Organizational Behavior 16th Edition by Robbins Judge – Test Bank

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Organizational Behavior, 16e (Robbins/Judge)

Chapter 5   Personality and Values

 

1) According to Gordon Allport, ________ is defined as the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine a person’s unique adjustments to his/her environment.

  1. A) cognitive dissonance
  2. B) heredity
  3. C) personality
  4. D) descent
  5. E) genealogy

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The definition of personality we most frequently use was produced by Gordon Allport nearly 70 years ago. He said personality is “the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment.”

LO:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

2) Who defined personality as the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine a person’s unique adjustments to his/her environment?

  1. A) Leon Festinger
  2. B) Dr. Sigmund Freud
  3. C) Gordon Allport
  4. D) Abraham Maslow
  5. E) Ivan Pavlov

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The definition of personality most frequently used was produced by Gordon Allport nearly 70 years ago. He said that personality is “the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment.”

LO:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

3) ________ is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.

  1. A) Talent
  2. B) Skill
  3. C) Knowledge
  4. D) Heredity
  5. E) Personality

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.

LO:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

4) Esther Lugo has gone for an interview at an advertising firm in Manhattan and has been asked to complete a self-report survey to help interviewers understand if she is the right candidate for the job. From the interview, they have found that she is extroverted, empathic, scrupulous, and cooperative in nature, which are key characteristics needed for the job. These characteristics about Lugo indicate her ________.

  1. A) talent
  2. B) skill
  3. C) knowledge
  4. D) genealogy
  5. E) personality

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.

LO:  1

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

5) Which of the following is the most common means of measuring personality?

  1. A) in-depth interviews
  2. B) self-report surveys
  3. C) career portfolio
  4. D) reference interviews
  5. E) stress interviews

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The most common means of measuring personality is through self-report surveys. In such surveys, individuals evaluate themselves on a series of factors, such as “I worry a lot about the future.”

LO:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

6) Which of the following is a drawback of self-report surveys?

  1. A) They can hold only a limited number of questions.
  2. B) They involve a large number of people in the evaluation process.
  3. C) They may have biased results if the surveyor’s judgment is biased.
  4. D) They comprise a large number of complex statistical data.
  5. E) They may result in the respondent lying to create a good impression.

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) The most common means of measuring personality is through self-report surveys. Though self-report measures work well when well-constructed, one weakness is that the respondent might lie or practice impression management to create a good impression.

LO:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study

7) In ________, a co-worker or another observer does an independent assessment of personality, with or without the subject’s knowledge.

  1. A) observer-ratings surveys
  2. B) paid surveys
  3. C) knowledge surveys
  4. D) deviation surveys
  5. E) cadastral surveys

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Observer-ratings surveys provide an independent assessment of personality. In such surveys, a co-worker or another observer does the rating, with or without the subject’s knowledge.

LO:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study

 

 

8) Tracy Winter works at a publishing firm in London and recently received an e-mail from the human resource department of her company asking her to study the behavior of a colleague, Cindy Camp, including her attention toward her work, without Camp’s knowledge. Winter now needs to scrutinize Camp’s behavior and notice if she is free from distractions and pays sufficient attention to her tasks. Which of the following is Winter conducting?

  1. A) observer-ratings survey
  2. B) informational interview
  3. C) knowledge survey
  4. D) participant observation
  5. E) focus group survey

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Observer-ratings surveys provide an independent assessment of personality. In such surveys, a co-worker or another observer does the rating, with or without the subject’s knowledge.

LO:  1

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

Learning Outcome:  Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study

9) Which of the following terms refers to factors such as one’s biological, physiological, and inherent psychological makeup determined at conception?

  1. A) social identity
  2. B) heredity
  3. C) behavioral contagion
  4. D) self-concordance
  5. E) social loafing

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Personality appears to be a result of both hereditary and environmental factors. Heredity refers to factors determined at conception. Physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level, and biological rhythms are generally considered to be either completely or substantially influenced by one’s biological, physiological, and inherent psychological makeup.

LO:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

10) Which of the following statements is true about personality?

  1. A) Personality is free from the influence of the environment.
  2. B) Personality remains constant over time.
  3. C) Personality can be measured solely through personal interviews.
  4. D) Personality is influenced by hereditary factors.
  5. E) Parents highly influence the development of their offspring’s personality.

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. Personality appears to be a result of both hereditary and environmental factors, and it changes over time. Research suggests that parents don’t add much to their offspring’s personality development.

LO:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

11) Which of the following does the heredity approach state?

  1. A) An individual’s personality is determined by the social background one is brought up in.
  2. B) An individual’s personality is determined by molecular structure of the genes.
  3. C) An individual’s personality is influenced by the economic settings he/she is surrounded by.
  4. D) A person’s personality traits are created by the company he/she keeps i.e., his/her friends and family.
  5. E) A person’s personality traits are largely influenced by global trends and characteristics.

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Heredity refers to factors determined at conception. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes.

LO:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

12) The ________ is a personality assessment consisting of 100 questions where respondents are classified as extraverted or introverted, sensing or intuitive, thinking or feeling, and judging or perceiving.

  1. A) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
  2. B) Birkman Method
  3. C) Karolinska Scales of Personality
  4. D) Keirsey Temperament Sorter
  5. E) Taylor-Johnson Temperament Analysis

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is the most widely used personality assessment instrument in the world. It is a 100-question personality test that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations. Respondents are classified as extraverted or introverted, sensing or intuitive, thinking or feeling, and judging or perceiving.

LO:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

13) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the ________ type are practical and prefer routine and order and focus on details.

  1. A) sensing
  2. B) extraverted
  3. C) feeling
  4. D) perceiving
  5. E) intuitive

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classification, people belonging to the sensing type are practical and prefer routine and order and focus on details.

LO:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

14) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the ________ type are flexible and spontaneous.

  1. A) thinking
  2. B) judging
  3. C) introverted
  4. D) sensing
  5. E) perceiving

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the perceiving type are flexible and spontaneous. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions while handling problems. Extraverted individuals are outgoing, sociable, and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy. Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems.

LO:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

15) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the judging type ________.

  1. A) are quiet, shy and introverted
  2. B) rely on unconscious processes
  3. C) prefer their world to be ordered
  4. D) are flexible and spontaneous
  5. E) rely on personal values and emotions

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the judging type want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured.

LO:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

16) Which of the following are characteristics of the intuitive type of people according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification?

  1. A) prefer routine and order and focus on details
  2. B) outgoing, sociable, and assertive in nature
  3. C) rely on unconscious processes and look at the overall picture
  4. D) use reason, rationality, and logic to handle problems and situations
  5. E) rely on their personal values and emotions to make decisions

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the intuitive type rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big picture.”

