Principles Of Human Anatomy 13th by Gerard J. Tortora – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

Package Title: Testbank

Course Title: pha13

Chapter Number: 05

 

 

Question type: Multiple Choice

 

 

1) The integument consists of which of the following?

 

  1. a) skin and subcutaneous layer
  2. b) epidermis and dermis
  3. c) cutaneous membrane and underlying muscle
  4. d) papillary and reticular regions

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

2) The greatest amount of keratin is found where?

 

  1. a) stratum basale
  2. b) stratum spinosum
  3. c) stratum corneum
  4. d) reticular region of the dermis

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

3) Together, the skin, hair, nails, glands, and associated muscles and nerves are an example of a/an:

 

  1. a) tissue
  2. b) organ
  3. c) system
  4. d) organism

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin

 

 

4) Calluses form in areas that

 

  1. a) have excessive blood flow
  2. b) have insufficient nerve supply
  3. c) are subject to friction
  4. d) undergo slowed rate of mitosis

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

5) Which of the following is found in the stratum basale?

 

  1. a) cuboidal or columnar shaped cells
  2. b) keratinocytes
  3. c) melanocytes
  4. d) all of these choices

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

6) Cells in the deepest layer of the epidermis divide to produce all other epidermal cells. From deepest to most superficial, the cells pass through the layers in what order?
1. stratum spinosum
2. stratum basale
3. stratum corneum
4. stratum lucidum (only in thick skin)
5. stratum granulosum

 

  1. a) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
  2. b) 2, 3, 1, 5, 4
  3. c) 3, 2, 4, 1, 5
  4. d) 2, 1, 5, 4, 3

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

7) As keratinocytes move to the surface

 

  1. a) they become multinucleate
  2. b) they divide to produce new skin cells
  3. c) they eventually die and are sloughed off
  4. d) all of these choices

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

8) Tattoos are created by injecting ink with a needle into the _____.

 

  1. a) stratum basale
  2. b) dermis
  3. c) subcutaneous layer
  4. d) stratum corneum

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.2 Compare the composition of the papillary and reticular regions of the dermis.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

9) The ability of skin to stretch and recoil is due to the presence of _____ in the _____.

 

  1. a) elastic fibers, epidermis
  2. b) adipose tissue, dermis
  3. c) elastic fibers, dermis
  4. d) basement membrane, hypodermis

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.2 Compare the composition of the papillary and reticular regions of the dermis.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

10) Which of the following statements about skin color is false?

 

  1. a) Three pigments that are responsible for skin color are hemoglobin, carotene, and melanin.
  2. b) UV exposure leads to increased production of melanin.
  3. c) Melanin is produced in the organelles of epithelial cells and then migrates to the hypodermis.
  4. d) Carotene contributes a yellow-orange hue to the skin.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.3 Explain the anatomical basis of differences in skin color.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

11) Functions of the skin include:

 

  1. a) excretion of some wastes
  2. b) acting as a blood reservoir
  3. c) acting in immunity
  4. d) all of these choices

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.4 Describe how the skin contributes to the regulation of body temperature, storage of blood, protection, sensation, excretion and absorption, and synthesis of vitamin D.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.4 Functions of the Skin

 

 

12) Which of the following is not considered an epidermal derivative?

 

  1. a) sebaceous glands
  2. b) lamellated corpuscles
  3. c) sudoriferous glands
  4. d) hair

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

13) The narrow strip of epidermis found on the surface of the proximal border of a nail is called _____.

 

  1. a) eponychium (cuticle)
  2. b) free edge
  3. c) lunula
  4. d) hyponychium

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin

 

 

14) Which of the following is characteristic of the growth of a scalp hair?

 

  1. a) continuous steady growth until the hair is shed and replaced by a new hair
  2. b) alternating growth phases and resting phases throughout the life of the hair
  3. c) a resting phase followed by a growth phase, which lasts until the hair is shed and replaced by a new hair
  4. d) a growth phase followed by a resting phase, which lasts until the hair is shed and replaced by a new hair

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin

 

 

15) Melanocytes synthesize melanin from which amino acid?

 

  1. a) tryptophan
  2. b) tyrosine
  3. c) tropomyosin
  4. d) thyroxine

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.3 Explain the anatomical basis of differences in skin color.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

16) Which of the following statements is true?

 

  1. a) Melanoma is the most common form of skin cancer.
  2. b) Squamous cell carcinoma is the most likely form of skin cancer to metastasize.
  3. c) Basal cell carcinoma rarely metastasizes.
  4. d) Skin color and family history are not risk factors for skin cancer.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.3 Explain the anatomical basis of differences in skin color.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

17) Orientation of which dermal fibers is responsible for “lines of cleavage” (tension lines) seen in the skin?

 

  1. a) reticular
  2. b) collagen
  3. c) elastic
  4. d) none of these choices

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.2 Compare the composition of the papillary and reticular regions of the dermis.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

18) Which of the following contributes to the increased incidence of heat stroke in the elderly?

 

  1. a) decreased circulation
  2. b) decreased sudoriferous gland activity
  3. c) decreased number of melanocytes
  4. d) increased number of intraepidermal macrophages (Langerhans cells)

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.7 Describe the effects of aging on the integumentary system.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.7 Aging and the Integumentary System

 

 

19) What word does the letter “B” stand for in the American Cancer Society’s ABCD guidelines for detecting malignant melanoma?

 

  1. a) big (greater than 6mm)
  2. b) brown/black pigmentation
  3. c) border is irregular
  4. d) blister

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.3 Explain the anatomical basis of differences in skin color.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

20) Contraction of the _____ cause(s) “goose bumps.”

