Mastering The World Of Psychology 5th Edition by Samuel E. Wood – Test Bank

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Test Bank for Wood 5e

Chapter 5: Learning

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. _____ is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice.
  2. a) Learning
  3. b) Adaptation
  4. c) Memory enhancement
  5. d) Muscle memory

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 145

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Learning

Item Analysis:

% correct 95 a = 95 b = 3 c = 1 d = 1 r = .21

% correct 96 a = 96 b = 4 c = 0 d = 0 r = .19

 

  1. The type of learning in which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another is called _____
  2. a) operant conditioning.
  3. b) classical conditioning.
  4. c) maturation.
  5. d) social-cognitive learning.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 145

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Classical Conditioning

 

  1. As an infant, Stephanie received many penicillin injections from the doctor. When she later saw a photographer in a white coat that was similar to the doctor’s coat, she started to cry. This is an example of_____
  2. a) instrumental learning.
  3. b) observational learning.
  4. c) classical conditioning.
  5. d) habituation.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 145–146

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Classical Conditioning

Item Analysis:

% correct 90 a = 3 b = 4 c = 90 d = 3 r = .22

% correct 83 a = 2 b = 9 c = 83 d = 4 r = .27

 

  1. Learning to make a reflex respond to a stimulus other than to the original, natural stimulus is called _____
  2. a) classical conditioning.
  3. b) operant conditioning.
  4. c) memory linkage.
  5. d) adaptation.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 145–146

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Classical Conditioning

Item Analysis:

% correct 77 a = 77 b = 12 c = 2 d = 8 r = .42

% correct 82 a = 82 b = 11 c = 0 d = 7 r = .19

 

  1. _____ is any event or object in the environment to which an organism responds.
  2. a) Higher-order conditioning
  3. b) Negative reinforcement
  4. c) Shaping
  5. d) A stimulus

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 145

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Classical Conditioning

 

  1. The _____ is a response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning.
  2. a) conditioned response
  3. b) unconditioned stimuli
  4. c) unconditioned response
  5. d) conditioned stimulus

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 145–146

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Classical Conditioning

 

  1. A puff of air in the eye naturally causes an eye blink response. The puff of air is the _____ and the eye blink is the _____
  2. a) conditioned response; unconditioned stimulus.
  3. b) unconditioned stimulus; conditioned response.
  4. c) unconditioned response; conditioned response.
  5. d) unconditioned stimulus; unconditioned response.

Answer: d No one had to teach us to blink when we feel a puff of air in our eye; thus it is an unconditioned response. Because the puff of air naturally causes this response, it is considered an unconditioned stimulus.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficulty

Page Ref: 146

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Classical Conditioning

 

  1. Jetta was at her favorite coffee shop reading her psychology textbook. She was so engrossed in the material that she did not see her friend Willy coming up behind her. Willy approached her chair and tapped her back. Though she never learned to respond this way, Jetta jumped in surprise because Willy’s tap had startled her. Which of the following would be considered the unconditioned response in this scenario?
  2. a) Jetta’s jump
  3. b) the coffee shop
  4. c) chatting with Willy
  5. d) Willy

Answer: a Jetta’s jump is an unlearned response to the stimulus of being touched unexpectedly.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 146

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Classical Conditioning

 

  1. The _____ started as a neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, became associated with it and now elicits a conditioned response.
  2. a) unconditioned response
  3. b) conditioned stimulus
  4. c) unconditioned stimulus
  5. d) neutral response

Answer: b The learned association between what was a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus changes the neutral stimulus into the conditioned stimulus.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 146

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Classical Conditioning

 

  1. The type of learning that Pavlov observed and researched resulted from associating an unconditioned response with a _____
  2. a) neutral stimulus.
  3. b) neutral response.
  4. c) conditioned response.
  5. d) punishment.

