.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Section:  5.3 Work Authorization

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

45) The reporting frequency, report recipients, and content required during project execution is laid out by:

  1. A) the organizational breakdown structure.
  2. B) scope reporting.
  3. C) the information system architecture.
  4. D) a need-to-know basis.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  5.4 Scope Reporting

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

46) Updates on how the project is performing against milestones can be accomplished by issuing a report containing:

  1. A) S-curves.
  2. B) schedule status.
  3. C) earned value.
  4. D) technical performance.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  5.4 Scope Reporting

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

47) An earned value report shows:

  1. A) how much money has actually been spent so far on the project.
  2. B) slippages in performance measures for the work product.
  3. C) the budgeted value of work performed.
  4. D) slippages in time against planned measures.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.4 Scope Reporting

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

48) An S-curve report does NOT contain information on:

  1. A) time.
  2. B) cost.
  3. C) budget.
  4. D) quality.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  5.4 Scope Reporting

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

49) Procedures that monitor emerging project scope against the original baseline scope are called:

  1. A) configuration control.
  2. B) design control.
  3. C) trend monitoring.
  4. D) document control.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

50) A young professor becomes obsessed with the latest release of Halo and completely loses sight of his research commitment to his colleagues, falling hopelessly behind schedule and consuming 80% of the department’s computing budget. Addictive behavior notwithstanding, this sad tale would never have happened had:

  1. A) configuration controls been established.
  2. B) trend monitoring been regularly performed.
  3. C) design controls been appropriately deployed.
  4. D) document control been conducted assiduously.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

51) Systems for monitoring the project’s scope, schedule, and costs during the design stage fall under the heading of:

  1. A) configuration control.
  2. B) acquisition control.
  3. C) design control.
  4. D) specification control.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

52) As the 80th change order floated across his desk, the project manager wished that he had kept the first 79. What money he had saved in scrap paper might well be lost in charges that could never be recouped from the client. “What I need is better:

  1. A) trend monitoring,” muttered the manager.
  2. B) configuration control,” sighed the manager.
  3. C) specification control,” fumed the manager.
  4. D) document control,” whimpered the manager.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

53) The framing crew would never know when it was time to order more $400 hammers without their fancy new:

  1. A) acquisition control system.
  2. B) specification control system.
  3. C) configuration control system.
  4. D) design control system.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

54) The homeowner lusted over a 36,000 BTU oven in his dream kitchen, but his contractor got a deal on a 20,000 BTU oven and installed it without a peep. Thanks to:

  1. A) acquisition controls, the homeowner ended up with the right oven.
  2. B) specification controls, the homeowner ended up with the right oven.
  3. C) design controls, the homeowner ended up with the right oven.
  4. D) oven controls, the homeowner ended up with the right oven.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

55) The best time to establish reasonable controls is:

  1. A) after a project is over.
  2. B) at the end of a project.
  3. C) at the start of a project.
  4. D) when they are first needed during the project.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

56) The project’s scope fixed at a specific point in time is the:

  1. A) scope.
  2. B) design.
  3. C) historical standard.
  4. D) baseline.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

57) All pieces of a project must be developed and assembled to produce the final product functionality. Designing, making, and assembling these components is the role of:

  1. A) configuration management.
  2. B) baseline scope control.
  3. C) systematic management.
  4. D) baseline configuration.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

58) The stage of configuration management where the breakdown of the project to the necessary level of definition is identified as:

  1. A) configuration review.
  2. B) configuration identification.
  3. C) status accounting.
  4. D) configuration control.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

59) The management of project changes is most effectively accomplished:

  1. A) when project change needs arise.
  2. B) when plans and project scope are first articulated.
  3. C) once closeout is complete.
  4. D) during the configuration identification phase.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

60) The primary action during a configuration review is to:

  1. A) develop a breakdown of the project to the necessary level of definition.
  2. B) identify the specifications of the components of the breakdown and of the total project.
  3. C) meet with all the project stakeholders to agree to the current project definition.
  4. D) change the specifications last obtained by a process change control to match what people think it should be.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

 

61) The status accounting step of configuration management functions primarily as:

  1. A) a hierarchy.
  2. B) binding arbitration.
  3. C) cost control.
  4. D) memory.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