 

  1. a) hair follicle
  2. b) underlying skeletal muscle
  3. c) arrector pili muscle
  4. d) capillary loops in the papillary region of the dermis

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin

 

 

21) Thick skin, containing all five layers of the epidermis, is found in areas of all of the following except _____.

 

  1. a) palms
  2. b) soles
  3. c) fingertips
  4. d) upper back

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.3 Compare structural and functional differences in thin and thick skin.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.3 Types of Skin

 

 

22) The _____ gives rise to the epidermis.

 

  1. a) mesenchyme
  2. b) ectoderm
  3. c) mesoderm
  4. d) endoderm

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.6 Describe the development of the epidermis, its accessory structures, and the dermis.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.6 Development of the Integumentary System

 

 

23) What is the correct order for the development of the dermis?

 

  1. a) mesoderm; mesenchyme; fibroblasts
  2. b) endoderm; mesenchyme; keratinocytes
  3. c) ectoderm; fibroblasts; melanocytes
  4. d) mesoderm; collagen; mesenchyme

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.6 Describe the development of the epidermis, its accessory structures, and the dermis.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.6 Development of the Integumentary System

 

 

24) Which of the following terms best describes a bluish skin color most likely resulting from an inadequate amount of oxygen circulating in the blood?

 

  1. a) erythema
  2. b) cyanosis
  3. c) albinism
  4. d) hirsutism

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.3 Explain the anatomical basis of differences in skin color.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the skin

 

 

25) Following a burn, charring and insensitivity to pain was found over the entire surface of the right lower limb, entire surface of right trunk and anterior surface of the right upper limb. Approximately what percent of the body surface had burns and how would you classify the burn?

 

  1. a) 18%; second degree
  2. b) 27%, third degree
  3. c) 32%, partial thickness
  4. d) 40%, third degree

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 5.5 Describe the blood supply of the integumentary system.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.5 Blood Supply of the Integumentary System

 

 

Question type: True/False

 

 

26) The papillae of hair fill with ectoderm in which blood vessels develop.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.6 Describe the development of the epidermis, its accessory structures, and the dermis.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.6 Development of the Integumentary System

 

 

27) The two principal layers of skin are the epidermis and the subcutaneous layer.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.2 Compare the composition of the papillary and reticular regions of the dermis.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

28) Differences in skin color are mainly due to the number of melanocytes in the epidermis.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.3 Explain the anatomical basis of differences in skin color.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

29) The cutaneous plexus is located in the epidermis and supplies cells of the epidermis and upper dermis with blood.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.5 Describe the blood supply of the integumentary system.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.5 Blood Supply of the Integumentary System

 

 

30) One of the factors responsible for skin color differences among races is the amount of melanin the keratinocytes produce and transfer to melanocytes.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.3 Explain the anatomical basis of differences in skin color.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

31) Albinism is caused by a total lack of melanocytes.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.3 Explain the anatomical basis of differences in skin color.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

32) Cells in the three most superficial layers of the epidermis receive a large supply of blood from blood vessels in the dermis.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.5 Describe the blood supply of the integumentary system.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.5 Blood Supply of the Integumentary System

 

 

33) The skin is supplied with blood by two arterial plexuses called the papillary plexus and the cutaneous plexus.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 5.5 Describe the blood supply of the integumentary system.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.5 Blood Supply of the Integumentary System

 

 

34) The deepest layer of the skin is called the hypodermis.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.2 Compare the composition of the papillary and reticular regions of the dermis.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the skin

 

 

35) A callus is a thickening of the dermis caused by excessive friction.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

 

 

36) Three major types of skin are recognized on the basis of certain structural and functional properties: thin skin, intermediate skin, and thick skin.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.3 Compare structural and functional differences in thin and thick skin.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.3 Types of Skin

 

 

37) Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin

 

 

38) Fingernails consist of hardened glandular secretions from the tissue of the nail root.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin

 

 

39) The lunula of a nail appears whiter than the rest of the nail due to the structure of the stratum basale.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of The Skin

 

 

40) Thin skin has fewer epidermal ridges, sudoriferous glands, and sensory receptors than thick skin.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.3 Compare structural and functional differences in thin and thick skin.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.3 Types of Skin

 

 

41) Vitamin D synthesis begins in the skin as a result of UV radiation altering a precursor molecule.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.4 Describe how the skin contributes to the regulation of body temperature, storage of blood, protection, sensation, excretion and absorption, and synthesis of vitamin D.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.4 Functions of the Skin

 

 

42) Vernix caseosa is secreted by sebaceous glands to protect the fetus from amniotic fluid.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.6 Describe the development of the epidermis, its accessory structures, and the dermis.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.6 Development of the Integumentary System

 

 

43) Development of blisters following exposure of skin to heat is indicative of a first-degree burn.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.5 Describe the blood supply of the integumentary system.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.5 Blood Supply of the Integumentary System

 

 

44) Most of the age-related changes associated with the integumentary system occur in the epidermis.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.7 Describe the effects of aging on the integumentary system.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.7 Aging and the Integumentary System

 

 

Question type: Essay

 

 

45) Describe the layers of the epidermis and discuss growth of the epidermis. Include a description of the different cell types. Accompany your answer with a labeled diagram.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

Solution: The answer should include the names of the layers and a description of the cells in each layer. See Table 5.1 and Figure 5.3.

 

 

46) Describe the tissues and structures of the two regions (layers) of the dermis.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

Solution: Papillary region—upper 1/5; areolar tissue with elastic fibers, dermal papillae, blood vessels, corpuscles of touch. Reticular region—lower 4/5; network of dense irregular connective tissue, elastic and collagen fibers, adipose tissue, glands, hair follicles, blood vessels, temperature and other receptors.