LO:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

17) Ellen Athers works as a communication executive at a travel house. She is known to be friendly with her colleagues and interacts with them regularly to build strong work relationships. She knows that her rapport with her co-workers is a crucial part of her work and invests time in these relationships. In addition, she is assertive in making decisions, and colleagues take her decisions seriously. Which of the following types is Athers most likely to be characterized as according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification?

  1. A) perceiving
  2. B) brooder
  3. C) extraverted
  4. D) introverted
  5. E) solitary

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, extraverted people are outgoing, sociable, and assertive, whereas introverted people are quiet and shy.

LO:  2

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Application

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

18) Elaine Chamberlain works as a research executive at an environmental organization. Though her colleagues are helpful and friendly, because of her shy nature, she often eats her lunch at her desk and has limited interactions with them. She is glad that her nature of work does not require her to interact with her co-workers to a high extent. Which of the following types is Chamberlain most likely to be characterized as according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification?

  1. A) social
  2. B) introverted
  3. C) exhibitionist
  4. D) gregarious
  5. E) extraverted

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, extraverted people are outgoing, sociable, and assertive, whereas introverted people are quiet and shy.

LO:  2

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Application

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

19) Valerie Sinclair, a climate campaigner at an environmental organization, invariably uses rationale to make decisions for project implementation. She believes that the right decisions can be made only through scrutiny and analysis. Each time she needs to make a decision, she weighs all options before taking action. Which of the following is a characteristic of Sinclair’s personality type according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification?

  1. A) intuitive
  2. B) introverted
  3. C) thinking
  4. D) feeling
  5. E) perceiving

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, thinking types of people use reason and logic to handle problems.

LO:  2

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

20) Amber Downing, a human resource executive, is in charge of the recruitment process in her organization. During the hiring process, she often needs to coordinate with prospective employees. The organizational process does not require her to inform employees who do not get through the selection process. However she believes that it is rude not to give them an update. She thus makes sure that she sends them e-mails informing them about the selection process. Which of the following types is Downing characterized as according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification?

  1. A) sensing
  2. B) judging
  3. C) thinking
  4. D) feeling
  5. E) introverted

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, feeling types of people rely on their personal values and emotions.

LO:  2

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Application

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

21) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, introverted-intuitive-thinking-judging type of people are ________.

  1. A) visionaries
  2. B) organizers
  3. C) conceptualizers
  4. D) executors
  5. E) methodists

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people with an INTJ (introverted, intuitive, thinking, judging) personality type are visionaries with original minds and great drive. They are skeptical, critical, independent, determined, and often stubborn.

LO:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

22) People with an ESTJ personality type are characterized as ________ according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification.

  1. A) irrational
  2. B) perplexed
  3. C) decisive
  4. D) disoriented
  5. E) emotional

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people with an ESTJ personality type are organizers. They are realistic, logical, analytical, and decisive and have a natural head for business or mechanics.

LO:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

23) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people with an ENTP personality type are most likely to be ________.

  1. A) illogical
  2. B) innovative
  3. C) intuitive
  4. D) skeptical
  5. E) stubborn

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people with an ENTP personality type are conceptualizers, innovative, individualistic, versatile, and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. Such kinds of people tend to be resourceful in solving challenging problems but may neglect routine assignments.

LO:  2

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

24) What does the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classification of “E or I” stand for?

  1. A) enthusiastic/ingenious
  2. B) emotional/impulsive
  3. C) extraverted/introverted
  4. D) emotive/illustrative
  5. E) empathetic/innovative

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) In the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, individuals are classified as extraverted or introverted (E or I), sensing or intuitive (S or N), thinking or feeling (T or F), and judging or perceiving (J or P).

LO:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

25) What does the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classification of S versus N stand for?

  1. A) sensing/intuitive
  2. B) social/perceiving
  3. C) stable/negligent
  4. D) sympathetic/thinking
  5. E) shrewd/feeling

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) In the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, individuals are classified as extraverted or introverted (E or I), sensing or intuitive (S or N), thinking or feeling (T or F), and judging or perceiving (J or P).

LO:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

26) What is the major problem with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as a measure of personality?

  1. A) It has an excess of classifications, which tends to confuse a person.
  2. B) It forces a person to be categorized as either one type or another.
  3. C) It does not have a clear demarcation between different personality types.
  4. D) It tends to overemphasize intuitive traits over analytical traits.
  5. E) It indicates results related exclusively to job performance.

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) A problem with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is that it forces a person into one type or another. For instance, if one is not introverted or extraverted, there is no in-between, though in reality people can be both extraverted and introverted to some degree.

LO:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

27) The ________ is a personality assessment model that taps basic dimensions which encompass most of the significant variation in human personality, namely extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience.

  1. A) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
  2. B) Big Five model
  3. C) Birkman method
  4. D) Keirsey Temperament Sorter
  5. E) Forté Profile

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The Big Five model is a personality assessment model that taps basic dimensions which encompass most of the significant variations in human personality, namely extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience.

LO:  3

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

28) Which dimension of the Big Five model refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others?

  1. A) conscientiousness
  2. B) agreeableness
  3. C) extraversion
  4. D) openness to experience
  5. E) emotional stability

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The agreeableness dimension refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others. Highly agreeable people are cooperative, warm, and trusting. People who score low on agreeableness are cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.

LO:  3

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

29) Which dimension of the Big Five model is a measure of reliability?

  1. A) extraversion
  2. B) agreeableness
  3. C) conscientiousness
  4. D) openness to experience
  5. E) emotional stability

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The conscientiousness dimension is a measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.

LO:  3

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

30) According to the Big Five model, a highly conscientious person is most likely to be ________.

  1. A) distracted, disorganized, and unreliable
  2. B) calm, self-confident, and secure
  3. C) cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic
  4. D) responsible, organized, and dependable
  5. E) reserved, timid, and quiet

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The conscientiousness dimension is a measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent.

LO:  3

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

31) According to the Big Five model, a person who scores ________ is easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.

  1. A) low on emotional stability
  2. B) low on openness to experience
  3. C) high on agreeableness
  4. D) high on extraversion
  5. E) low on conscientiousness

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) According to the Big Five model, a person who scores low on conscientiousness is easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.

LO:  3

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

32) Which of the following dimensions of the Big Five model indicates a person’s ability to withstand stress?

  1. A) emotional stability
  2. B) extraversion
  3. C) openness to experience
  4. D) agreeableness
  5. E) conscientiousness

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) The emotional stability dimension, often labeled by its converse, neuroticism, taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and unsecure.

LO:  3

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

33) According to the Big Five model, the ________ dimension addresses a range of interests and fascination with novelty.

  1. A) emotional stability
  2. B) extraversion
  3. C) openness to experience
  4. D) agreeableness
  5. E) conscientiousness

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The openness to experience dimension addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive.