Answer: a The learned association between what was a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus changes the neutral stimulus into the conditioned stimulus.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 146

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Classical Conditioning

 

  1. In the case of the dogs Pavlov observed, the _____ was the unconditioned response and the _____ was the conditioned response.
  2. a) food; bell
  3. b) food; salivation
  4. c) salivation; salivation
  5. d) bell; salivation

Answer: c In classical conditioning, the conditioned response must be the same or very similar to the unconditioned response. That is, in effect, the learning that takes place. The same or very similar response is conditioned to occur in response to the new conditioned stimulus.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 146

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Classical Conditioning

 

  1. Which of the following are terms used to describe changes in classically conditioned responses?
  2. a) extinction and generalization
  3. b) reinforcement and narrowing
  4. c) expansion and elimination
  5. d) deconditioning and reconditioning

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 147–148

Textbook LO 5.2: What causes classically conditioned responses to change?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Changing Conditioned Responses

 

  1. Jenni was startled by the sudden loud barking noise made by a large black dog. Every time she saw a large black dog after that, she felt anxious and jumpy. She also began to feel the same way when she saw any brown, medium sized dogs. This change in her conditioned response is known as _____
  2. a) extinction.
  3. b) higher-order conditioning.
  4. c) generalization
  5. d) spontaneous recovery

Answer: c When a conditioned response begins to occur in the presence of stimuli that are similar to, but not the same as, the conditioned stimuli, we say the conditioned response has generalized.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 148

Textbook LO 5.2: What causes classically conditioned responses to change?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Changing Conditioned Responses

 

  1. Repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus will eventually result in _____
  2. a) reinforcement.
  3. b) classical conditioning.
  4. c) extinction.
  5. d) generalization.

Answer: c The passage of time in which the unconditioned and conditioned stimulus do not occur together, strengthening their association, may result in the conditioned stimulus returning to neutral and no longer eliciting the conditioned response. This is called extinction.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 147–148

Textbook LO 5.2: What causes classically conditioned responses to change?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Changing Conditioned Responses

 

  1. After a conditioned response has been extinguished and a period of time has passed, _____ may occur in response to the original conditioned stimulus; however, it will be in _____ form.
  2. a) higher-order conditioning; stronger
  3. b) generalization; weaker
  4. c) spontaneous recovery; weaker
  5. d) generalization; stronger

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 148

Textbook LO 5.2: What causes classically conditioned responses to change?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Changing Conditioned Responses

 

  1. After Little Albert acquired a conditioned fear of rats, Watson wanted to see how he would react to a white rabbit, cotton wool, and a Santa Claus mask. He was studying whether or not _____ had occurred.
  2. a) behavior modification
  3. b) stimulus discrimination
  4. c) extinction
  5. d) generalization

Answer: d

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 148

Textbook LO 5.2: What causes classically conditioned responses to change?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Changing Conditioned Responses

Item Analysis: % correct a = 14 b = 0 c = 0 d = 86 r = .49

 

  1. Benson, a black lab, had learned to associate two stimuli with getting taken for a walk, his owner getting out his leash, and his owner getting out a belt. Every time his owner picked up his belt, Benson would jump around and get excited. His owner wanted Benson to stop that so he repeatedly took out his belt without taking Benson for a walk, and always took him for a walk when getting out his leash. He was teaching Benson to _____
  2. a) generalize.
  3. b) extinguish.
  4. c) discriminate.
  5. d) learn preferentially.

Answer: c Learning not to respond to similar stimuli, but only to the original stimulus, is the process of discrimination.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 149

Textbook LO 5.2: What causes classically conditioned responses to change?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Changing Conditioned Responses

 

  1. When conditioned stimuli are linked together to form a series of signals, such as the steps involved in having one’s blood tested, this process is called _____
  2. a) stimulus chaining.
  3. b) graduated conditioning.
  4. c) operant conditioning.
  5. d) higher-order conditioning.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 146–147

Textbook LO 5.2: What causes classically conditioned responses to change?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Changing Conditioned Responses

 

  1. Denny is quite fearful of going to the dentist. Over time, he has noticed that he becomes anxious at even the smell of the dentist’s office. Every step Denny takes, right up until the dentist starts to drill a tooth, seems to cause muscle tension and anxiety. Denny is experiencing _____
  2. a) reflexive conditioning.
  3. b) operant conditioning.
  4. c) graduated conditioning.
  5. d) higher-order conditioning.

Answer: d Denny is experiencing multiple stimuli linking, all of which become conditioned stimuli eliciting his fearful response.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 146–147

Textbook LO 5.2: What causes classically conditioned responses to change?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Changing Conditioned Responses

 

  1. What was learned in the case of Little Albert?
  2. a) Fear can be learned via operant conditioning, but cannot be extinguished.
  3. b) Fear can be learned via classical conditioning, but cannot be generalized.
  4. c) It is important to ignore the consideration of a child’s mental health as long as the research is important enough.
  5. d) Fear can be learned via classical conditioning, and that fear can be generalized.