 

 

47) Describe the changes that occur in skin with age.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 5.7 Describe the effects of aging on the integumentary system.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.7 Aging and the Integumentary System

Solution: Aging produces changes in characteristics of elastic and collagen fibers; decreased melanocytes, fibroblasts, and intraepidermal macrophages (Langerhans cells); diminished function of glands; loss of subcutaneous fat; thinning of dermis; decreased rate of replacement of epidermal cells.

 

 

48) Describe the damage of first, second, and third degree burns.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 5.5 Describe the blood supply of the integumentary system.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.5 Blood Supply of the Integumentary System

Solution: A first-degree burn involves only the superficial layers of the epidermis. Second-degree burns destroy the entire epidermis and may include part of the dermis. A third-degree burn is a full-thickness burn that destroys epidermis, dermis, and accessory structures of the skin.

 

 

49) Discuss the three common forms of skin cancer.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

Solution: Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma; see clinical connection to skin cancer

 

 

50) Explain how wrinkles result as a normal consequence of aging.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.7 Describe the effects of aging on the integumentary system.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.7 Aging and the Integumentary System

Solution: Collagen fibers in the dermis begin to decrease in number, stiffen, break apart, and disorganize into a shapeless, matted tangle. Elastic fibers lose some of their elasticity, thicken into clumps, and fray, an effect that is greatly accelerated in the skin of smokers. Fibroblasts, which produce both collagen and elastic fibers, decrease in number.

 

 

Question type: Text entry

 

 

51) The layer of the epidermis containing the most layers of cells is the stratum _____.

 

Answer: corneum

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

Solution: corneum

 

 

52) Surface patterns that develop on the skin of the hands and feet are due to the presence of dermal papillae and are called _____ ridges.

 

Answer: epidermal

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.2 Compare the composition of the papillary and reticular regions of the dermis.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

Solution: epidermal

 

 

53) Lipids released by _____ granules of keratinocytes are responsible for reducing the passage of water through the skin.

 

Answer: lamellar

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.4 Describe how the skin contributes to the regulation of body temperature, storage of blood, protection, sensation, excretion and absorption, and synthesis of vitamin D.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.4 Functions of the Skin

Solution: lamellar

 

 

54) Keratohyalin granules are characteristic of the stratum _____ layer of the epidermis.

 

Answer: granulosum

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

Solution: granulosum

 

 

55) “Goose bumps” on the skin are due to contraction of smooth muscles called _____, which are associated with hair follicles.

 

Answer: arrector pili

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin

Solution: arrector pili

 

 

56) The _____ of the hair is the portion that projects from the surface of the skin.

 

Answer: shaft

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin

Solution: shaft

 

 

57) The concentric layers of a hair from external to internal are _____, _____, and _____.

 

Answer: cuticle, cortex, medulla

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin

Solution: cuticle, cortex, medulla

 

 

58) Thin skin lacks the stratum _____ layer of the epidermis.

 

Answer: lucidum

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 5.3 Compare structural and functional differences in thin and thick skin.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.3 Types of Skin

Solution: lucidum

 

 

59) Epithelial cells from the _____ give rise to the sebaceous glands during fetal development.

 

Answer: hair follicles

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.6 Describe the development of the epidermis, its accessory structures, and the dermis.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.6 Development of the Integumentary System

Solution: hair follicles

 

 

60) In the fifth or sixth month of fetal development, hair follicles produce delicate fetal hair called _____, which is usually shed prior to birth.

 

Answer: lanugo

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin

Solution: lanugo

 

 

61) A mild sunburn is an example of a _____ burn and involves only the _____ layer of the skin.

 

Answer: first-degree, epidermal

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.5 Describe the blood supply of the integumentary system.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.5 Blood Supply of the Integumentary System

Solution: first-degree, epidermal

 

 

62) ______ is due to a buildup of the yellow pigment bilirubin in the skin. This condition gives a yellowish appearance to the skin and the whites of the eyes, and usually indicates liver disease.

 

Answer: Jaundice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.3 Explain the anatomical basis of differences in skin color.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

Solution: Jaundice

 

 

63) In regards to thermoregulatory sweating, sweat that evaporates from the skin before it is perceived as moisture is termed _____ perspiration; whereas sweat that is excreted in larger amounts and is seen as moisture on the skin is called _____ perspiration.

 

Answer: insensible; sensible

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin

Solution: insensible; sensible

 

 

Question type: Essay

 

 

64) Name the structure indicated by A.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin

Solution: sebaceous gland

 

 

65) Give two different names for the layer indicated by C.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.3 Explain the anatomical basis of differences in skin color.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

Solution: hypodermis and subcutaneous (subQ) layer

 

 

66) Identify the specific structure indicated by B.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin

Solution: arrector pili muscle

 

 

67) Name the specialized receptor indicated by D.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

Solution: lamellated corpuscle (pacinian corpuscle)

 

 

68) Identify the specific layer in which cells begin dying.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

Solution: F (stratum granulosum)

 

 

69) Identify the type of cell that has an immune function.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

Solution: C (intraepidermal macrophage [Langerhans cell])

 

 

70) Identify the cell type that produces melanin.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

Solution: B (melanocyte)

 

 

71) Identify the layer sometimes referred to as stratum germinativum because of its role in forming new cells.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

Solution: D (stratum basale)

 

 

72) Identify the deepest layer of the skin.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.1 Describe the general structure of skin.

