Motor Learning and Control Concepts and Applications 11th Edition by Richard A Magill – Test Bank

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Chapter 05 Motor Control Theories Answer Key

 

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The world-renowned physicist Stephen Hawking stated that which of the following should describe a large class of observations and accurately predict the results of future observations?

A. Hypothesis

 

B. Model

 

C. Schema

 

D. Theory

 

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Topic: Discussion; Theory and Professional Practice

 

2. An understanding of motor control theory enables a practitioner to:

A. Identify performance problems

 

B. Develop interventions to overcome performance problems

 

C. Predict the effectiveness of intervention strategies

 

D. All of these

 

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Topic: Discussion; Theory and Professional Practice

 

3. Coordination should be considered in terms of body and limb movement patterns in relation to:

A. How the body and limb movement patterns can self-organize

 

B. Patterns of environmental objects and events

 

C. The characteristics of open- and closed-loop control systems

 

D. The invariant features of a generalized motor program

 

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Topic: Discussion; Motor Control Theory

 

4. The degrees of freedom problem was first identified by:

A. Nicolai Bernstein

 

B. Franklin Henry

 

C. Stephen Keele

 

D. Richard Schmidt

 

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Topic: Discussion; Theory and Professional Practice

 

5. The degrees of freedom problem, which the nervous system must solve so that a person can achieve the action goal of a complex motor skill, involves determining:

A. If an open-loop or closed-loop system is needed to control the action

 

B. The amount of force needed to achieve an action goal

 

C. The organization of muscles, limbs, and joints needed to achieve an action goal

 

D. Which environmental cues are relevant for performing the skill

 

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Topic: Discussion; Theory and Professional Practice

 

6. An important difference between the open- and closed-loop control systems is that the:

A. Closed-loop system involves feedback; the open-loop system does not

 

B. Open-loop system involves feedback; the closed-loop system does not

 

C. Closed-loop system involves movement instructions; the open-loop system does not

 

D. Open-loop system involves movement instructions; the closed-loop system does not

 

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Topic: Discussion; Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Control Systems

 

7. The action of throwing a dart at a dartboard is an example of a motor skill that is controlled by:

A. A closed-loop control system

 

B. An open-loop control system

 

C. Both open-loop and closed-loop control systems

 

D. Feedback

 

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Topic: Discussion; Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Control Systems; A Closer Look

 

8. Which of the following skills would be under closed-loop control:

A. Throwing a dart at a dart board

 

B. Bowling a bowling ball

 

C. Shooting a bullet at a tin can

 

D. Driving a car

 

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Topic: Discussion; Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Control Systems; A Closer Look

 

9. Which of the following types of motor control theories emphasizes the role of a memory representation in the control of coordinated action?

A. Chaos theories

 

B. Dynamical systems theories

 

C. Motor program theories

 

D. All of these

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

10. According to Schmidt’s motor program-based theory of motor control, the mechanism primarily responsible for the control of coordinated movement controls:

A. A class of actions

 

B. All actions involving limbs on the same side

 

C. All actions involving the same limb

 

D. Specific movements

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

11. According to Schmidt’s motor program-based theory of motor control, which of the following would be controlled by the same generalized motor program (GMP)?

A. Hitting a golf ball and hitting a pitched baseball

 

B. Throwing a ball overhand and underhand

 

C. Using either hand to reach for and grasp an object

 

D. Walking and running

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

12. In Shapiro and others’ experiment on relative timing patterns in walking and running, a motor program-based theory of motor control would conclude that:

A. A motor program type of control mechanism does not control walking or running

 

B. Both walking and running are controlled by the same GMP

 

C. Each of the various speeds of walking and running is controlled by its own GMP

 

D. One GMP controls walking and a different GMP controls running

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

13. An example of an invariant feature in Schmidt’s generalized motor program (GMP) would be:

A. The relative timing characteristics of your signature

 

B. The absolute time used to write your signature

 

C. The absolute force used to write your signature

 

D. The muscles used to write your signature

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

14. According to the dynamical systems theory, which of the following define, or identify, a specific movement pattern?

A. Control parameters

 

B. Movement duration

 

C. Order parameters

 

D. Relative timing

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

15. The dynamical systems theory indicates that skilled action is controlled by the nervous system constraining functionally specific collectives of muscles and joints, which are known as:

A. Coordinative structures

 

B. Degrees of freedom

 

C. Generalized motor programs

 

D. Motor units

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

16. According to a dynamical systems view of motor control, skilled action occurs on the basis of action units:

A. Acting according to motor program commands

 