Answer: d Albert was conditioned to fear the rabbit and spontaneously developed fear of other white furry things.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 149

Textbook LO 5.3: What did Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment show?, APA LO 2.1c

Topic: John Watson and Emotional Conditioning

 

  1. In the “Little Albert” study, the fear-producing stimulus used as an unconditioned stimulus was the _____.
  2. a) white rat
  3. b) loud noise
  4. c) fear of the rat
  5. d) fear of the noise

Answer: d It was an unexpected loud noise that frightened Albert. We don’t have to learn to be frightened of unexpected loud noises, so it is an unconditioned stimulus.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 149

Textbook LO 5.3: What did Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment show?, APA LO 2.1c

Topic: John Watson and Emotional Conditioning

Item Analysis: % correct 76 a = 21 b = 76 c = 2 d = 1 r = .25

 

  1. John Watson offered a live, white rat to Little Albert and then made a loud noise behind Albert by striking a steel bar with a hammer. The white rat served as the _____ in his study.
  2. a) discriminative stimulus
  3. b) counterconditioning stimulus
  4. c) conditioned stimulus
  5. d) unconditioned stimulus

Answer: c Albert did not automatically fear white rats, so the rat was not the unconditioned stimulus. By scaring Albert with a loud noise when handed the rat, the rat was made the conditioned stimulus.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 149

Textbook LO 5.3: What did Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment show?, APA LO 2.1c

Topic: John Watson and Emotional Conditioning

Item Analysis:

% correct 51 a = 3 b = 3 c = 51 d = 43 r = .21

% correct 57 a = 18 b = 0 c = 57 d = 25 r = .19

 

  1. What could John Watson have done to eliminate Little Albert’s conditioned fear?
  2. a) show Albert a toy dog instead of a live rat
  3. b) let Albert touch a Santa Claus beard repeatedly
  4. c) show Albert a rat many times without a loud noise following
  5. d) have Albert hear a loud noise many times without a rat present

Answer: d Showing Albert a white rat many times without any loud noise occurring could eventually extinguish the conditioning.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 149

Textbook LO 5.3: What did Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment show?, APA LO 2.1c

Topic: John Watson and Emotional Conditioning

 

  1. A key principle learned in the Little Albert experiment was that _____
  2. a) fear can be conditioned.
  3. b) rats are an unconditioned fear stimulus.
  4. c) conditioned fear can’t generalize.
  5. d) conditioned fear cannot be removed.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 149

Textbook LO 5.3: What did Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment show?, APA LO 2.1c

Topic: John Watson and Emotional Conditioning

 

  1. After pairing a loud noise with a white rat many times, the sight of the rat would cause little Albert to cry. Crying is an example of a(n) _____
  2. a) unconditioned stimulus.
  3. b) conditioned stimulus.
  4. c) unconditioned response.
  5. d) conditioned response.

Answer: d Little Albert was not afraid of the rat before the loud noises, but came to fear the rat as an extension of his fear of the noise. This makes his fear of the rat a conditioned response.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 149

Textbook LO 5.3: What did Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment show?, APA LO 2.1c

Topic: John Watson and Emotional Conditioning

 

  1. Little Albert’s acquired fear of a white rat was a classic example of a(n) _____ response.
  2. a) classical counterconditioned
  3. b) conditioned emotional
  4. c) positively reinforced
  5. d) negatively reinforced

Answer: b The case of Little Albert was used to demonstrate conditional emotional responses.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 149

Textbook LO 5.3: What did Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment show?, APA LO 2.1c

Topic: John Watson and Emotional Conditioning

 

  1. Watson’s experiment with Little Albert demonstrated that fears might be _____
  2. a) based on classical conditioning.
  3. b) deeply rooted in the innate unconscious of infants.
  4. c) based on the principle of observational learning.
  5. d) based on Skinner’s analysis of positive reinforcement.