Study Objective 2: SO 5.1.2 Compare the composition of the papillary and reticular regions of the dermis.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.1 Structure of the Skin

Solution: G (dermis)

 

 

73) C is pointing to what structure?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin

Solution: external root sheath

 

 

74) A is pointing to what structure?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin

Solution: internal root sheath

 

 

75) B is pointing to what structure?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 5.2 Compare the structure, distribution, and functions of hair, skin glands, and nails.

Section Reference 1: Sec 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin

Solution: cuticle of the hair

 

 

 

Package Title: Testbank

Course Title: PHA13e

Chapter Number: 18

 

 

Question type: Multiple Choice

 

 

1) Which of the following is NOT an extension of the dura mater?

 

  1. a) falx cerebelli
  2. b) falx cerebri
  3. c) tentorium cerebelli
  4. d) epidural space

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.2 Explain how the brain is protected including the formation of the cerebrospinal fluid and the blood supply to the brain.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.2.1 Explain how the brain is protected.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.2 Protection and Blood Supply

 

 

2) Choroid plexuses are specialized capillaries in the CNS that
1. are covered by ependymal cells.
2. are located in the walls of the ventricles.
3. are located in the dural venous sinuses.
4. are the sites for reabsorption of CSF.
5. are derived from the arachnoid layer of the meninges.

 

  1. a) 3, 4, 5
  2. b) 1, 2, 4, 5
  3. c) 1, 2
  4. d) 2, 3, 4

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.2 Explain how the brain is protected including the formation of the cerebrospinal fluid and the blood supply to the brain.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.2.2 Describe the formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.2 Protection and Blood Supply.

 

 

3) The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier

 

  1. a) is the same thing as the blood-brain barrier.
  2. b) is due mainly to tight junctions between endothelial cells of the capillaries throughout the brain tissue.
  3. c) protects the neurons of the brain and spinal cord from potentially harmful substances in the blood.
  4. d) is another name for cranial meninges.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.2 Explain how the brain is protected including the formation of the cerebrospinal fluid and the blood supply to the brain.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.2.2 Describe the formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.2 Protection and Blood Supply.

 

 

4) Circumventricular organs in the wall of the third ventricle lack a blood-brain barrier. This enables them to

 

  1. a) facilitate the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles.
  2. b) monitor the chemical composition of the blood.
  3. c) secrete cerebrospinal fluid into the ventricles.
  4. d) all of these choices.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.5 Describe the components and functions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus and circumventricular organs.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.5.2 Define circumventricular organs and their functions.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.5 The Diencephalon

 

 

5) Which of the following is an incorrect statement about a feature of the medulla oblongata?

 

  1. a) The inferior cerebellar peduncles are fiber tracts that connect the olives of the medulla to the cerebellum.
  2. b) The vestibular nuclear complex is found mostly in the medulla.
  3. c) Pyramids contain the main sensory tracts that pass through the brain stem from the spinal cord; they are visible on the dorsal surface of the medulla.
  4. d) Vital reflex centers for control of heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure are located in the medulla.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.3 Describe the structures and functions of the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation.

 

 

6) The regions of the brain stem involved in the control of respiration are the

 

  1. a) medulla and pons.
  2. b) pons and midbrain.
  3. c) midbrain and medulla.
  4. d) midbrain, pons, and medulla.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.3 Describe the structures and functions of the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation.

 

 

7) The tectum of the midbrain bears four rounded elevations

 

  1. a) called substantia nigra.
  2. b) that control all subconscious muscle activities.
  3. c) that transmit all sensory and motor information between the upper and lower brain regions.
  4. d) that control reflex movements in response to visual and auditory stimuli.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.3 Describe the structures and functions of the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation.

 

 

8) The cerebellar peduncles conduct information into and out of the cerebellum. The correct statement is

 

  1. a) the superior cerebellar peduncles conduct only sensory information.
  2. b) the inferior cerebellar peduncles contain only motor fibers.
  3. c) the middle cerebellar peduncles contain only afferent (sensory) fibers.
  4. d) none of these choices.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 18.4 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum and include the location and importance of the cerebellar peduncles.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.4.2 Explain the location and importance of the cerebellar peduncles.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.4 The Cerebellum

 

 

9) A midsagittal section of the brain would pass through which of the following?

 

  1. a) longitudinal fissure
  2. b) corpus callosum
  3. c) falx cerebri
  4. d) all of these choices

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their location.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.6.1 Describe the cortex, convolutions, fissures, and sulci of the cerebrum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

10) The postcentral gyrus is in the _____ lobe of the cortex; it contains the primary _____ area.

 

  1. a) parietal, somatosensory
  2. b) parietal, motor
  3. c) frontal, somatosensory
  4. d) frontal, motor

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their location.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.6.2 Outline the lobes of the cerebrum and indicate their locations.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

11) The corpus callosum allows information to travel between cerebral hemispheres. Therefore the corpus callosum contains _____ tracts.

 

  1. a) association
  2. b) commissural
  3. c) projection
  4. d) all of these choices

 

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their location.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.6.3 Describe the tracts that comprise the cerebral white matter.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

12) Which of the following statements about the basal nuclei is/are TRUE?

 

  1. a) The caudate nucleus consists of the globus pallidus and the putamen.
  2. b) The corpus striatum consists of the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus.
  3. c) The putamen and caudate nucleus regulate muscle tone required for specific movements
  4. d) all of these choices.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their location.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.6.4 Identify the nuclei that comprise the basal nuclei.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

13) Which of the following is NOT a part of the hypothalamus?