62) If viewed from a flow standpoint, the stage of configuration management that has provision for variable routing to the next step, depending on outcome at this stage, is:

  1. A) configuration control.
  2. B) configuration review.
  3. C) status accounting.
  4. D) configuration identification.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

63) Project closeout documentation that can be used to predict trends, analyze feasibility, and highlight problem areas for similar future projects is:

  1. A) post project analysis.
  2. B) historical records.
  3. C) financial closeout.
  4. D) post-mortem.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.6 Project Closeout

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

64) The ambitious sprinkler system project was finally over and it was hard to believe that it took only two years. The project manager leaned back in his office chair and admired his emerald green lawn and flower garden that was filling in nicely. He was amused by the birds that had gathered to bathe and drink at a persistent puddle just outside his window, a harbinger of the first major repair of his own shoddy workmanship. His review of receipts for the job was less entertaining; between trips to the local home improvement store, consultations with plumbers, city inspectors, and some hired labor, he had sunk a small fortune into his lawn. The manager’s:

  1. A) historical records made for interesting reading.
  2. B) post-project analysis would someday appear in Better Housekeeping.
  3. C) financial closeout would be forever hidden from his wife.
  4. D) project plan was a document for the ages.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.6 Project Closeout

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

65) Closeout documentation that follows a formal reporting structure, including analysis and documentation of the project’s performance in terms of cost, schedule adherence, and technical specification performance, is:

  1. A) historical records.
  2. B) financial closeout.
  3. C) hierarchy reporting.
  4. D) post-project analysis.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  5.6 Project Closeout

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

66) The windmills of Mykonos were lovely, so Lisa contracted with an architectural firm to build one in the west pasture. Once the windmill had been built and was operational, the project team looked back at how they had managed to stay on schedule and what budget variances existed along the way. The windmill was pumping as promised, an honest two gallons per minute just as they had design it. Closeout documentation of this type is considered:

  1. A) historical records.
  2. B) financial closeout.
  3. C) hierarchy reporting.
  4. D) post-project analysis.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  5.6 Project Closeout

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

67) Which step in project management requires project managers to consider the types of records and reports they and their clients will require at the completion of the project?

  1. A) project closeout
  2. B) completion phase
  3. C) reporting
  4. D) planning

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  5.6 Project Closeout

Skill:  Definition

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

68) A priori consideration of information needs is performed:

  1. A) several years after a project is completed.
  2. B) before a project begins.
  3. C) at the start of a project.
  4. D) during the project.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.6 Project Closeout

Skill:  Factual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

5.4   Essay Questions

 

1) Rank the key steps in information development from most to least important and justify your rankings.

Answer:  Rankings will vary, but the key steps in information development are and always will be:

Problem or need statement — why is there a need in search of a solution, what is the underlying problem, and what does the project intend to do?

Information gathering — research to gather all relevant data for the project.

Constraints — time, budget, and client constraints that may affect project development.

Alternative analysis — different solution methods for the problem targeted by the project.

Project objectives — final objectives for the project in terms of outputs, required resources, and timing.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

2) What is a statement of work and what are the key elements it contains?

Answer:  A statement of work (SOW) is a detailed narrative description of the work required for a project, containing objectives for the project, a brief and general description of the work to be performed, expected project outcomes and any funding or schedule constraints. The author indicates that elements in an effective SOW include introduction and background including a problem statement, a technical description of the project, and timeline and milestones.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

3) Develop a statement of work (SOW) for a spectacular project of your choosing. Include all of the key elements for a SOW as detailed in your book.

Answer:  Examples will vary depending on the spectacular project that is selected. The statement of work (SOW) should contain the following elements: objectives for the project, a brief and general description of the work to be performed, expected project outcomes and any funding or schedule constraints. In addition, the author indicates that elements in an effective SOW include introduction and background including a problem statement, a technical description of the project, and timeline and milestones.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1 Conceptual Development

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

4) What is a scope statement and what are the key steps in the scope statement process?

Answer:  The scope statement reflects a project team’s best efforts at creating the documentation and approval of all important project parameters prior to proceeding to the development phase. The key steps of the scope statement process identified in the text are:

Establishing the project goal criteria.

