Personality Psychology 1st Canadian Edition by Randy J. Larsen – Test Bank

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Exam
Name___________________________________
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) ________ is defined as both the consistencies in people and the ways people change
over time.
A) Personality coherence B) Mean level stability
C) Personality development D) Rank order stability
1)
2) When people maintain their position in a group over time, they display
A) mean level stability. B) possible selves.
C) rank order stability. D) personality coherence.
2)
3) If we measure height from the age of 12 to 18, we would likely see high degrees of
A) rank order instability.
B) rank order stability.
C) mean level stability.
D) both “mean level stability” and “rank order stability.”
3)
4) When the average level of a trait remains constant over time, we observe
A) rank order instability. B) mean level stability.
C) mean level change. D) rank order stability.
4)
5) The finding that sensation seeking tends to decrease with age is an example of
A) mean level stability. B) rank order instability.
C) mean level change. D) rank order stability.
5)
6) If we studied political attitudes and found that everyone became more conservative with
age, we would observe
A) rank order stability. B) mean level stability.
C) mean level change. D) rank order change.
6)
7) If an individual maintains his or her rank order for a trait relative to a group, but changes
the behaviours manifested by that trait over time, that individual is exhibiting
A) personality coherence. B) validity coefficients.
C) rank order stability. D) mean level stability.
7)
8) An example of ________ would be that ambivalently attached babies cry when their
mothers leave them, and that later in life as adults these individuals have many
short-lived relationships.
A) rank order stability B) mean level change
C) personality coherence D) mean level stability
8)
1
9) When Maria was a child she always did her homework on time and was an excellent
student. As an adult Maria is a highly organized business woman with a reputation for
meeting deadlines. Maria’s behaviour throughout her life demonstrates
A) rank order stability. B) personality coherence.
C) mean level stability. D) mean level reliability.
9)
10) Which of the following concepts does Gandhi’s life best illustrate?
A) How a personality changes over time.
B) Traits that are correlated with leadership skills.
C) The concept of rank order stability.
D) How a personality can remain stable over time.
10)
11) Personality changes take place when those changes are ________ and ________.
A) external; durable B) external; phenotypical
C) internal; progressive D) internal; enduring
11)
12) Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages is an example of personality change at the
________ level of analysis.
A) population B) individual uniqueness
C) individual differences D) group differences
12)
13) Which of the following is NOT an example of a topic at the group level of analysis?
A) Male versus female differences in empathy toward others.
B) Ethnic differences in body satisfaction.
C) Arousal differences that correlate with extraversion.
D) Cultural differences in coming of age rituals.
13)
14) ________ usually is/are defined as the individual differences that show up early in life
and are likely to be heritable and involved in behaviours linked with emotionality.
A) Temperament B) Traits
C) Individual differences D) Dispositions
14)
15) Which level of analysis would consider the question, “Can we predict healthy aging
from personality traits?”
A) Individual differences B) Population
C) Group differences D) Cultural differences
15)
16) Compared to Asian Canadian children, European Canadian children tend to be higher in
which 2 traits?
A) Extraversion and Antagonism B) Antagonism and Aggression
C) Extraversion and Self-Esteem D) Extraversion and Hostility
16)
2
17) Personality profiles characteristic of European Canadian children appear to predispose
them to
A) good adjustment and mental health.
B) internalizing disorders, such as depression.
C) relationship problems, such as marital dissatisfaction.
D) externalizing disorders, such as attention-defecit/hyperactivity disorder.
17)
18) Personality is least stable in
A) adolescence. B) early infancy. C) late infancy. D) adulthood.
18)
19) Personality differences usually can be first observed in
A) adolescence. B) adulthood. C) early infancy. D) late infancy.
19)
20) Which of the following aspects of temperament is probably most stable?
A) Activity level B) Soothability
C) Fear D) Duration of orienting
20)
21) Temperament has been found to be
A) unstable. B) more stable over long intervals.
C) more stable in early infancy. D) more stable over short interval.
21)
22) Correlations between the same measure taken at different points in time are called
A) mean level stability. B) validity coefficients.
