Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach 8th Edition by Joyce S Osland – Test Bank

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Chapter 5

INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL MOTIVATION

 

Workbook Exam and Review Questions

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Motivation is _____.
  1. an external force that directs individuals toward certain goals
  2. an internal state that directs individuals toward certain goals (Easy; p. 101)
  3. activated by the same need profile for everyone
  4. activated solely by the valence of one’s ability
  5. none of the above

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the needs identified by Maslow?
  1. security needs
  2. social belonging needs
  3. physiological needs
  4. self-realization needs (Easy; p. 103)
  5. self-esteem needs

 

  1. McClelland’s theory of motivation focuses on three needs that are learned from one’s culture and family. They are _____.
  1. affiliation, achievement, and power (Easy; p. 104)
  2. affiliation, challenge, and achievement
  3. self-esteem, self-actualization, and power
  4. security, affiliation, and self-esteem
  5. none of the above

 

  1. Which of the following is incorrect?
  1. In addition to internal need states, motivation is also affected by the environment.
  2. Equity theory maintains that employee motivation is affected by the perceived fairness of what people contribute and receive.
  3. Social reinforcement theory maintains that people learn to use behaviors that are rewarded and to suppress behaviors that are punished or ignored.
  4. When it comes to goal achievement, it makes no difference whether goals are publicly stated or kept private. (Easy; p. 117)
  5. none of the above

 

  1. According to McClelland, a high need for achievement seems absolutely necessary for _____.
  1. managers
  2. social workers
  3. supervisors
  4. entrepreneurs (Moderate; p. 105)
  5. all of the above
  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of high need for achievement?
  1. like to set their own goals
  2. like to own prestige belongings (Easy; p. 105)
  3. tend to avoid either extremely difficult or extremely easy goals
  4. prefer tasks that provide immediate feedback on their performance
  5. none of the above

 

  1. To motivate employees, managers should _____.
  1. link rewards to performance even though rewards may not be equitably distributed
  2. reward employees for behaviors that promote the organization’s goals (Moderate; p. 118)
  3. be sure that the reward is one that the organization deems valuable and rewarding
  4. answer choices a and c
  5. none of the above

 

  1. The manager’s job is to _____, _____ and _____ employee motivation. Which of the following answers is incorrect?
  1. channel
  2. manipulate (Easy, p. 116)
  3. understand
  4. direct
  5. none of the above

 

  1. If a politician wants to run for office because she is motivated by a need to have a positive impact on government and influence her environment, which of McClelland’s needs best describes what is motivating her?
  2. physiological
  3. affiliation
  4. achievement
  5. security
  6. power (Easy; p. 104)

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a motivating job?
  1. job feedback
  2. job valence (Easy; p. 106)
  3. skill variety
  4. autonomy
  5. task identity

 

  1. Which of the following is a method of job enrichment?
  1. increase task identity
  2. create feedback systems
  3. increase discretion or autonomy
  4. answer choices a, b and c (Easy; p. 107-108)
  5. none of the above
  1. If an assembly line worker’s job is expanded horizontally from doing the same small task over and over to doing ten different tasks, what type of job redesign is this?
    1. job enlargement (Moderate; p. 108)
    2. job enrichment
    3. self-managed work teams
    4. job rotation
    5. socio-technical systems

 

  1. Goals result in higher performance when they are _____.
  1. general rather than specific
  2. accepted by employees (Easy; p. 109)
  3. kept private
  4. not accompanied by feedback
  5. all of the above

 

  1. According to equity theory, people who feel they are being treated inequitably due to being under-rewarded would be most likely to _____.
  1. increase their productivity
  2. decrease their absenteeism
  3. ask for additional vacation days (Moderate; p. 109)
  4. answer choices a and b
  5. none of the above

  1. According to expectancy theory, which of the following is a reason why an employee may be performing poorly?
  1. she does not believe that rewards are tied to performance (Moderate; p. 110)
  2. she values the rewards she receives but a coworker gets more than she does
  3. she sets goals that are too difficult to measure
  4. she is not motivated by achievement
  5. none of the above

 

True or False Questions

 

  1. Human needs exist in a hierarchy, and lower order needs have to be satisfied before higher order needs motivate behavior. _____ True or _____ False? Why?

