Neonatal and Pediatric Respiratory Care by Perretta – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5 Apnea of Prematurity and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

 

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

  1. Classify what is meant by an extreme apneic event:
  2. Apnea duration 30 seconds or longer or a heart rate less than 50 to 60 bpm for 10 seconds or more
  3. Apnea duration of 20 to 29 seconds or a heart rate less than 50 to 80 bpm for 5 to 15 seconds
  4. Cessation of breathing for more than 20 seconds or cessation of breathing for longer than 10 seconds, heart rate less than 100 bpm
  5. Bradycardia of heart rate less than two-thirds of baseline and saturation SPO2 less than 80%

 

ANS: A

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following drugs is considered the safest and most effective in treating apnea in premature infants?
  2. Theophylline
  3. Caffeine citrate
  4. Adenosine
  5. Methylxanthines

 

ANS: B

 

 

 

  1. What is the best mode of therapy used to treat obstructive sleep apnea in infants?
  2. Kinesthetic stimulation
  3. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure
  4. Nasal cannula
  5. Blood transfusions

 

ANS: B

 

 

 

  1. What is the first action a clinician needs to perform for a patient experiencing apnea?
  2. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure
  3. Pharmacology intervention
  4. Tactile stimulation
  5. Positive pressure ventilation

 

ANS: C

 

 

 

  1. The risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia consist of all of the following except:
  2. 28 weeks or less of gestation
  3. PaCO2 greater than 50 mm Hg
  4. Respiratory distress syndrome
  5. Placenta abruptio

 

ANS: D

 

 

 

  1. High doses of dexamethasone given to an infant within the first week after birth can increase the risk for all of the following except:
  2. Cerebral palsy
  3. Abnormal neurological examinations
  4. Gastrointestinal bleeding
  5. Hypoglycemia

 

ANS: D

 

 

 

  1. What is a mechanical ventilation strategy that can be used to decrease the risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia?
  2. Volume-targeted ventilation mode, adequate positive end-expiratory pressure levels, and lower tidal volumes
  3. Pressure ventilation mode, small positive end-expiratory pressure levels, and low tidal volumes
  4. Permissive hypercapnia strategy
  5. High-frequency ventilation mode

 

ANS: A

 

 

 

  1. Successfully minimizing bronchopulmonary dysplasia rates in infants less than 1,500 g can be done by implementing all of the following modalities of care except:
  2. Early institution of nasal continuous positive airway pressure
  3. Pulse oximetry limits
  4. Avoidance of intubation
  5. Early intervention of corticosteroid therapy

 

ANS: D

 

 

 

  1. A decrease in incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia has been seen in all of the following modalities of care except:
  2. Pulse oximetry limits
  3. Institution of high FiO2
  4. Institution of nasal continuous positive airway pressure
  5. Avoidance of intubation

 

ANS: B

 

 

 

  1. What drug is a mast cell stabilizer that shows great promise with improved lung compliance and mechanical ventilation requirements, but not with prophylactic treatment?
  2. Inositol
  3. Inhaled nitric oxide
  4. Cromolyn sodium
  5. Prednisone

 

ANS: C

 

 

 

  1. What drug is considered essential for growth of cells and tissues and shows promise to reduce bronchopulmonary dysplasia?
  2. Retinol
  3. Inositol
  4. Antioxidant enzymes
  5. Inhaled nitrous oxide

 

ANS: A

 

 

 

  1. All of the following are examples of antioxidant enzymes that have been suggested to decrease lung injury except:
  2. Superoxide dismutase
  3. N-acetylcysteine
  4. Vitamin E
  5. Vitamin K

 

ANS: D

 

 

 

  1. What is the diuretic of choice to treat ventilator-dependent infants with impending bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or established BPD?
  2. Loop diuretics
  3. Thiazides
  4. Furosemide
  5. Lasix

 

ANS: B

 

 

 

  1. All of the following are common side effects of adrenergic bronchodilators except:
  2. Hypotension
  3. Tremors
  4. Tachycardia
  5. Nervousness

 

ANS: A

 

 

 

  1. What is a major predictor of neurodevelopment outcomes?
  2. Respiratory distress syndrome
  3. Chronic lung disease
  4. Extremely low birth weight
  5. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

 

ANS: D

 

 

 

  1. What is the physiological difference between “old bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)” and “new BPD”?
    I. Old BPD was a direct result of injury to the lung as a result of oxygen and mechanical ventilation.
  2. New BPD is considered a developmental delay or arrest of lung tissue.

III. There is no difference between the two terms; it is just a revision of terminology.

  1. Old BPD occurs in infants under 1,500 g requiring mechanical ventilation and new BPD has been eliminated as a result of surfactant use.
  2. I only
  3. II only
  4. III only
  5. I and II
  6. II and IV

 

ANS: D

 

 

 

True/False

 

 

 

  1. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and asthma are similar in their pathology.

 

ANS: False

 

 

 

  1. Apnea of prematurity is a developmental disorder caused by a physiological immaturity of the neurological and chemical receptor systems of the body.

 

ANS: True

 

 

 

  1. Bradycardia always occurs with an apnea episode and associated saturation problems.

 

ANS: False

 

 

 

  1. Systemic steroids have greater adverse effects than do inhaled steroids in the management of ventilator-dependent preterm infants.

 

ANS: True

 

 

 

  1. Caffeine citrate should not be used routinely in the treatment of apnea of prematurity.

 

ANS: False

 

 

 

  1. In recent studies, sufficient evidence has been given to support the routine use of inhaled nitric oxide as a rescue therapy for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome.

 

ANS: False

 

 

 

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