 

  1. a) preoptic region
  2. b) tuberal region
  3. c) supraoptic region
  4. d) intermediate mass

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.5 Describe the components and functions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus and circumventricular organs.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.5.1 Describe the components and functions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.5 The Diencephalon

 

 

14) The infundibulum is the anatomical link between the brain and the pituitary gland, and therefore it is the primary link between the nervous and endocrine systems. Structures contained in the infundibulum consist of which of the following?

 

  1. a) a tract that transports hormones from the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei to the posterior pituitary
  2. b) small blood vessels that transport regulating hormones from the median eminence of the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary
  3. c) Both choices are correct.
  4. d) Neither choice is correct.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.5 Describe the components and functions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus and circumventricular organs.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.5.1 Describe the components and functions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.5 The Diencephalon

 

 

15) Loss of taste in the anterior region of the tongue may be an indication of damage to which cranial nerve?

 

  1. a) facial VII
  2. b) trigeminal V
  3. c) glossopharyngeal IX
  4. d) vagus X

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.14 Identify the origins of the facial (VII) nerve in the brain, the foramen through which it exits the skull, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Sec EXHIBIT 18.E Facial (VII) Nerve

 

 

16) Inability to control eyeball movement may indicate damage to which cranial nerve(s)?

  1. trochlear IV
    2. optic II
    3. oculomotor III
    4. trigeminal V
    5. abducens VI

 

  1. a) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
  2. b) 2, 3, 4, 5
  3. c) 1, 2, 4
  4. d) 1, 3, 5

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.12 Identify the origins of the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), and abducens (VI) nerves in the brain, the foramen through which each exits the skull, and their functions.

Section Reference 1: Sec EXHIBIT 18.C Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), and Abducens (VI) Nerves

 

 

17) A block of which nerve would provide anesthesia to the lower teeth and chin?

 

  1. a) maxillary branch of cranial nerve V
  2. b) mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve
  3. c) glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
  4. d) cranial nerve VII

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.13 Identify the origin of the trigeminal (V) nerve from the brain, describe the foramina through which each of its three major branches exits the skull, and explain the function of each branch.

Section Reference 1: Sec EXHIBIT 18.D Trigeminal (V) Nerve

 

 

18) In what lobe of the cerebrum would you find the primary visual area?

 

  1. a) occipital lobe
  2. b) temporal lobe
  3. c) parietal lobe
  4. d) frontal lobe

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.7 Describe the location and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the importance of hemispheric lateralization, brain wave activity and the effects of learning on the nervous system.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.7.1 Outline the locations and functions of the sensory, association, and motor areas of the cerebral cortex.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex.

 

 

19) In what lobe of the cerebrum would you find the motor speech area (Broca’s area)?

 

  1. a) occipital lobe
  2. b) temporal lobe
  3. c) parietal lobe
  4. d) frontal lobe

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.7 Describe the location and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the importance of hemispheric lateralization, brain wave activity and the effects of learning on the nervous system.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.7.1 Outline the locations and functions of the sensory, association, and motor areas of the cerebral cortex.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex.

 

 

20) In what lobe of the cerebrum would you find the primary motor area?

 

  1. a) occipital lobe
  2. b) temporal lobe
  3. c) parietal lobe
  4. d) frontal lobe

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.7 Describe the location and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the importance of hemispheric lateralization, brain wave activity and the effects of learning on the nervous system.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.7.1 Outline the locations and functions of the sensory, association, and motor areas of the cerebral cortex.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex.

 

 

21) In what lobe of the cerebrum would you find the primary auditory area?

 

  1. a) occipital lobe
  2. b) temporal lobe
  3. c) parietal lobe
  4. d) frontal lobe

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.7 Describe the location and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the importance of hemispheric lateralization, brain wave activity and the effects of learning on the nervous system.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.7.1 Outline the locations and functions of the sensory, association, and motor areas of the cerebral cortex.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex.

 

 

22) In what part of the brain would you find the oval shaped swellings called olives?

 

  1. a) midbrain
  2. b) medulla oblongata
  3. c) hypothalamus
  4. d) cerebrum

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.3 Describe the structures and functions of the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation.

 

 

23) In what part of the brain would you find the cerebral peduncles?

 

  1. a) midbrain
  2. b) medulla oblongata
  3. c) hypothalamus
  4. d) cerebrum

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.3 Describe the structures and functions of the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation.

 

 

24) In what part of the brain would you find the corpus striatum?

 

  1. a) midbrain
  2. b) medulla oblongata
  3. c) hypothalamus
  4. d) cerebrum

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their location.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.6.4 Identify the nuclei that comprise the basal nuclei.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

25) In what part of the brain would you find the medial and lateral geniculate nuclei?

 

  1. a) thalamus
  2. b) medulla oblongata
  3. c) hypothalamus
  4. d) cerebrum

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.5 Describe the components and functions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus and circumventricular organs.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.5.1 Describe the components and functions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.5 The Diencephalon

 

 

26) In what part of the brain would you find the insula?

 

  1. a) thalamus
  2. b) medulla oblongata
  3. c) hypothalamus
  4. d) cerebrum

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their location.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.6.2 Outline the lobes of the cerebrum and indicate their locations.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

27) In what part of the brain would you find the hippocampus?

 

  1. a) thalamus
  2. b) limbic system
  3. c) hypothalamus
  4. d) cerebellum

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 18.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their location.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.6.5 List the structures of the limbic system and describe their functions.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

28) In what part of the brain would you find the arbor vitae?

 

  1. a) thalamus
  2. b) limbic system
  3. c) cerebellum
  4. d) pons

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.4 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum and include the location and importance of the cerebellar peduncles.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.4.1 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.4 The Cerebellum

 

 

29) Which is a function of the olfactory (I) nerve?