C) rank order stability. D) stability coefficients.
22)
23) Correlations between different measures of the same trait taken at the same time are
called
A) rank order stability. B) stability coefficients.
C) validity coefficients. D) mean level stability.
23)
24) Buss, Block, and Block’s longitudinal study of activity level found
A) a lack of personality coherence. B) less stability over short intervals.
C) more stability over long intervals. D) stability in activity level over time.
24)
25) Research suggests that children classified as bullies in the 6 th grade
A) are more likely to have been bullied by parents.
B) will become “whipping boys” by the 7 th grade.
C) are more likely to have felony convictions by the time they are 24.
D) will be more popular in the 10 th grade.
25)
26) Victims of childhood bullying are more likely to experience ________ in adulthood.
A) depression B) relationship problems
C) anxiety D) All of the choices are correct.
26)
3
27) Traits from the five-factor model have been found to
A) have population stability in adulthood.
B) lack stability in early adulthood.
C) be only slightly stable in adulthood.
D) be moderately stable in adulthood.
27)
28) Researchers have found that personality stability
A) does not change reliably over time.
B) is best estimated by validity coefficients.
C) tends to decrease with age.
D) tends to increase with age.
28)
29) Trait consistency tends to reach each peak after age
A) 20. B) 30. C) 40. D) 50.
29)
30) Research suggests that traits from the five-factor model ________ mean level changes
with age.
A) show small B) show large
C) do not show D) show moderate
30)
31) The traits of extraversion, neuroticism, and openness tend to
A) decrease markedly after a person reaches his or her sixties.
B) increase substantially in a person’s thirties.
C) decline gradually with age until a person is about fifty years old.
D) fluctuate greatly in mean level stability during adolescence.
31)
32) Trait neuroticism and negative affect scores tend to ________ from the freshman to
senior years in college and university.
A) remain stable B) increase strongly
C) fluctuate wildly D) decrease strongly
32)
33) Trait levels of ________ and ________ tend to increase with age.
A) extraversion; openness to experience
B) neuroticism; extraversion
C) agreeableness; openness to experience
D) conscientiousness; agreeableness
33)
34) Some have suggested that more research focuses on personality stability, rather than
change, because
A) there might be a bias among researchers against even looking for personality
change.
B) longitudinal studies are difficult to conduct.
C) terms that refer to stability are generally more positive.
D) assessing change is easier than assessing stability.
34)
4
35) The Victoria Longitudinal Study has drawn into question what conclusion made by
personality researchers?
A) Mean level change appears to occur at a significant level between the ages of 55
and 85.
B) Personality becomes more difficult to measure as people age.
C) There is very little change in personality after the age of 50.
D) Personality measures increase in reliability with age.
35)
36) In the Victoria Longitudinal Study, older adults showed increases in ________ over
time.
A) introversion B) openness C) agreeableness D) neuroticism
36)
37) Women in the Victoria Longitudinal Study were more likely than men to show decreases
in ________ and increases in ________.
A) neuroticism; agreeableness B) antagonism; neuroticism
C) agreeableness; neuroticism D) neuroticism; antagonism
37)
38) According to the researchers involved in the Victoria Longitudinal Study, what is a
likely factor in personality change observed in old age?
A) The increased incidence of dementia, which predisposes people to personality
change.
B) Reduced cognitive functioning.
C) Unique life events, such as retirement or death of a loved one.
D) Increasingly poor physical health.
38)
39) People whose actual selves are close to their ideal selves score high on measures of
A) self-esteem. B) feared selves.
C) possible selves. D) desired selves.
39)
40) During adolescence, the self-esteem of ________ increases and the self-esteem of
________ decreases.
A) females; males B) irritable persons; calm persons
C) calm persons; irritable persons D) males; females
40)
41) A longitudinal study of architects that spanned 25 years found that
A) successful architects scored high on conventionality and conservatism scales.
B) impulsivity and flexibility scale scores increased with age for successful architects.
C) successful architects had fewer health problems than less creative architects.
D) successful architects scored high on independence and spontaneity scales.