LO:  3

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

34) Marina Lyon works as a reservation executive at a travel and tourism company. Though her job requires her only to efficiently book flight tickets for customers, she has also opted to undergo training to learn the process of hotel reservations. In addition, every evening she reads travelogues to be aware of upcoming travel destinations and trends. She loves the industry she works in and is eager to learn as much as she can. Considering the information given in this case, which dimension of the Big Five model best describes Lyon’s personality?

  1. A) extraversion
  2. B) agreeableness
  3. C) conscientiousness
  4. D) openness to experience
  5. E) emotional stability

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The openness to experience dimension addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Those at the other end of the openness category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar.

LO:  3

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

35) ________ has been found to be more important than other traits in the success of CEOs of private equity companies.

  1. A) Extraversion
  2. B) Agreeableness
  3. C) Conscientiousness
  4. D) Emotional stability
  5. E) Openness to experience

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Conscientiousness is the Big Five trait most consistently related to job performance. Conscientiousness in the form of persistence, attention to detail, and setting of high standards has been found to be more important than other traits for CEOs in private equity firms.

LO:  4

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

36) Which of the following is most likely to be a drawback of highly conscientious people according to the Big Five model?

  1. A) They engage in numerous risky behaviors, such as smoking and drinking.
  2. B) They tend to indulge in irresponsible behavior and be disorganized.
  3. C) They do not adapt well to changing contexts.
  4. D) They focus on learning instead of performing a job efficiently.
  5. E) They excessively emphasize being creative.

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) According to the Big Five model, highly conscientious people are organized and structured and do not adapt well to changing contexts. They are generally performance oriented and have more trouble learning complex skills early in the training process because their focus is on performing well rather than on learning.

LO:  4

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

37) Among the Big Five model traits, ________ is most strongly related to life satisfaction, job satisfaction, and low stress levels.

  1. A) extraversion
  2. B) agreeableness
  3. C) conscientiousness
  4. D) emotional stability
  5. E) openness to experience

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Of the Big Five traits, emotional stability is most strongly related to life satisfaction, job satisfaction, and low stress levels. This is probably true because high scorers are more likely to be positive and optimistic and experience fewer negative emotions.

LO:  4

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

38) With reference to the Big Five Model, which of the following is a difference between highly agreeable and less agreeable people?

  1. A) Highly agreeable people tend to do better in interpersonally oriented jobs than less agreeable people.
  2. B) Highly agreeable people are less compliant and less rule abiding than less agreeable people.
  3. C) Highly agreeable people tend to be less satisfied in their jobs than less agreeable people.
  4. D) Highly agreeable people engage in less organization citizenship behavior than less agreeable people.
  5. E) Highly agreeable people have more tendency to engage in organizational deviance than less agreeable people.

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Agreeable individuals tend to do better in interpersonally oriented jobs such as customer service. They also are more compliant and rule abiding and less likely to engage in organizational deviance.

LO:  4

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

39) Which of the following differentiates introverts from extraverts?

  1. A) Introverts tend to be happier in their jobs in comparison to extraverts.
  2. B) Introverts express feelings more freely compared to extraverts.
  3. C) Introverts experience more positive emotions than extraverts.
  4. D) Introverts are generally more assertive than extraverts.
  5. E) Introverts are less impulsive than extraverts.

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Compared to introverts, extraverts tend to be happier in their jobs and in their lives as a whole. Extraverts are more socially dominant than introverts and experience more positive emotions than introverts. Extraverts are also more assertive than introverts and more impulsive than introverts.

LO:  4

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

40) People scoring high on the ________ dimension of the Big Five model are more likely to be absent from work and engage in risky behavior than those who score low.

  1. A) agreeableness
  2. B) conscientiousness
  3. C) openness
  4. D) extraversion
  5. E) emotional stability

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Extraverts are more impulsive than introverts; they are more likely to be absent from work and engage in risky behavior.

LO:  4

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

41) ________ refers to bottom-line conclusions individuals have about their capabilities, competence, and worth as a person.

  1. A) Core self-evaluation
  2. B) Authoritarianism
  3. C) Self-monitoring
  4. D) Machiavellianism
  5. E) Agreeableness

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) People who have positive core self-evaluations like themselves and see themselves as effective, capable, and in control of their environment. Those with negative core self-evaluations tend to dislike themselves, question their capabilities, and view themselves as powerless over their environment.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

 

42) Which of the following statements is true about people with positive core self-evaluations?

  1. A) They are committed to their goals and set ambitious goals.
  2. B) They view themselves as powerless over their environment.
  3. C) They tend to question their capabilities and capacities.
  4. D) They lack persistence to achieve goals.
  5. E) They tend to be disliked by superiors and co-workers.

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) People with positive core self-evaluation set more ambitious goals, are more committed to their goals, and persist longer in attempting to reach these goals. They are more popular with co-workers than those with negative core self-evaluation.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

43) Which of the following personality traits indicates the degree to which a person is unemotional and pragmatic and believes that ends can justify means?

  1. A) extraversion
  2. B) Machiavellianism
  3. C) agreeableness
  4. D) self-concordance
  5. E) narcissism

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Machiavellianism refers to the degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

44) A high Mach would be most productive in which of the following positions?

  1. A) a manager who leads team members in different geographic locations
  2. B) an executive who has to follow stringent rules while closing a sale
  3. C) a legal liaison who works from home and coordinates with people through the phone
  4. D) a freelance researcher whose work is free from interpersonal communication
  5. E) a sales person whose major part of the salary consists of sales commission

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) High Machs flourish (1) when they interact face-to-face with others rather than indirectly, (2) when the situation has a minimal number of rules and regulations, allowing latitude for improvisation, and (3) when emotional involvement with details irrelevant to winning distracts low Machs.

LO:  5

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

45) ________ refers to the tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement.

  1. A) Asceticism
  2. B) Stoicism
  3. C) Cynicism
  4. D) Narcissism
  5. E) Machiavellianism

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Narcissism refers to the tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement. Evidence suggests that narcissists are more charismatic and thus more likely to emerge as leaders, and they may even display better psychological health.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

46) During an annual review, Michel Godfrey made the following assertion: “When I look at myself and my performance, I see that what I have achieved is outstanding and something no one in the organization has the capacity to undertake. Surprisingly, it has not won me the admiration of my colleagues like it should have. I also believe that I do not just deserve a raise, but need one, since without me, let’s face it, the place would simply fall apart.” Which of the following personality traits best describes Michel’s personality?

  1. A) minimalism
  2. B) monasticism
  3. C) stoicism
  4. D) narcissism
  5. E) Machiavellianism

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Michel is a narcissist. Narcissism is the tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement.

LO:  5

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Application

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

47) Which of the following is true about narcissists?

  1. A) They go out of their way to be helpful to colleagues.
  2. B) They have an inferiority complex about themselves.
  3. C) They are more likely to emerge as leaders.
  4. D) They do not require admiration or importance of people.
  5. E) They are meek, timid, and shy in nature.