Answer: a The experiment opened the door to understanding how many of our fears may be learned.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 149

Textbook LO 5.3: What did Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment show?, APA LO 2.1c

Topic: John Watson and Emotional Conditioning

Item Analysis: % correct 86 a = 86 b = 4 c = 9 d = 1 r = .40

  1. Which of the following statements accurately reflects the results of Watson and Jones’ experimental attempts to remove Peter’s fear of rabbits?
  2. a) Peter lost his fear of the rabbit, but not his generalized fear of similar stimuli.
  3. b) Peter’s fear of the rabbit gradually intensified.
  4. c) Peter lost his fear of the rabbit and those things to which his fear had generalized.
  5. d) Peter lost his fear of the rabbit, but began to fear Watson and Jones.

Answer: c Through the process of controlled exposure, Peter’s phobia first diminished, and then disappeared. This is similar to the modern therapy called systematic desensitization.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 149

Textbook LO 5.3: What did Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment show?, APA LO 2.1c

Topic: John Watson and Emotional Conditioning

 

  1. Which theorist proposed the cognitive perspective that explains that classical conditioning occurs because it provides a means to predict the occurrence of the unconditioned response?
  2. a) Pavlov
  3. b) Garcia
  4. c) Rescorla
  5. d) Skinner

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 150

Textbook LO 5.4: What did Rescorla demonstrate about classical conditioning?, APA LO 1.2e

Topic: The Cognitive Perspective

 

  1. The current view of why classical conditioning works the way it does, advanced by Rescorla and others, adds the concept of _____ to conditioning theory.
  2. a) generalization
  3. b) habituation
  4. c) memory loss
  5. d) prediction

Answer: d Rescorla explained that animals must make a prediction created by the pairing of a stimulus with an experience.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 150

Textbook LO 5.4: What did Rescorla demonstrate about classical conditioning?, APA LO 1.2e

Topic: The Cognitive Perspective

 

  1. Rescorla’s modern concept of classical conditioning is based on the idea that _____
  2. a) the CS substitutes for the US.
  3. b) there is a biological readiness for conditioning to occur between the CS and US.
  4. c) the CS has to provide information about the coming of the US.
  5. d) reinforcement must occur by providing a pleasant event.

Answer: c The subject has to have some cognitive appreciation of the relationship and ability to make a prediction.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 150

Textbook LO 5.4: What did Rescorla demonstrate about classical conditioning?, APA LO 1.2e

Topic: The Cognitive Perspective

 

  1. According to Rescorla’s theory, the CS must _____ the US or conditioning does not occur.
  2. a) replace
  3. b) come after
  4. c) occur simultaneously with
  5. d) predict

Answer: d Rescorla believed the key to conditioning was how well the conditioned stimulus predicted the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 150

Textbook LO 5.4: What did Rescorla demonstrate about classical conditioning?, APA LO 1.2e

Topic: The Cognitive Perspective

 

  1. Rescorla’s cognitive theory proposed that the real reason Pavlov’s dogs salivated to conditioned stimuli was that these stimuli allowed them to _____
  2. a) guess food might come.
  3. b) predict what food would come.
  4. c) wonder if food might come.
  5. d) remember the smell of food.

Answer: b Rescorla did not think it was the repeated pairings of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli was the critical part of classical conditioning. He believed it was how well the conditioned stimulus provided information so that reliable predictions about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimuli could be made.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 150

Textbook LO 5.4: What did Rescorla demonstrate about classical conditioning?, APA LO 1.2e

Topic: The Cognitive Perspective

 

  1. Rescorla provided evidence that supported his theory by _____
  2. a) examining the brains of his rat subjects in a conditioning experiment.
  3. b) presenting a conditioned stimulus with and without the unconditioned stimulus.
  4. c) pairing conditioned and unconditioned stimuli only once.
  5. d) pairing the unconditioned stimulus with several neutral stimuli.