41)
5
42) The architects classified as being “average” in a longitudinal, 25-year study, were found
to
A) have become somewhat more creative over the years, but not as much as the
successful architects.
B) score very low on conformity scales at both times data was collected in the study.
C) have considerably fewer health problems then the successful architects over the
years.
D) have become less impulse and flexible and to have become more rigid as they aged.
42)
43) A longitudinal study followed male management employees at AT&T over 20 years
starting in the late 1950s while the men were in their twenties. The study found that the
managers’ levels of ________ decreased over their careers.
A) autonomy B) dominance C) ambition D) motivation
43)
44) If you measure self-esteem every day for two weeks, you are probably most interested in
A) feared selves. B) self-esteem variability.
C) self-esteem level. D) possible selves.
44)
45) Self-esteem variability is most correlated with
A) depression. B) activity level.
C) childhood temper tantrums. D) self-esteem level.
45)
46) A person who feels very good after receiving a compliment, but very bad after being
insulted, would sore high on measures of
A) self-esteem variability.
B) self-esteem.
C) activity level.
D) both “self-esteem” and “self-esteem variability.”
46)
47) People who have high levels of self-esteem variability
A) react positively to objectively defined negative events.
B) score low on measures of self-esteem level.
C) score high on measures of self-esteem level.
D) depend on others for their sense of self-worth.
47)
48) Self-esteem variability appears to be strongly related to the extent to which one’s
self-view can be influenced by
A) the mean level of self-esteem.
B) the outcome of social events.
C) levels of monoanalyse oxide.
D) the self-esteem of others in the environment.
48)
6
49) Kara is extremely sensitive to the feedback of other people. She most likely has a(n)
A) extremely rigid sense of self-esteem. B) overall low level of self-esteem.
C) low mean level of self-esteem. D) high level of self-esteem variability.
49)
50) Which of the following is NOT a component of sensation seeking?
A) Disinhibition B) Thrill and adventure seeking
C) Boredom susceptibility D) Sociability
50)
51) When does the trait of sensation seeking tend to peak?
A) In midlife. B) In early childhood.
C) In late adolescence. D) In late life.
51)
52) Women who score high on the femininity scale of the California Psychological
Inventory (compared to low scorers) are more likely to
A) take the initiative in sexual encounters.
B) remember an acquaintance’s birthday.
C) demand equal social and political rights.
D) take charge of a committee meeting.
52)
53) A longitudinal study conducted of women who attended Mills College suggests that
femininity (defined as being dependent, emotional, gentle, high-strung, etc.) decreases to
become more masculine (defined as being assertive, confident, determined, independent,
etc.) from ages
A) 40 to 50. B) 30 to 40. C) 20 to 30. D) 13 to 20.
53)
54) The trait of competence tends to ________ women.
A) increase among married, but decrease among unmarried
B) increase with age among
C) decrease with age among
D) remain unchanged with age among
54)
55) Over time, trait scores of independence tended to increase for all women EXCEPT
A) working mothers. B) the nulliparous.
C) homemakers. D) divorced mothers.
55)
56) The Mills College longitudinal study of women found that homemakers’ level of
independence at age 21 versus that at age 43 suggests that
A) homemakers’ independence scores are likely to change little with age.
B) the role a university-educated woman has in life is irrelevant to changes in
personality.
C) being a homemaker requires much more independence than originally believed.
D) the roles women adopt are irrelevant to changes in independence.
56)
7
57) ________ are defined as the social times in which people live.
A) “Historical byproducts” B) “Cohort effects”
C) “Longitudinal effects” D) “Generational effects”
57)
58) The effects on individuals of living through the first gulf war is an example of
A) longitudinal effects. B) historical byproducts.
C) cohort effects. D) generational effects.
58)
59) North American women in the 1930s were more ________ than women of the 1950s.
A) self-sufficient B) resilient
C) passive D) sexually active
59)
60) North American women’s scores for ________ rose from 1931 to 1945 and also from
1968 to 1993.
A) assertiveness B) sensation seeking
C) level of education D) domesticity
60)
61) Which of the following has NOT been associated with marital satisfaction?