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) In psychology, narcissism describes a person who has a grandiose sense of self-importance, requires excessive admiration, has a sense of entitlement, and is arrogant. Because narcissists often want to gain the admiration of others and receive affirmation of their superiority, they tend to “talk down” to those who threaten them, treating others as if they were inferior. Narcissists also tend to be selfish and exploitive and believe others exist for their benefit. Evidence suggests that narcissists are more charismatic and thus more likely to emerge as leaders.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

48) Individuals scoring ________ have a strong ability to adjust their behavior to external, situational factors and can behave differently in different situations.

  1. A) low on openness
  2. B) high on narcissism
  3. C) low on agreeableness
  4. D) high on self-monitoring
  5. E) low on conscientiousness

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Self-monitoring refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his/her behavior to external, situational factors. Individuals scoring high in self-monitoring show considerable adaptability in adjusting their behavior to external situational factors. They are highly sensitive to external cues and can behave differently in different situations.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

49) Individuals low in self-monitoring ________.

  1. A) tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in every situation
  2. B) are pragmatic, maintain emotional distance, and believe ends can justify means
  3. C) have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and are arrogant
  4. D) are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable
  5. E) tend to dislike themselves and view themselves as powerless over their environment

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Individuals low in self-monitoring tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in every situation; hence, there is high behavioral consistency between who they are and what they do.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe best practices for creating and sustaining organizational cultures

 

50) As compared to high self-monitors, low self-monitors ________.

  1. A) tend to be more adaptable to external situations
  2. B) pay closer attention to the behavior of others
  3. C) have low consistency between personalities and actions
  4. D) are less likely to emerge as leaders
  5. E) show less commitment to their organizations

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Evidence indicates high self-monitors pay closer attention to the behavior of others and are more capable of conforming than are low self-monitors. They also receive better performance ratings, are more likely to emerge as leaders, and show less commitment to their organizations. High self-monitoring managers tend to be more mobile in their careers.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

Jonah is currently trying to decide whether or not to allow Kate to be part of a delegation that will represent their company at an international business expo. Apart from allowing the company to market its business to potential clients, the expo will give the members of the delegation a chance to meet and network with various industry professionals and gain valuable industry insights.

 

51) Which of the following, if true, would most weaken Kate’s chances of being selected?

  1. A) Kate is socially inept and tends to display her true disposition and attitude in every situation.
  2. B) Kate behaves differently in different situations and occasionally presents striking contradictions between her public persona and her private self.
  3. C) Kate has a strong sense of independence and often gets work done without any support from others.
  4. D) Kate is often in agreement with others’ ideas and opinions.
  5. E) Kate is gregarious and comfortable in changing contexts and ambiguous situations.

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) If Kate is socially inept and displays her true disposition and attitude in every situation, then this would imply that she is a low self-monitor. Considering she cannot adjust her behavior to situational demands, she would not be a good choice for the team. If Kate is gregarious and comfortable in ambiguous situations, and if she gets work done without any support from others, then this would increase her chances of being selected. If Kate conforms to others’ ideas and opinions, then this would suggest that she is high on agreeableness, which would increase her chances of getting selected. If she behaves differently in different situations, and occasionally presents striking contradictions between her public persona and her private self, then this would imply that she is a high self-monitor and this would make her a suitable choice for the delegation.

LO:  5

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

52) Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen Kate’s chances of being selected?

  1. A) Kate generally considers herself to be better than her colleagues.
  2. B) Kate is a go-getter—she is prepared to go to any length to get ahead.
  3. C) Kate has a conventional mindset and focuses on being efficient at her work.
  4. D) Kate often conforms to others’ ideas and opinions rather than come up with her own.
  5. E) Kate is enterprising and adept at interacting with diverse groups of individuals.

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) If Kate is enterprising and adept at interacting with diverse groups of individuals, then this would strengthen her chances of being selected as, at the expo, she would have to market her company as well as meet with other industry professionals. If she considers herself to be better than her colleagues, then this would imply that she is narcissistic and hence, this would weaken her chances of being selected. If she is prepared to go to any length to get ahead, then this would imply that she is a high-Mach and might even act unethically; hence, this would not strengthen her position. If she has a conventional mindset and focuses on being efficient at her work, then this would imply that she is not very creative, which would weaken her chances of being selected. Lastly, if she often conforms to other’s ideas and opinions rather than come up with her own, then this would imply that she is very agreeable but lacking in original thought, and hence this would weaken her chances of being selected.

LO:  5

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

53) John Hardley recently joined as marketing director of H2O, a water sports gear company. Though in the last five years the company has had a drastic dip in sales, ever since Hardley has joined he has turned the figures around. In addition to revamping the look of the brand, he has initiated several marketing campaigns through broadcast media to increase customer base for the company. Over the past 6 months, Hardley has managed to get the company to an all-time high peak of sales. Which of the following statements best describes Hardley?

  1. A) Hardley is a low self-monitor.
  2. B) Hardley is a narcissist.
  3. C) Hardley scores high in Machiavellianism.
  4. D) Hardley has a proactive personality.
  5. E) Hardley is a low risk-taking person.

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) People with proactive personalities identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs. They create positive change in the environment regardless of constraints or obstacles.

LO:  5

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Application

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

54) Those with a ________ personality identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs, compared to others who passively react to situations.

  1. A) high self-monitoring
  2. B) proactive
  3. C) high Mach
  4. D) type A
  5. E) narcissist

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Those with a proactive personality identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs, compared to others who passively react to situations.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe best practices for creating and sustaining organizational cultures

 

55) Which of the following statements is most likely to be true regarding people with proactive personalities?

  1. A) They react passively to situations.
  2. B) They tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in every situation.
  3. C) They tend to be selfish and exploitive and believe others exist for their benefit.
  4. D) They are more likely than others to be seen as leaders.
  5. E) They are narcissistic in nature and require constant admiration.

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) People with proactive personalities identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs. They create positive change in the environment regardless of constraints or obstacles. They are more likely than others to be seen as leaders and to act as change agents.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

Mara is looking to send one of her team members on an international assignment to China to train a group of employees located at her company’s office in Beijing. As part of the assignment, the chosen employee will have to undergo a 3-week diversity training program to help him/her learn about his/her new environment. Bryan, one of Mara’s colleagues, is interested in taking up the assignment.

 

56) Which of the following, if true, would reduce the likelihood that Bryan will be selected?

  1. A) Bryan has had little exposure to Chinese culture.
  2. B) Bryan is proficient in Chinese.
  3. C) Bryan traveled to Beijing last year on a different assignment.
  4. D) Bryan does not cope very well in ambiguous situations.
  5. E) Bryan sometimes displays striking contradictions between his public persona and his private self.