Developing the management plan for the project.

Establishing a work breakdown structure.

Creating a scope baseline.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

5) Provide an example of work breakdown structure and indicate what purpose WBS serves.

Answer:  Work breakdown structure (WBS) divides the project into its component sub-steps in order to begin establishing critical interrelationships among activities. Examples may vary, but if the project is to lead students on a study tour of Mexico, major components might be transportation, housing, business visits, recreation visits, and curriculum. Each of these major headings can be broken down further, for example, transportation can be segmented into air and ground transportation, with timelines established for securing firm reservations, paying deposits, and getting directions.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

6) Provide an example of a work package and a WBS code and indicate the information they provide.

Answer:  A work package is the lowest (most detailed) level in work breakdown structure (WBS). Some firms use work package and task interchangeably, using the terms to represent an individual activity. A WBS code is a number assigned to each activity so that the accounting function may track costs more precisely. The accounting function may track activities that are over or under budget and otherwise maintain financial control of the development process. Examples may vary, but a work package for a curriculum redesign might be to design the syllabus for an introductory course and the WBS code would be 2.3.8.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

7) What is organization breakdown structure?

Answer:  Organization Breakdown Structure (OBS) is the outcome of assigning work to be performed into cost control accounts that are assignable to various units within the company (performing those project activities). The OBS allows companies to define the work to be accomplished and assign it to the owners of the work packages.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

8) List any five important points to remember when defining work packages.

Answer:  The author lists seven important points to remember about defining a project work package:

The work package typically forms the lowest level in the work breakdown structure.

A work package has a deliverable result.

A work package has one owner.

A work package may be considered by its owner as a project in itself.

A work package may include several milestones.

A work package should fit organizational procedures and culture.

The optimal size of a work package may be expressed in terms of labor hours, calendar time, cost, report period, and risks.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

9) What is hierarchy among the deliverable, work package, subdeliverable, and project? Create an example starting with the most macro element, cascading through to the lowest element.

Answer:  The highest (most macro) level is the project, followed by in increasing order of specificity, the deliverables, subdeliverables, and work packages. Examples will vary.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

10) Create a 4×4 responsibility assignment matrix as an example and indicate the information gleaned from this tool.

Answer:  Examples may vary. A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) also called a linear responsibility chart, is a matrix that lists members of the project team responsible for each activity. The RAM also shows other significant members of the team at each stage as well, organized according to how that activity requires their support. The RAM identifies where a person may go for support, who should be notified when the task is complete, and whose signature is required for sign-off. The tool provides a clear picture to all project team members and keeps all lines of communication open with appropriate communication flowing.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2 The Scope Statement

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

11) What is work authorization?

Answer:  Work authorization is the step that reflects the formal “go ahead” given to the project to commence once the scope definition, planning documents, management plans, and other contractual documents have been prepared and approved. Work authorization consists of a formal sign off and for external clients it typically addresses contractual obligations.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.3 Work Authorization

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

12) What are three common elements in most work authorization contracts?

Answer:  The elements common to most work authorization contracts are the contractual elements, valid consideration, and contracted terms. Contractual elements include the promised specific functionality, or performance criteria, that will be met. Consideration is an element of all valid contracts and covers the items that are voluntarily promised in exchange for a reciprocal commitment by another party. The contracted terms make clear the commitments agreed to by both parties, i.e., what are excusable delays, allowable costs, statements of liquidated damages in the case of nonperformance, the criteria for inspection, and who has responsibility for correction of defects.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.3 Work Authorization

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

13) What is the difference between a turnkey contract and a cost-plus contract? Include in your discussion the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Answer:  A turnkey or lump-sum contract is one where the project organization assumes all responsibility for successful performance. Turnkey contracts work well when the contract is well-understood by all parties so initial cost estimates are reasonable. If project elements are missed or difficulties arise, the contractor is left holding the bag for all unforeseen costs. A cost-plus arrangement is one where the contractor’s fee is fixed in advance and the requesting party pays for all costs plus the fee. The risk is shifted to the requesting party with this arrangement since there is little incentive for the contractor to hold the line on costs.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.3 Work Authorization

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

14) What is contained in scope reporting and what function does it serve?