 

False. Subsequent research has not supported the existence of a need hierarchy.

(Easy; p. 101)

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. People motivated by _____ demonstrate an un-socialized concern for personal dominance.

(personalized power; Moderate; p. 104)

 

  1. A concern for interpersonal relationships, but not at the expense of goal-oriented behavior, is referred to as _____.

(affiliative interest; Moderate; p. 104)

 

  1. The source of _____ motivation results in behavior that is performed because of the consequences it brings.

(extrinsic; Easy; p. 102)

  1. Match up these types of job redesign with the definitions below:
  2. job enlargement
  3. job enrichment
  4. self-managed work teams
  5. job rotation
  6. socio-technical systems

 

____ employee groups are responsible for deciding how they will accomplish work goals  (c)

____ vertical job leading, which increases job scope by including planning and control functions (b)

____ switching different jobs (d)

____ integration of the needs of both people and technology (e)

____ horizontal job loading, which combines related tasks (a)

(Moderate; p. 107-108)

 

  1. If a person is motivated because they enjoy the work itself, what source of motivation is this?

 

Intrinsic behavior is performed for its own sake. The work itself is pleasurable, and we see examples of this in people who love the work they do.

(Easy; p. 102)

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. What is the difference between the positive (socialized) and negative (personalized) need for power? Discuss these different faces of power and provide examples of both faces.

 

People motivated by the positive need for power (socialized power) use it for the good of others—to make their organizations better. They are hesitant to use power to manipulate others. People with this need are less defensive and selfish and work to empower others. An example is a coach. People motivated by the negative need for power (personalized power) use it to dominate others. They have little inhibition or self-control and they exercise power impulsively. They tend to exploit and manipulate others and often satisfy their needs vicariously. An example is a dictator. (Challenging; p. 104)

 

  1. What is the difference between the positive and negative faces of a need for affiliation?

 

The positive face of affiliation (affiliative interest) is a concern for interpersonal relationships but not at any expense. Although people with this need value and work at maintaining good relationships, this doesn’t prevent them from giving negative feedback or making tough decisions. However, the negative face of affiliation (affiliative assurance) makes people look for assurance about the security and strength of their relationships and avoid rejection. They seek approval from others and avoid issues and conflicts that might threaten relationships.

(Moderate; p. 104)

 

  1. You have acquired a company that has a poorly motivated workforce. Describe what actions you would take to improve motivation and achieve a high-performance workplace.

 

  • Determine what motivates employees by learning about their non-work activities and what type of work or projects they enjoy. Check your assumptions.
  • Set challenging but attainable goals, establish clear work objectives and standards of good performance, and provide feedback to encourage achievement
  • Link rewards to performance and distribute equitably. Reward employees for behaviors that promote the organization’s goals. Be sure the individual employees find the rewards valuable and motivating.
  • Match people to jobs they find rewarding and recognize their contributions.
  • Remove de-motivators such as politics and favoritism, unproductive meetings, withholding information, etc.
  • Practice gain-sharing.
  • Make sure pay and security needs are satisfied.

 

Students could consider the person/job design/leadership/organization framework and apply relevant theories.

(Challenging; entire chapter)

 

  1. List and describe the 5 task characteristics that are components of the Job Characteristics Model.

 

  • Skill Variety – requires a range of personal competencies and abilities
  • Task Identity – requires completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work
  • Task Significance – employees perceive job as having a substantial impact on others’ lives
  • Autonomy – employees have freedom, independence, and discretion to plan and carry out their task
  • Job Feedback – employees receive direct, clear information on their performance

(Moderate; p. 106)

 

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