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Of the Big Five traits, openness to experience would be most important to effectiveness in international assignments. Open people are more likely to be culturally flexible—to “go with the flow” when things are different in another country. If Bryan is uncomfortable in ambiguous situations, then he would most likely not be able to manage well in a foreign environment. If he is proficient in Chinese or has traveled to Beijing in the past, then it would only increase his chances of being selected. The fact that he has had little exposure to Chinese culture is not very relevant, as he will have to attend a diversity training program if he is chosen for the assignment. The fact that he sometimes displays striking contradictions between his public persona and his private self does not influence his chances of being selected.

LO:  5

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

57) Which of the following, if true, would increase the likelihood that Bryan will be selected?

  1. A) Bryan’s application was rejected the last time he applied for an international assignment.
  2. B) Bryan has trained several employees in the last six months.
  3. C) Bryan has had little exposure to Chinese culture.
  4. D) Bryan displays striking contradictions between his public persona and his private self.
  5. E) Bryan is quite sociable and can “think on his feet.”

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Of the Big Five traits, openness to experience would be most important to effectiveness in international assignments. Open people are more likely to be culturally flexible—to “go with the flow” when things are different in another country. If Bryan is sociable and can “think on his feet,” then this would strengthen his chances of being selected. Just because his application was rejected the last time he applied for an international assignment does not mean he will be given a chance this time around. Similarly, it cannot be argued that he is the right person for this job just because he has trained people in the past. The fact that he sometimes displays striking contradictions between his public persona and his private self does not influence his chances of being selected.

LO:  5

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

58) Which of the following terms describes basic convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite mode of conduct”?

  1. A) values
  2. B) attitudes
  3. C) emotions
  4. D) feelings
  5. E) traditions

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Values represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. Values contain a judgmental element in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right, good, or desirable.

LO:  6

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

 

 

59) When we rank an individual’s values in order of their ________, we obtain the person’s value system.

  1. A) intensity
  2. B) content
  3. C) context
  4. D) fluidity
  5. E) flexibility

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) A value system is defined as a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity.

LO:  6

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

 

60) Which of the following is true regarding values?

  1. A) They are void of a judgmental element.
  2. B) They are invariably fluid and flexible in nature.
  3. C) They have content and intensity attributes.
  4. D) They never change irrespective of external factors.
  5. E) They are always established in a person’s later years.

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Values contain a judgmental element in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right, good, or desirable. Values have both content and intensity attributes. Values tend to be relatively stable and enduring. A significant portion of the values we hold is established in our early years. Values may change, but more often they are reinforced.

LO:  6

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

 

61) Milton Rokeach created the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS), which consists of two sets of values, namely ________ values and ________ values.

  1. A) instrumental; terminal
  2. B) fluid; stable
  3. C) flexible; essential
  4. D) unique; general
  5. E) flexible; enduring

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Milton Rokeach created the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). It consists of two sets of values, namely, instrumental and terminal values.

LO:  6

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

 

62) According to the Rokeach Value Survey, ________ values refer to desirable end-states.

  1. A) essential
  2. B) instrumental
  3. C) critical
  4. D) flexible
  5. E) terminal

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) According to the Rokeach Value Survey, terminal values refer to desirable end-states.

LO:  6

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

 

63) According to the Rokeach Value Survey, ________ values refer to preferable modes of behavior.

  1. A) terminal
  2. B) critical
  3. C) instrumental
  4. D) essential
  5. E) flexible

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) According to the Rokeach Value Survey, instrumental values refer to preferable modes of behavior.

LO:  6

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

64) Which of the following is a terminal value according to the Rokeach Value Survey?

  1. A) personal discipline
  2. B) self-reliance
  3. C) goal-orientation
  4. D) social recognition
  5. E) self-improvement

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) According to the Rokeach Value Survey, terminal values refer to desirable end-states. These are the goals a person would like to achieve during his/her lifetime. Social recognition is an end-state goal. The other answers are means which a person could use to get to that goal.

LO:  6

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

 

65) Which of the following is an instrumental value according to the Rokeach Value Survey?

  1. A) economic success
  2. B) social recognition
  3. C) personal discipline
  4. D) world peace
  5. E) meaning in life

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Instrumental values refer to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values. Personal discipline is an instrumental value and all other options are terminal values.

LO:  6

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

 

 

66) Which of the following is true regarding the baby boomer generation?

  1. A) They lead lives shaped mainly by globalization.
  2. B) They are more questioning and entrepreneurial than other generations.
  3. C) They give high importance to achievement and material success.
  4. D) They give the highest importance to flexibility and life options.
  5. E) They rate highest in friendship and pleasure on the RVS.

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Boomers entered the workforce from the mid-1960s through the mid-1980s. They place a great deal of emphasis on achievement and material success. They believe that ends can justify means and work hard to enjoy the fruits of labor.

LO:  7

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

67) John Holland’s personality-job fit theory presents six personality types. Which of the following is one of these six types?

  1. A) analytic
  2. B) imaginative
  3. C) practical
  4. D) investigative
  5. E) intuitive

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) John Holland’s personality-job fit theory presents six personality types. These types are realistic, investigative, social, conventional, enterprising, and artistic.

LO:  7

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

 

 

68) With reference to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the realistic type will be most suitable for the job of a(n) ________.

  1. A) economist
  2. B) teacher
  3. C) mechanic
  4. D) lawyer
  5. E) biologist

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Realistic personalities prefer physical activities that require skill, strength, and coordination. They thrive in jobs such as mechanics, drill press operators, assembly-line workers, and farmers.

LO:  7

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

 

69) Help Aid, a non-profit organization in Indonesia, works at providing education in underdeveloped countries. They are now looking to hire a teacher who can educate children in Namibia and prepare them for jobs which will enable them to sustain themselves. According to Holland’s personality-job fit theory, people belonging to which of the following personality types will best suit Help Aid’s requirement?

  1. A) conventional
  2. B) realistic
  3. C) enterprising
  4. D) artistic
  5. E) social

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) According to Holland’s personality-job fit theory, social personalities are friendly, sociable, cooperative, and understanding. Careers for social personalities include social worker, teacher, and counselor among others.

LO:  7

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Application

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

 

70) With reference to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the ________ type prefer verbal activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain powers.

  1. A) realistic
  2. B) conventional
  3. C) artistic
  4. D) enterprising
  5. E) investigative

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) With reference to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the enterprising type prefer verbal activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain powers.

LO:  7

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

 

71) With reference to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the investigating type prefer ________.

  1. A) activities that involve helping and developing others
  2. B) activities that involve thinking, organizing, and understanding
  3. C) physical activities that require skill, strength, and coordination
  4. D) ambiguous and imaginative activities that allow creative expression
  5. E) activities in which there are opportunities to influence others

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) With reference to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the investigating type prefer activities that involve thinking, organizing, and understanding.