Answer:  Scope reporting determines the types of information that will regularly be reported, who will receive copies of this information, and how this information will be acquired and disseminated. One type of information collected commonly is cost performance — against budget and schedule and exception reports. Schedule status and technical performance against plans are also regularly included in scope reporting. Project managers and other key stakeholders, such as the members of the project team, clients, top management and other internal and external groups affected by the project, might all be on the reporting list.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.4 Scope Reporting

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

15) The Project Management Research in Brief for Chapter 5 discusses Information Technology (IT) Project “Death Marches.” What are the facts about such projects and what conclusions does the article present?

Answer:  The brief does not paint a flattering portrait of IT project success. The average IT project is likely to be 6 to 12 months behind schedule and 50% to 100% over budget. Of course, the numbers vary with the size of the project, but the results still suggest that companies should expect their IT projects to lead to wasted effort, enormous delays, burnout, and many lost weekends while laboring for success with the cards stacked the other way. The death march project is typically one in which the project is set up for failure through the demands or expectations that the company places on it, leaving the expectation that the project team will pull off a miracle. Death march projects are defined as projects “whose parameters exceed the norm by at least 50%.” To avoid setting the stage for future death march projects, we need to start with the end in mind and determine whether the goals and conditions (budget, personnel assigned, and schedule) are conducive to project success.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.4 Scope Reporting

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

16) What is the purpose of controls? Describe any three types of control systems.

Answer:  Control systems are vital to ensure that any changes to the project baseline are conducted in a systematic and thorough manner. The focus of a control system may be on configuration, design, trends, documents, acquisition, or specification.

Configuration control takes procedures that monitor emerging project scope against original baseline scope. Design control relates to systems for monitoring the project’s scope, schedule, and costs during the design stage. Trend monitoring is the process of tracking the estimated costs, schedules, and resources needed against those planned. Document control ensures that important documentation is compiled and disseminated in an orderly and timely fashion. Acquisition control monitors systems used to acquire necessary project equipment, materials, or services needed for project development and implementation. Specification control ensures that project specifications are prepared clearly, communicated to all concerned parties, and changed only with proper authorization.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

17) What is configuration management and why is it important?

Answer:  The Project Management Body of Knowledge defines configuration management as “a system of procedures that monitors emerging project scope against the scope baseline. It requires documentation and management approval on any change to the baseline.” The baseline is the project’s scope fixed at a point in time and is viewed as the project’s configuration. Configuration management is the systematic management of project change. Since complex projects may be composed of many elements that are being created by a large number of different teams or subcontractors, configuration management is a means of keeping all of these pieces fully informed about any changes that occur along the way. These changes may come at the request of the customer or one of the project teams or even from an external stakeholder.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

18) What are two common reasons that project or specification changes must be made?

Answer:  The need to make project changes or specification adjustments can come from one of several reasons. The design team may have made initial planning errors, either technological or human. As the project progresses, additional knowledge of the project or environmental conditions may come to light that affect the performance of the original design. An external entity may issue a mandate that affects original configuration or the client may request a new feature.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.5 Control Systems

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

19) What takes place at the project closeout step?

Answer:  All good projects, and even many bad ones, come to an end, and project closeout is the anticipation of this end. The project closeout step requires project managers to consider the types of records and reports that they and their clients will require at the completion of the project. Closeout documentation may include historical records, post project analysis, and financial closeout and this information may be held in case of contractual disputes, as a training tool, and to facilitate project auditing tasks.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.6 Project Closeout

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

 

20) How should the project closeout step be planned?

Answer:  Project closeout planning is an important component of scope management. The project closeout step requires project managers to consider the types of records and reports they and their clients will require at the completion of the project. The earlier in the scope development process that these decisions are made, the more useful the information collected over the project’s development can be. One of the most important lessons for successful project managers is to “start with the end in mind.” Clear goals at the beginning of a project make clear what the project’s completion will require. Project closeout requires managers to consider a priori the types and amounts of information to continually collect during project development, relying on a sound project tracking and filing system.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.6 Project Closeout

Skill:  Conceptual

AACSB Tag:  Reflective

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