B. Receiving commands from a control executive

 

C. Receiving feedback as movement occurs

 

D. Self organizing

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

17. In dynamical systems terminology, an attractor refers to a:

A. Complex movement

 

B. Motor program

 

C. Movement pattern stable state

 

D. State of coordination instability

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

18. According to dynamical systems theory, the speed at which an action is performed is an example of:

A. A control parameter

 

B. An order parameter

 

C. An organizational variable

 

D. A stable state

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

19. The shift from one stable movement pattern to another stable movement pattern is known as:

A. A control parameter

 

B. An order parameter

 

C. A switch

 

D. A phase transition

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

20. A good example of a “self-organizing system” is a:

A. Computer

 

B. DVR programmed to record a TV program at a specific time

 

C. Hurricane

 

D. Thermostat-based control system for heating and cooling a house

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

21. The affordance concept suggests that we:

A. Perceive the environment with respect to the elementary properties of objects, surfaces, and people

 

B. Perceive the environment relative to our own characteristics (e.g., height, leg length, etc.)

 

C. Perceive the environment in terms of possibilities for action

 

D. Both perceive the environment relative to our own characteristics (e.g., height, leg length, etc.) and perceive the environment in terms of possibilities for action

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

Short Answer Questions

22. An important coordination-related problem that a theory of motor control must provide a solution for is the ________ problem.

degrees of freedom

 

Topic: Discussion; Theory and Professional Practice

 

23. Cruise-control systems in cars are mechanical examples of ______ control systems

closed-loop

 

Topic: Discussion; Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Control Systems

 

24. According to Schmidt’s motor program-based theory of movement control, relative timing is a(n) ________ of a generalized motor program (GMP).

invariant feature

 

Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

25. Dynamical systems theories of motor control view the control of complex coordinated action from the perspective of ________ dynamics.

nonlinear

 

Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

26. Dynamical systems theory de-emphasizes the role of executive commands to the musculature and emphasizes the role of the ______ properties of the body and limbs.

dynamic

 

Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

27. According to a dynamical systems theory, the muscles and joints that act together to enable a person to reach and grasp a cup are known as a ________.

coordinative structure

 

Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

28. According to the dynamical systems theory, walking and running represent two distinct ________ states of coordination.

attractor

 

Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

29. You perform a four-component movement in 10 sec, and then in 20 sec. If relative time is invariant, and component 1 takes 2.5 sec for the 10-sec movement time, component 1 would require ______ sec for the 20-sec movement time.

5

 

Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

30. According to the perception-action coupling literature, the reciprocal fit between the characteristics of a person and the characteristics of the environment that permit specific actions, such as stairs having the physical characteristics to permit stair climbing, are referred to as _____________.

affordances

 

Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

True / False Questions

31. When we consider the assessment of movement characteristics associated with the performance of a skill, it is necessary to use the term coordination to refer to the relationship among the joints and segments at any specific point in time during the skill performance.

TRUE

 

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Topic: Discussion; Motor Control Theory

 

32. Angle-angle diagrams are a common way to display the coordination between two joints.

TRUE

 

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Topic: Discussion; Motor Control Theory

 

33. A traffic signal that is preset to cycle through the time sequences for the onset of the green-yellow-red light sequence is a mechanical example of an open-loop control system.

TRUE

 

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Topic: Discussion; Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Control Systems

 

34. Schmidt’s Schema Theory is an example of a “central” theory of motor control because it emphasizes the role played by performance environment characteristics.

FALSE

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

35. An example of an invariant feature of a generalized motor program (GMP) is the overall speed involved in performing a skill.

FALSE

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

36. That people spontaneously change from a walking to a running coordination pattern at a certain speed demonstrates that patterns of movement coordination can self-organize.

TRUE

 

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Topic: Discussion; Motor Control Theory

 

37. Coordinative structures can develop through practice.

TRUE

 

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Topic: Discussion; Motor Control Theory

 

38. The coordination between the two arms can spontaneously shift (transition) as swimming speed increases.

TRUE

 

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Topic: Discussion; Motor Control Theory

 

39. The generalized motor program and dynamical systems theories agree on the source of relative timing invariance in human movement.

FALSE

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

40. Perception-action coupling is an essential element in accounting for the motor control of open motor skills such as catching a thrown ball.

TRUE

 

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Topic: Discussion; Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Control Systems

 

41. There is unanimous agreement that the motor program and dynamical systems theories will ultimately merge into a unitary hybrid theory of motor control and learning.

FALSE

 

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Topic: Discussion; Two Theories of Motor Control

 

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