LO:  7

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

 

 

72) With reference to the Hofstede’s framework, a class or caste system that discourages upward mobility is more likely to exist in a nation that scores ________.

  1. A) high on individualism
  2. B) low on masculinity
  3. C) high on power distance
  4. D) low on uncertainty avoidance
  5. E) high on long-term orientation

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Power distance describes the degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. A high rating on power distance means that large inequalities of power and wealth exist and are tolerated in the culture, as in a class or caste system that discourages upward mobility.

LO:  8

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Discuss the influence of culture on organizational behavior

73) Alex was sent to Beijing to help local managers solve the problem of growing worker dissatisfaction at their manufacturing facility located in the city. As part of his visit, he decided to have a town hall meeting with the workers to understand the problems that they were facing and the reasons for their discontent. The turnout at the meeting was substantial; however, when asked for their opinions and suggestions, the crowd fell silent. As a result, Alex was unable to determine the reason for employee dissatisfaction. Which of the following, if true, best explains this situation?

  1. A) A small portion of the workers at the facility belong to the baby boomers generation.
  2. B) There is an unequal distribution of power in the company.
  3. C) The employees are genuinely concerned about improving their lot.
  4. D) Alex was sent to Beijing as he was one of the few employees who were conversant in the local language.
  5. E) On previous occasions, the company has yielded to employee demands.

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) If there is an unequal distribution of power within a company, then employees would be reluctant to do anything that would be considered an act of insubordination, such as voicing their opinions. Hence, this would explain the employees’ silence. If the employees were genuinely concerned about improving their lot, and the company had yielded to employee demands in the past, then the workers would have voiced their opinions. Additionally, if Alex were conversant in the local language, then this would imply that there were no language barriers between him and the workers and that they could understand him, yet they chose not to respond. It is irrelevant that a small portion of the workers at the facility were baby boomers.

LO:  8

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

 

74) With reference to the Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures, ________ emphasizes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them.

  1. A) uncertainty avoidance
  2. B) long-term orientation
  3. C) masculinity
  4. D) collectivism
  5. E) power distance

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Collectivism emphasizes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them.

LO:  8

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Define diversity and describe the effects of diversity in the workforce

75) According to Hofstede’s framework, ________ indicates the degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations.

  1. A) collectivism
  2. B) power distance
  3. C) long-term orientation
  4. D) uncertainty avoidance
  5. E) individualism

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) According to Hofstede’s framework, the degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations defines their uncertainty avoidance. Cultures low on uncertainty avoidance are more accepting of ambiguity, are less rule oriented, take more risks, and more readily accept change.

LO:  8

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Define diversity and describe the effects of diversity in the workforce

 

76) A drawback of self-report surveys is the level of accuracy.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  A drawback of self-report surveys is the level of accuracy. For instance, a good candidate may be in a bad mood when taking the survey, and that will make the score less accurate.

LO:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study

 

 

77) As compared to observer-ratings surveys, self-reporting surveys are a better predictor of success on the job.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Research suggests that observer-ratings surveys are a better predictor of success on the job.

LO:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study

 

78) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classification, people belonging to the feeling type use reason and logic to solve problems.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the feeling type rely on their personal values and emotions. People belonging to the thinking type use logic and reason to solve problems.

LO:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

79) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the judging type prefer control and like their world to be ordered and structured.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the judging type want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured.

LO:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

80) According to the Big Five model, a person who scores high on the openness to experience dimension is conventional and finds comfort in the familiar.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  According to the Big Five model, a person who scores low on the openness to experience dimension tends to be conventional and finds comfort in the familiar. On the other hand, extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive.

LO:  3

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

81) According to the Big Five model, the agreeableness dimension refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  According to the Big Five model, the agreeableness dimension refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others.

LO:  3

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

82) The conscientiousness dimension of the Big Five model captures a person’s comfort level with relationships.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The extraversion dimension captures a person’s comfort level with relationships.

LO:  3

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

83) According to the Big Five model, a drawback of introverts is that they tend to be more impulsive than extraverts and engage in risky behavior.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  According to the Big Five model, a drawback of extraverts is that they tend to be more impulsive than introverts and engage in risky behavior such as unprotected sex, drinking, and other sensation-seeking acts.

LO:  4

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

84) People with positive core self-evaluations feel that they are powerless over their environment.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  People with positive core self-evaluations like themselves and see themselves as capable, effective, and in control of their environment. In contrast, people with negative core self-evaluations dislike themselves and view themselves as powerless over the environment.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

85) High Machs do exceptionally well in jobs which are administrative in nature and do not involve face-to-face communication.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  High Machs flourish (1) when they interact face-to-face with others rather than indirectly; (2) when the situation has minimal rules and regulations, allowing latitude for improvisation; and (3) when emotional involvement with details irrelevant to winning distracts low Machs.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

86) High Mach employees win in the short term, but lose the gains in the long term because they are not well liked.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  High-Mach employees, by manipulating others to their advantage, win in the short term, but they lose those gains in the long term because they are not well liked.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

87) The degree to which norms, cues, or standards dictate appropriate behavior is known as consistency.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Situation-strength theory proposes that the way personality translates into behavior depends on the strength of the situation. Situation-strength refers to the degree to which norms, cues, or standards dictate appropriate behavior.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

88) Research suggests that personality traits better predict behavior in weak situations than in strong ones.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Strong situations pressure us to exhibit the right behavior, clearly show us what that behavior is, and discourage wrong behavior. In weak situations, “anything goes,” and thus we are freer to express our personality in behavior. Thus, research suggests that personality traits better predict behavior in weak situations than in strong ones.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

89) An organization in a dynamic and changing environment that needs employees who can easily change tasks and teams should seek individuals with personalities that fit with the organization’s overall culture rather than with a specific task.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  If an organization faces a dynamic and changing environment and needs employees able to readily change tasks and move easily between teams, it’s more important that employees’ personalities fit with the overall organization’s culture than with the characteristics of any specific job.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

90) Values contain a judgmental element in which they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right, good, or desirable.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Values represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. They contain a judgmental element in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right, good, or desirable. Values contain a judgmental element in which they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right, good, or desirable.

LO:  6

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study

 

91) An individual’s value system is obtained by ranking the person’s values in terms of their intensity.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Values represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. An individual’s value system is obtained by ranking the person’s values in terms of their intensity.

LO:  6

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study

 

92) Millennials have high expectations, seek meaning in their work, and have life goals oriented toward becoming rich and famous.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Millennials, who are also knows as Generation Yers, grew up during prosperous times. They have high expectations, seek meaning in their work, and have life goals oriented toward becoming rich and famous.

LO:  7

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

93) According to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, individuals belonging to the realistic type are disorderly, impractical, and emotional.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  According to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, individuals belonging to the realistic type are shy, genuine, stable, conforming, practical, and persistent.