 

  1. a) conveys nerve impulses related to smell
  2. b) conveys nerve impulses related to vision
  3. c) causes movement of eyelid and eyeball; constriction of pupil
  4. d) causes movement of eyeball via superior oblique muscle

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.10 Identify the termination of the olfactory (I) nerve in the brain, the foramen through which it passes, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Sec EXHIBIT 18.A Olfactory (I) Nerve

 

 

30) Which is a function of the vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerve?

 

  1. a) conveys sensory impulses from the facial region and anterior scalp
  2. b) turns eyeball laterally via lateral rectus muscle
  3. c) conveys impulses from the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue
  4. d) conveys impulses associated with hearing and equilibrium

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.15 Identify the origin of the vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerve in the brain, the foramen through which it exits the skull, and the functions of each of its branches.

Section Reference 1: Sec EXHIBIT 18.F Vestibulocochlear (VIII) Nerve

 

 

31) Which is a function of the glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve?

 

  1. a) conveys impulses from taste buds on the posterior one-third of the tongue
  2. b) conveys impulses to visceral, cardiac, and skeletal muscles
  3. c) conveys motor impulses to laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles, and to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
  4. d) controls movement of the tongue during speech and swallowing

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.16 Identify the origin of the glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve in the brain, the foramen through which it exits the skull, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Sec EXHIBIT 18.G Glossopharyngeal (IX) Nerve

 

 

32) Which is a function of the trigeminal (V) nerve?

 

  1. a) conveys sensory impulses from the facial region and anterior scalp
  2. b) turns eyeball laterally via lateral rectus muscle
  3. c) causes movement of eyelid and eyeball; constriction of pupil
  4. d) causes movement of eyeball via superior oblique muscle

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.13 Identify the origin of the trigeminal (V) nerve from the brain, describe the foramina through which each of its three major branches exits the skull, and explain the function of each branch.

Section Reference 1: Sec EXHIBIT 18.D Trigeminal (V) Nerve

 

 

33) Which is a function of the hypoglossal (XII) nerve?

 

  1. a) conveys impulses from taste buds on the posterior one-third of the tongue
  2. b) conveys impulses to visceral, cardiac, and skeletal muscles
  3. c) conveys motor impulses to laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles, and to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
  4. d) controls movement of the tongue during speech and swallowing

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.19 Identify the origin of the hypoglossal (XII) nerve in the brain, the foramen through which it exits the skull, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Sec EXHIBIT 18.J Hypoglossal (XII) Nerve

 

 

34) Which is a function of the abducens (VI) nerve?

 

  1. a) conveys sensory impulses from the facial region and anterior scalp
  2. b) turns eyeball medially via medial rectus muscle
  3. c) causes movement of eyelid and eyeball, constriction of pupil
  4. d) causes movement of eyeball via lateral rectus muscle

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.12 Identify the origins of the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), and abducens (VI) nerves in the brain, the foramen through which each exits the skull, and their functions.

Section Reference 1: Sec EXHIBIT 18.C Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), and Abducens (VI) Nerves

 

 

35) Which is a function of the facial (VII) nerve?

 

  1. a) conveys nerve impulses related to smell
  2. b) turns eyeball laterally via lateral rectus muscle
  3. c) conveys impulses from the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue
  4. d) conveys impulses associated with hearing and equilibrium

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.14 Identify the origins of the facial (VII) nerve in the brain, the foramen through which it exits the skull, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Sec EXHIBIT 18.E Facial (VII) Nerve

 

 

36) Which is a function of the vagus (X) nerve?

 

  1. a) conveys impulses from taste buds on the posterior one-third of the tongue
  2. b) conveys impulses to visceral, cardiac, and skeletal muscles
  3. c) conveys motor impulses to laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles, and to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
  4. d) controls movement of the tongue during speech and swallowing

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.17 Identify the origin of the vagus (X) nerve in the brain, the foramen through which it exits the skull, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Sec EXHIBIT 18.H Vagus (X) Nerve

 

 

37) Which is a function of the accessory (XI) nerve?

 

  1. a) conveys impulses from taste buds on the posterior one-third of the tongue
  2. b) conveys impulses to visceral, cardiac, and skeletal muscles
  3. c) conveys motor impulses to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
  4. d) controls movement of the tongue during speech and swallowing

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.18 Identify the origin of the accessory (XI) nerve in the spinal cord, the foramina through which it first enters and then exits the skull, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Sec EXHIBIT 18.I Accessory (XI) Nerve

 

 

Question type: True/False

 

 

38) Small openings in the roof of the third ventricle allow passage of CSF into the subarachnoid space.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.2 Explain how the brain is protected including the formation of the cerebrospinal fluid and the blood supply to the brain.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.2.2 Describe the formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.2 Protection and Blood Supply.

 

 

39) Oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, and most anesthetics readily pass through the blood-brain barrier.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.2 Explain how the brain is protected including the formation of the cerebrospinal fluid and the blood supply to the brain.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.2.3 Outline the blood supply of the brain.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.2 Protection and Blood Supply.

 

 

40) Pigmented nuclei in the midbrain called substantia nigra control subconscious muscle activities.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.3 Describe the structures and functions of the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation.