Answer: b By presenting the conditioned stimulus with and without the unconditioned stimulus to one group of rats, he showed it was not just pairing the stimuli that determined how effective conditioning was, but how well the conditioned stimulus predicted the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 150–151

Textbook LO 5.4: What did Rescorla demonstrate about classical conditioning?, APA LO 1.2e

Topic: The Cognitive Perspective

 

  1. The current view of why classical conditioning works the way it does, advanced by Rescorla and others, adds the concept of _____ to conditioning theory.
  2. a) generalization
  3. b) habituation
  4. c) memory loss
  5. d) expectancy

Answer: d Rescorla explained that animals must have an expectancy created by the pairing of a stimulus (or absence of a stimulus) with an unpleasant experience.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 150

Textbook LO 5.4: What did Rescorla demonstrate about classical conditioning?, APA LO 1.2e

Topic: The Cognitive Perspective

 

  1. Pavlov and Watson believed the critical element in classical conditioning was the _____ of stimuli; Rescorla believed it was how well the conditioned stimulus made it possible to _____
  2. a) expectancy; remember the consequences.
  3. b) pairing; make good predictions.
  4. c) strength; repeat the pairing.
  5. d) aversiveness; escape.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 150–151

Textbook LO 5.4: What did Rescorla demonstrate about classical conditioning?, APA LO 1.2e

Topic: The Cognitive Perspective

 

  1. Mice who received a paired tone and shock 20 times and the same tone with no shock 20 times were not successfully conditioned to fear the tone. Mice who received a shock every time the tone sounded were conditioned to fear the tone. This observation supports the _____ theory of classical conditioning.
  2. a) Pavlovian
  3. b) cognitive
  4. c) emotion-based
  5. d) original

Answer: b The fact that only the mice whose conditioning made the conditioned stimulus more predictive were successfully conditioned supports the cognitive theory of classical conditioning.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 150

Textbook LO 5.4: What did Rescorla demonstrate about classical conditioning?, APA LO 1.2e

Topic: The Cognitive Perspective

 

  1. In terms of classical conditioning, which element of the process did Robert Rescorla argue was the most important?
  2. a) the timing between the pairing of the stimuli
  3. b) the reward that came after the stimulus
  4. c) the predictive value of the unconditioned stimulus
  5. d) the repeated pairing of the unconditioned and conditioned stimuli

Answer: c Rescorla saw a cognitive process in classical conditioning, not just an automatic association. He demonstrated that it could be the ability of the conditioned stimulus to help predict when the unconditioned stimulus would occur that made it a cue for the conditioned response.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 150–151

Textbook LO 5.4: What did Rescorla demonstrate about classical conditioning?, APA LO 1.2e

Topic: The Cognitive Perspective

 

  1. _____ argued that humans and other animals seem to be most affected by classical conditioning when it affects their survival. From an evolutionary standpoint, he/she suggests that humans have a biological predisposition to associate fear with certain kinds of stimuli.
  2. a) Robert Rescorla
  3. b) Ivan Pavlov
  4. c) Rosalie Rayner
  5. d) Martin Seligman

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 151

Textbook LO 5.5: How do biological predispositions affect classical conditioning? APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Biological Predispositions

 

  1. Last month, Walter became sick after eating two chili dogs, so he no longer likes chili dogs. Walter has experienced _____
  2. a) blocking.
  3. b) conditioned taste aversion.
  4. c) operant taste conditioning.
  5. d) noncontingent conditioning.

Answer: b Taste aversion is the term for a learned aversion to a particular food based on a previous bad experience with that food.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 151

Textbook LO 5.5: How do biological predispositions affect classical conditioning? APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Biological Predispositions

Item Analysis: % correct 95 a = 0 b = 95 c = 5 d = 0 r = .48

 

  1. What is likely to happen to rats who drink a flavored water solution and are then shocked?
  2. a) They will develop an aversion to the flavored water.
  3. b) They will refuse to drink any water and die.
  4. c) They will not develop an aversion to the flavored water.
  5. d) They will die as a result of the shocks they received in the research.

Answer: c The rats will not develop an aversion to the flavored water because rats are predisposed by their biology to make certain associations and not others. They do not associate drinking the water with the shock.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 151

Textbook LO 5.5: How do biological predispositions affect classical conditioning? APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Biological Predispositions

 

  1. Kenyatta went out for pizza Tuesday night. She developed the flu on Tuesday night, which included intense stomach cramps and vomiting. She did not know at that point she had the flu. Now she can’t stand pizza. Kenyatta appears to have developed _____
  2. a) learned helplessness.
  3. b) operant conditioning to avoid cheeseburgers.
  4. c) a heuristic bias.
  5. d) a classically conditioned taste aversion.