LO:  7

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

94) According to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, individuals belonging to the conventional type prefer ambiguous activities that allow creative expression.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  According to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, individuals belonging to the conventional type prefer rule-regulated, orderly, and unambiguous activities.

LO:  7

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

95) According to Hofstede’s framework, individualism describes the degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  According to Hofstede’s framework, power distance describes the degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.

LO:  8

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Define diversity and describe the effects of diversity in the workforce

 

96) According to Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture, people in a culture with long-term orientation look to the future and value thrift, persistence, and tradition.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  According to Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture, people in a culture with long-term orientation look to the future and value thrift, persistence, and tradition.

LO:  8

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Define diversity and describe the effects of diversity in the workforce

 

97) What are the two main means of measuring personality? Discuss.

Answer:  The most common means of measuring personality is through self-report surveys, with which individuals evaluate themselves on a series of factors. On the other hand, observer-rating surveys provide an independent assessment of personality. An analysis of a large number of observer-reported personality surveys shows that a combination of self-reports surveys and observer-reports predict performance better than any other type of information.

LO:  1

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study

 

98) Does heredity determine a person’s personality? Explain.

Answer:  Heredity refers to factors determined at conception. Physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, and energy level are influenced by a person’s biological, physiological, and inherent psychological make-up. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes. Research tends to support the importance of heredity over the environment in developing an individual’s personality.

LO:  1

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

99) What are the various classifications used in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) framework?

Answer:  The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a 100-question personality test that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations. On the basis of their answers, individuals are classified as extraverted or introverted (E or I), sensing or intuitive (S or N), thinking or feeling (T or F), and judging or perceiving (J or P). These classifications are defined as follows: a) Extraverted (E) versus Introverted (I): Extraverted individuals are outgoing, sociable, and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy. b) Sensing (S) versus Intuitive (N): Sensing types are practical and prefer routine and order. They focus on details. Intuitives rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big picture.” c) Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F): Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions. d) Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P): Judging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous.

LO:  2

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

100) Describe the personality traits of people who fit into each of the following Myers-Briggs Type Indicator categories: INTJ, ESTJ, and ENTP.

Answer:  Intuitive, thinking, introverted, and judging people (INTJ) are visionaries with original minds and great drive. They are skeptical, critical, independent, determined, and often stubborn. ESTJs are organizers—realistic, logical, analytical, and decisive. They have a natural head for business or mechanics. ENTP type of people are conceptualizers, innovative, individualistic, and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. They tend to be resourceful in solving problems but may neglect routine assignments.

LO:  2

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

101) Briefly describe the five key traits in the Big Five model.

Answer:  The five key traits in the Big Five personality model are as follows:

  1. a) Extraversion: The extraversion dimension captures an individual’s comfort level with relationships. Extraverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and sociable. Introverts tend to be reserved, timid, and quiet.
  2. b) Agreeableness: The agreeableness dimension refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others. Highly agreeable people are cooperative, warm, and trusting. People who score low on agreeableness are cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.
  3. c) Conscientiousness: The conscientiousness dimension is a measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.
  4. d) Emotional stability: The emotional stability dimension—often labeled by its converse, neuroticism—taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.
  5. e) Openness to experience: The openness to experience dimension addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Those at the other end of the openness category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar.

LO:  3

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

102) Describe conscientiousness and explain how it can predict behavior at work.

Answer:  The Big Five conscientiousness dimension is a measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable. Employees who score higher in conscientiousness develop higher levels of job knowledge, probably because highly conscientious people learn more. Higher levels of job knowledge contribute to higher levels of job performance. It is important for managers and for front-line employees. Conscientiousness, in the form of persistence, attention to detail, and setting of high standards, is considered more important than any other personality trait for job performance. It is the Big Five model trait that is most consistently related to job performance.

LO:  4

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

103) Valerie Clark works as a campaigner at the Oceans Protection Foundation in Japan. During campaign implementation activities, she prefers to follow structured processes and ensures her team undertakes activities in an orderly fashion. In addition, she takes responsibility for milestones to be achieved and key project activities. Her colleagues and team members find that they can depend on her for support and guidance and admire her quality of never giving up on a challenge. Explain the categories of personalities Clark would most likely fit into according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Big Five model.

Answer:  Clark’s characteristic of preferring to follow structure and order categorizes her into the judging category of personality according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. According to the Big Five model, she is a highly conscientious person. This is because she comes across as dependable, responsible, organized and persistent. Her colleagues find that she never gives up on challenges and is reliable in nature.

LO:  2, 3

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

104) Compare and contrast the characteristics of extraverts to those of introverts.

Answer:  Extraverts tend to be happier in their jobs and in their lives as a whole. They experience more positive emotions than do introverts, and they more freely express these feelings. They also tend to perform better in jobs that require significant interpersonal interaction, perhaps because they have more social skills. They also tend to have more friends and spend more time in social situations than introverts. In addition, extraversion is a relatively strong predictor of leadership emergence in groups. Extraverts are more socially dominant, “take charge” sorts of people, and are generally more assertive than introverts. One downside of extraversion is that extraverts are more impulsive than introverts; they are more likely to be absent from work and engage in risky behavior such as unprotected sex, drinking, and other impulsive or sensation-seeking acts.

LO:  4

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

105) Michelle Young, who works as a sales manager at a bank, often has to deal with a lot of stress to meet monthly targets for her team. However, irrespective of stressful situations, she manages to handle problems with ease and a smile on her face. Her team members are often surprised at how she deals with such situations with so much confidence. They believe the reason she manages to be such a good role model of handling volatile situations is because she is confident of her capabilities and sees herself as an effective manager. Describe Young’s personality in terms of the Big Five model and core self-evaluation.

Answer:  Young’s capability to withstand stress and to remain calm, self-confident, and secure shows that she has positive emotional stability according to the Big Five model. She also has a positive core self-evaluation because she sees herself as a capable and effective manager. People with positive self-evaluations often perform better than others because they set ambitious goals, are more committed to their goals, and persist longer to reach these goals.

LO:  3, 5

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

106) Percy Collins works as a life advisor at an insurance firm and often looks for constant admiration from his manager every time he sells a policy. He also feels that he is the best at his work and no other advisor in his company has the ability or the skills to sell the amount of policies that he can. During meetings and team-building exercises, colleagues often find him rude, distant, and antagonistic. What categories according to the Big Five model and other personality traits are Collins most likely to be characterized by?

Answer:  Collins is narcissistic. The fact that he has overconfidence in himself and looks for excessive admiration makes him a narcissist. Narcissists have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, have a sense of entitlement, and are arrogant in nature. Collins also scores low on agreeableness according to the Big Five Factor Model. His colleagues see him as rude, distant, and antagonistic. People low on agreeableness are known to be cold and disagreeable.