 

 

41) The transverse fissure separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.4 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum and include the location and importance of the cerebellar peduncles.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.4.1 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.4 The Cerebellum

 

 

42) The lateral cerebral sulcus primarily separates the temporal lobe from the parietal lobe.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their location.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.6.2 Outline the lobes of the cerebrum and indicate their locations.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

43) The pineal gland is attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.5 Describe the components and functions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus and circumventricular organs.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.5.1 Describe the components and functions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.5 The Diencephalon

 

 

44) All cranial nerves are mixed nerves.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.9 Identify the cranial nerves by name, number, and type, and give the function of each.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.9 Cranial Nerves

 

 

Question type: Essay

 

 

45) Discuss the location of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in relation to the basic functions of CSF; i.e., how does location facilitate function?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.2 Explain how the brain is protected including the formation of the cerebrospinal fluid and the blood supply to the brain.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.2.2 Describe the formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.2 Protection and Blood Supply.

Solution: Cerebrospinal fluid completely surrounds the brain and spinal cord, in the subarachnoid space, acting as a shock absorber. Its location next to the pia mater in the subarachnoid space at the surface of the brain and spinal cord allow cerebrospinal fluid to influence and maintain ionic composition of fluid surrounding the central nervous system neurons. Cerebrospinal fluid can also deliver nutrients to and remove wastes from the central nervous system tissue as CSF flows throughout the ventricular system and is absorbed back into the bloodstream.

 

 

46) Describe the route traveled by cerebrospinal fluid from production until it is reabsorbed into venous blood.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 18.2 Explain how the brain is protected including the formation of the cerebrospinal fluid and the blood supply to the brain.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.2.2 Describe the formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.2 Protection and Blood Supply.

Solution: Beginning with a choroid plexus in a lateral ventricle, the route should include all ventricles, passageways, spaces, etc., as in Figure. 18.5b.

 

 

47) Describe the blood-brain barrier and explain how it controls the movement of substances between the blood and brain tissue. Give examples of substances that readily cross the BBB.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.2 Explain how the brain is protected including the formation of the cerebrospinal fluid and the blood supply to the brain.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.2.3 Outline the blood supply of the brain.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.2 Protection and Blood Supply.

Solution: The following should be described or explained: tight junctions of endothelial cells, basement membrane, astrocytes, lipid solubility, transporters. Substances that cross the BBB include oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, anesthetics, water, alcohol, caffeine, heroin, and nicotine.

 

 

48) List the four main regions of the hypothalamus. Name the nuclei located in each region.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.5 Describe the components and functions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus and circumventricular organs.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.5.1 Describe the components and functions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.5 The Diencephalon

Solution: The four regions and their nuclei are summarized in the text.

 

 

49) List, in order from anterior to posterior, the 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Indicate whether each is sensory, motor, or mixed in function. State a main function for each nerve.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 18.9 Identify the cranial nerves by name, number, and type, and give the function of each.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.9 Cranial Nerves

Solution: Refer to Table 18.4

 

 

50) List the secondary brain vesicles and state which parts of the brain develop from each.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 18.1 Describe how the brain develops and relates to the different parts of the postnatal brain and identify the major parts of the brain.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.1.1 Describe how the brain develops and relates to the different parts of the postnatal brain.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.1 Development and General Structure of the Brain

Solution: Refer to Table 18.1

 

 

Question type: Multiple Choice

 

 

51) A broad region where gray matter and white matter show a netlike arrangement in the brain stem and the inferior part of the diencephalon, and whose function is to influence muscle tone and to cause arousal from sleep are collectively referred to as the

 

  1. a) reticular formation
  2. b) medial lemniscus
  3. c) cerebral peduncles
  4. d) cerebellar peduncles

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.3 Describe the structures and functions of the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation.

 

 

52) Which of the following is incorrectly matched regarding the midbrain?

 

  1. a) Inferior colliculi; reflex centers for sudden movements of the head and trunk in response to auditory stimuli
  2. b) Superior colliculi; reflex centers for movements of the eyes, head and neck in response to visual stimuli
  3. c) Red nucleus; origin of the tectospinal tract
  4. d) Substantia nigra; production of the neurotransmitter dopamine

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.3 Describe the structures and functions of the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation.

 

 

53) Which lobe(s) of the cerebellum controls subconscious movement of skeletal muscles?

 

  1. a) anterior and posterior
  2. b) flocculonodular
  3. c) anterior and flocculonodular
  4. d) posterior and flocculonodular

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.4 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum and include the location and importance of the cerebellar peduncles.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.4.1 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.4 The Cerebellum

 

 

Question type: True/False

 

 

54) The hypothalamic mammillary bodies serve as relay stations for reflexes related to the sense of smell.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.5 Describe the components and functions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus and circumventricular organs.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.5.1 Describe the components and functions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.5 The Diencephalon

 

 

Question type: Multiple Choice

 

 

55) Which of the following is NOT a branch of the trigeminal (V) nerve?

 

  1. a) mandibular
  2. b) ophthalmic
  3. c) temporal
  4. d) maxillary

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.13 Identify the origin of the trigeminal (V) nerve from the brain, describe the foramina through which each of its three major branches exits the skull, and explain the function of each branch.

Section Reference 1: Sec EXHIBIT 18.D Trigeminal (V) Nerve

 

 

56) The cranial nerve which conveys parasympathetic control of most organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities is

 

  1. a) accessory (XI) nerve
  2. b) glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve
  3. c) facial (VII) nerve
  4. d) vagus (X) nerve

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.17 Identify the origin of the vagus (X) nerve in the brain, the foramen through which it exits the skull, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Sec EXHIBIT 18.H Vagus (X) Nerve

 

 

57) The structure indicated by the arrow is the _____.

 

  1. a) pons
  2. b) midbrain
  3. c) thalamus
  4. d) medulla oblongata

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.3 Describe the structures and functions of the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation.

 

 

58) This structure arises from the _____.