A) The wife’s neuroticism B) The husband’s impulsivity
C) The husband’s neuroticism D) The wife’s impulsivity
61)
62) Twenge concluded from her studies of cohort effects from 1968 to 1993 that
A) females internalized the social change and cultural messages of the era, and their
personalities were molded by these messages.
B) the culture in which an individual is immersed is the major determinant of
personality.
C) social and cultural changes had only marginal effects on personality.
D) cohort effects are interesting to study historically, but of little relevance to
personality psychology.
62)
63) “Personality coherence” refers to the predictable changes in
A) the mean level stability of personality traits.
B) how much “common sense” a personality score makes.
C) the outcomes of personality factors over time.
D) the effects of rank-order stability over time.
63)
64) Which of the following personality traits is one of the strongest predictors of divorce in
the Kelly and Conley longitudinal study of married couples?
A) Low conscientiousness B) High extraversion
C) Low agreeableness D) High neuroticism
64)
8
65) Husbands who score low on ________ have been found to be more likely to have
extramarital affairs.
A) impulse control B) extraversion
C) neuroticism D) dominance
65)
66) Individuals with a high level of ________ tend to cope better with the loss of a spouse.
A) impulse control B) neuroticism
C) dominance D) independence
66)
67) Which of the following has been suggested as the key factor with the later development
of alcoholism in men?
A) High levels of impulse control B) High levels of neuroticism
C) Low levels of impulse control D) Low levels of neuroticism
67)
68) Which of the following has been associated with the later development of emotional
disturbances in men?
A) High levels of impulse control B) Low levels of neuroticism
C) High levels of neuroticism D) Low levels of impulse control
68)
69) Impulsivity in men has been associated with
A) lower levels of academic achievement.
B) alcoholism.
C) lower levels of marital satisfaction.
D) All of the choices are correct.
69)
70) Which of the following does NOT predict later levels of marital satisfaction?
A) Sensation seeking B) Impulse control
C) Childhood temper tantrums D) Neuroticism
70)
71) A study found that men who had many childhood temper tantrums later
A) achieved higher levels of academic success.
B) had more successful military careers.
C) were more likely to be divorced.
D) achieved great financial success.
71)
72) Men classified as being “explosive” children in a 40-year longitudinal study presented
by Caspi and his colleagues in 1987 differed from the “nonexplosive” group by
A) earning more promotions for valor. B) benefiting from military discipline.
C) earning more medals for bravery. D) achieving lower military ranks.
72)
9
73) When people in marriages have similar personalities
A) they are more likely to divorce.
B) their personalities change more over time.
C) their personalities remain more stable over time.
D) their personalities are neither more nor less likely to change over time.
73)
74) ________ been associated with greater stability of personality over time.
A) High levels of neuroticism have
B) Low levels of neuroticism have
C) Marrying someone with a very different personality has
D) Marrying someone with a similar personality has
74)
75) Research has indicated a negative correlation between postsecondary GPA and
A) peer ratings of impulsivity before entering university.
B) parent ratings of impulsivity before entering university.
C) parent ratings of aggression before entering university.
D) peer ratings of neuroticism before entering university.
75)
10
Answer Key
Testname: UNTITLED5
1) C
2) C
3) B
4) B
5) C
6) C
7) A
8) C
9) B
10) D
11) D
12) A
13) C
14) A
15) A
16) A
17) D
18) B
19) C
20) A
21) D
22) D
23) C
24) D
25) C
26) D
27) D
28) D
29) D
30) A
31) C
32) D
33) D
34) A
35) C
36) D
37) A
38) C
39) A
40) D
41) D
42) D
43) C
44) B
45) A
46) A
47) D
48) B
49) D
50) D
11
Answer Key
Testname: UNTITLED5
51) C
52) B
53) A
54) B
55) C
56) A
57) B
58) C
59) A
60) A
61) D
62) A
63) C
64) D
65) A
66) B
67) C
68) C
69) D
70) A
71) C
72) D
73) C
74) D
75) A
12

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