LO:  5

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

107) Explain the effect of core self-evaluation on job performance.

Answer:  People who have positive core self-evaluations like themselves and see themselves as effective, capable, and in control of their environment. Those with negative core self-evaluations tend to dislike themselves, question their capabilities, and view themselves as powerless over their environment. Core self-evaluations relate to job satisfaction because people positive in this trait see more challenge in their job and actually attain more complex jobs. People with positive core self-evaluations perform better than others because they set more ambitious goals, are more committed to their goals, and persist longer in attempting to reach these goals. Such people also provide better customer service, are more popular co-workers, and have careers that both begin on better footing and ascend more rapidly over time.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

108) Percy Collins works as a life advisor at an insurance firm and often looks for constant admiration from his manager every time he sells a policy. He also feels that he is the best at his work and no other advisor in his company has the ability or the skills to sell the amount of policies that he can. During meetings and team-building exercises, colleagues often find him rude, distant, and antagonistic. Identify and describe the personality trait exhibited by Collins.

Answer:  Collins is narcissistic. The fact that he has overconfidence in himself and looks for excessive admiration makes him a narcissist. A narcissist has a grandiose sense of self-importance, requires excessive admiration, has a sense of entitlement, and is arrogant in nature.

LO:  5

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

109) Describe the personality characteristics of Machiavellianism.

Answer:  The personality characteristic of Machiavellianism is named after Niccolo Machiavelli, who wrote in the sixteenth century on how to gain and use power. An individual high in Machiavellianism is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes ends can justify means. A considerable amount of research has related high- and low-Mach personalities to behavioral outcomes. High Machs manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less, and persuade others more than do low Machs. Yet high-Mach outcomes are moderated by situational factors. High Machs flourish (1) when they interact face-to-face with others rather than indirectly; (2) when the situation has a minimal number of rules and regulations, allowing latitude for improvisation; and (3) when emotional involvement with details irrelevant to winning distracts low Machs. Thus, whether high Machs make good employees depends on the type of job. In jobs that require bargaining skills or that offer substantial rewards for winning, high Machs will be productive.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

110) Describe the personality trait of self-monitoring.

Answer:  Self-monitoring refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. Individuals high in self-monitoring show considerable adaptability in adjusting their behavior to external situational factors. They are highly sensitive to external cues and can behave differently in different situations. High self-monitors are capable of presenting striking contradictions between their public persona and their private self. Low self-monitors tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in every situation; hence, there is high behavioral consistency between who they are and what they do.

 

Evidence indicates high self-monitors pay closer attention to the behavior of others and are more capable of conforming than are low self-monitors. They also receive better performance ratings, are more likely to emerge as leaders, and show less commitment to their organizations. In addition, high self-monitoring managers tend to be more mobile in their careers, receive more promotions (both internal and cross-organizational), and are more likely to occupy central positions in an organization.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

111) Describe the typical characteristics associated with a proactive personality.

Answer:  People with a proactive personality identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs, compared to others who passively react to situations. Proactives create positive change in their environment, regardless of, or even in spite of, constraints or obstacles. Not surprisingly, they have many desirable behaviors that organizations covet. They are more likely than others to be seen as leaders and to act as change agents. Proactive individuals are more likely to be satisfied with work and help others more with their tasks, largely because they build more relationships with others.

 

Proactives are also more likely to challenge the status quo or voice their displeasure when situations aren’t to their liking. If an organization requires people with entrepreneurial initiative, proactives make good candidates; however, they’re also more likely to leave an organization to start their own business. As individuals, proactives are more likely than others to achieve career success. They select, create, and influence work situations in their favor. They seek out job and organizational information, develop contacts in high places, engage in career planning, and demonstrate persistence in the face of career obstacles.

LO:  5

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

 

112) Discuss with examples terminal values and instrumental values as identified by the Rokeach Value Survey.

Answer:  Milton Rokeach created the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). It consists of two sets of values, each containing 18 individual value items. One set, called terminal values, refers to desirable end-states. These are the goals a person would like to achieve during his/her lifetime. Examples of terminal values are freedom and social recognition. The other set, called instrumental values, refers to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values. Examples of instrumental values are kindness and goal-orientation.

LO:  6

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

 

113) Explain characteristics of a proactive personality who is of the investigative type according to Holland’s typology.

Answer:  A person with a proactive personality identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs. He/she creates changes in the environment irrespective of obstacles or constraints. In addition, an investigative type of person according to Holland’s typology prefers activities that involve thinking, organizing, and understanding. The person is analytical, original, curious, and independent in nature.

LO:  5, 7

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

114) Discuss John Holland’s personality-job fit theory.

Answer:  The effort to match job requirements with personality characteristics is best articulated in John Holland’s personality-job fit theory. Holland presents six personality types and proposes that satisfaction and the propensity to leave a position depend on how well individuals match their personalities to a job. Holland developed the Vocational Preference Inventory questionnaire, which contains 160 occupational titles. Respondents indicate which they like or dislike, and their answers form personality profiles.

 

The personality-job fit theory describes six personality types. These types are:

  1. a) Realistic: Prefers physical activities that require skill, strength, and coordination
  2. b) Investigative: Prefers activities that involve thinking, organizing, and understanding
  3. c) Social: Prefers activities that involve helping and developing others
  4. d) Conventional: Prefers rule-regulated, orderly, and unambiguous activities
  5. e) Enterprising: Prefers verbal activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain power
  6. f) Artistic: Prefers ambiguous and unsystematic activities that allow creative expression

 

The key points of this model are that (1) there do appear to be intrinsic differences in personality among individuals, (2) there are different types of jobs, and (3) people in jobs congruent with their personality should be more satisfied and less likely to voluntarily resign than people in incongruent jobs.

LO:  7

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Explain the relationship between personality traits and individual behavior

 

115) Describe the five value dimensions of national culture as identified by the Hofstede’s framework for assessing cultures.

Answer:  The five value dimensions of national culture as identified by the Hofstede’s framework for assessing cultures are:

  1. a) Power distance: It is the degree to which people accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.
  2. b) Individualism versus collectivism: Individualism is the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups and believe in individual rights above all else. Collectivism emphasizes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them.
  3. c) Masculinity versus femininity: Hofstede’s construct of masculinity is the degree to which the culture favors traditional masculine roles such as achievement, power, and control as opposed to viewing men and women as equals. A high femininity rating means the culture sees little differentiation between male and female roles and treats women as the equals of men in all respects.
  4. d) Uncertainty avoidance: The degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations defines their uncertainty avoidance.
  5. e) Long-term versus short-term orientation: People in a culture with long-term orientation look to the future and value thrift, persistence, and tradition. In a short-term orientation, people value the here and now; they accept change more readily and don’t see commitments as impediments to change.

LO:  8

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

Learning Outcome:  Define diversity and describe the effects of diversity in the workforce

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