 

  1. a) telencephalon.
  2. b) mesencephalon.
  3. c) metencephalon.
  4. d) diencephalon.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.1 Describe how the brain develops and relates to the different parts of the postnatal brain and identify the major parts of the brain.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.1.1 Describe how the brain develops and relates to the different parts of the postnatal brain.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.1 Development and General Structure of the Brain.

 

 

59) The structure indicated by the arrow is involved with which function?

 

  1. a) vision
  2. b) hearing
  3. c) taste
  4. d) smell

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.10 Identify the termination of the olfactory (I) nerve in the brain, the foramen through which it passes, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Sec EXHIBIT 18.A Olfactory (I) Nerve

 

 

60) The structure indicated by the arrow

 

  1. a) is where the rubrospinal tract begins.
  2. b) is where the corticospinal tract decussates.
  3. c) is where the spinothalamic tract crosses.
  4. d) is where third-order neurons of the posterior (dorsal) column tract originate.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.3 Describe the structures and functions of the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation.

 

 

61) The structure indicated by the arrow is separated from the occipital lobe of the cerebrum by the

 

  1. a) transverse fissure
  2. b) longitudinal fissure
  3. c) central sulcus
  4. d) lateral sulcus

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.4 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum and include the location and importance of the cerebellar peduncles.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.4.1 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.4 The Cerebellum

 

 

62) This structure is separated from the occipital lobe of the cerebrum by a fold of the dura mater referred to as the

 

  1. a) transverse fissure.
  2. b) longitudinal fissure.
  3. c) falx cerebri.
  4. d) tentorium cerebelli.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.4 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum and include the location and importance of the cerebellar peduncles.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.4.1 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.4 The Cerebellum

 

 

63) The structure indicated by the arrows is the

 

  1. a) cerebral peduncle
  2. b) medullary pyramid
  3. c) vermis
  4. d) cerebellar peduncle

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 18.4 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum and include the location and importance of the cerebellar peduncles.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.4.2 Explain the location and importance of the cerebellar peduncles.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.4 Cerebellum

 

 

64) The structure indicated by the arrow is the

 

  1. a) Central sulcus
  2. b) Lateral sulcus
  3. c) Transverse fissure
  4. d) Longitudinal fissure

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their location.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.6.1 Describe the cortex, convolutions, fissures, and sulci of the cerebrum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

65) What collection of commissural fibers is located deep in this structure?

 

  1. a) association tracts
  2. b) corpus callosum
  3. c) internal capsule
  4. d) projections tracts

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their location.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.6.3 Describe the tracts that comprise the cerebral white matter.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

66) The structure indicated by the arrow is primarily involved with which of the following?

 

  1. a) smell
  2. b) vision
  3. c) motor control
  4. d) sensory perception

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their location.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.6.2 Outline the lobes of the cerebrum and indicate their locations.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

67) The primary _____ area is located here.

 

  1. a) breathing
  2. b) sensory
  3. c) cardiovascular
  4. d) speech

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their location.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.6.1 Describe the cortex, convolutions, fissures, and sulci of the cerebrum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

68) This structure sends information directly to the cerebellum via the _____ cerebellar peduncles.

 

  1. a) superior
  2. b) middle
  3. c) inferior

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 18.4 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum and include the location and importance of the cerebellar peduncles.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.4.2 Explain the location and importance of the cerebellar peduncles.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.4 The Cerebellum

 

 

69) This structure separates what two cerebral lobes?

 

  1. a) temporal and parietal
  2. b) frontal and parietal
  3. c) temporal and occipital
  4. d) occipital and parietal

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their location.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.6.2 Outline the lobes of the cerebrum and indicate their locations.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

70) This structure is separated from the frontal lobe by the

 

  1. a) central sulcus.
  2. b) falx cerebri.
  3. c) lateral cerebral sulcus.
  4. d) transverse fissure.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their location.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.6.2 Outline the lobes of the cerebrum and indicate their locations.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

Question type: True/False

 

 

71) The structure indicated by the arrow is primarily involved in vision.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 18.7 Describe the location and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the importance of hemispheric lateralization, brain wave activity and the effects of learning on the nervous system.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.7.1 Outline the locations and functions of the sensory, association, and motor areas of the cerebral cortex.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex.

 

 

Question type: Multiple Choice

 

 

72) This structure is separated from the cerebellum by the

 

  1. a) central sulcus.
  2. b) transverse fissure.
  3. c) longitudinal fissure.
  4. d) falx cerebelli.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.4 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum and include the location and importance of the cerebellar peduncles.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.4.1 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.4 The Cerebellum

 

 

73) During development, most of the protective structures of the brain, that is, most of the bones of the skull, associated connective tissues, and meningeal membranes arise from

 

  1. a) the neural crest.
  2. b) the neural tube.
  3. c) the diencephalons.
  4. d) the rhombencephalon.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 18.1 Describe how the brain develops and relates to the different parts of the postnatal brain and identify the major parts of the brain.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.1.1 Describe how the brain develops and relates to the different parts of the postnatal brain.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.1 Development and General Structure of the brain

 

 

74) The Reticular Activating System receives input from ALL of the following types of stimuli except

 

  1. a) visual.
  2. b) auditory.
  3. c) smell.
  4. d) pain.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.3 Describe the structures and functions of the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation.

 

 

75) Loss of cholinergic neurons (release ACh), and the presence of beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are the hallmark features of what disease?

 

  1. a) Alzheimer’s disease
  2. b) Cerebral Palsy
  3. c) Epilepsy
  4. d) TIA

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 18.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their location.

Study Objective 2: SO 18.6.4 Identify the nuclei that comprise the basal nuclei.

Section Reference 1: Sec 18.6 The Cerebrum

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