Answer: d The pairing of her illness caused by a virus (the unconditioned stimulus) with the cheeseburger resulted in a classically conditioned aversion to the taste of pizza.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 151

Textbook LO 5.5: How do biological predispositions affect classical conditioning? APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Biological Predispositions

 

  1. Which of the following researchers authored the classic research (1966) on taste aversion using rats and X-rays?
  2. a) Bandura and Skinner
  3. b) Martin Seligman
  4. c) Rosalie Rayner and John Watson
  5. d) Garcia and Koelling

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 151

Textbook LO 5.5: How do biological predispositions affect classical conditioning? APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Biological Predispositions

 

  1. For his graduate project, Seth wanted to demonstrate that he could condition a monkey to be afraid of a flower. Seth might have to come up with a different plan because _____
  2. a) the monkey will eat the flower and they can’t be made to fear food.
  3. b) the monkey has no biological predisposition to fear flowers.
  4. c) the monkey will fear a flower it hasn’t seen without conditioning.
  5. d) you can’t classically condition a monkey.

Answer: b Each species has a biological predisposition to fear some things and not others.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 151

Textbook LO 5.5: How do biological predispositions affect classical conditioning? APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Biological Predispositions

 

  1. Bui wants to condition his lab rat to fear drinking orange-flavored water. He pairs a mild shock with the drinking of flavored water. He wants the rat to associate the unconditioned stimulus, the shock, with drinking the water. How could he be most successful?
  2. a) Raise the shock to as strong as he can.
  3. b) Choose a different neutral/conditioned stimulus.
  4. c) Use a mouse instead of a rat.
  5. d) Color the water a disgusting color, too.

Answer: b Rats and mice are not biologically predisposed to associate shock with drinking.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 151

Textbook LO 5.5: How do biological predispositions affect classical conditioning? APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Biological Predispositions

 

  1. Taste aversion is an example of _____
  2. a) counter-conditioning.
  3. b) generalization.
  4. c) biological predisposition.
  5. d) negative punishment.

Answer: c Humans and other animals have a predisposition to develop intense dislike and avoidance of foods that have become associated with feeling sick.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 151

Textbook LO 5.5: How do biological predispositions affect classical conditioning? APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Biological Predispositions

 

  1. How does classical conditioning affect our eating habits?
  2. a) Conditioned stimuli can be so powerful that we eat when we are not hungry.
  3. b) We use food as a reward to reinforce behavior change.
  4. c) It doesn’t; we have no biological predisposition toward conditioning related to food.
  5. d) It is why we like sweet things.

Answer: a When we encounter a stimuli associated with food, it can initiate eating behavior.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 152

Textbook LO 5.6: What are some examples of classical conditioning in everyday life?, APA LO 5.3a

Topic: Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life

 

  1. Another example of the power of classical conditioning occurs when _____
  2. a) a child is given a treat for finishing chores and increases that behavior.
  3. b) we learn a skill by watching someone else, which makes our mirror neurons fire.
  4. c) the neighborhood where we got high makes us crave the drug.
  5. d) we teach our dog to sit by using rewards.

Answer: c The places, people, and other stimuli associated with using become strongly conditioned cues for craving.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 152

Textbook LO 5.6: What are some examples of classical conditioning in everyday life?, APA LO 5.3a

Topic: Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life

 

  1. _____ valid stimuli—those with a real connection to an unconditioned stimulus—are learned more quickly than _____ stimuli.
  2. a) Psychologically; random
  3. b) Biologically; non-predisposed
  4. c) Ecologically; arbitrary
  5. d) Physically; emotional

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 153

Textbook LO 5.6: What are some examples of classical conditioning in everyday life?, APA LO 5.3a

Topic: Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life

 

  1. Who came up with the law of effect?
  2. a) Edward Thorndike
  3. b) B. F. Skinner
  4. c) Albert Bandura
  5. d) Ivan Pavlov

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 153

Textbook LO 5.7: What did Thorndike and Skinner discover about the consequences of behavior?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Thorndike, Skinner, and the Consequences of Behavior

 

  1. The notion that behaviors with desirable outcomes will likely be repeated is part of _____
  2. a) classical conditioning.
  3. b) modeling.
  4. c) the law of effect.
  5. d) insight learning.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 153

Textbook LO 5.7: What did Thorndike and Skinner discover about the consequences of behavior?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Thorndike, Skinner, and the Consequences of Behavior

 

  1. _____ states that the consequence, or effect, of a response will determine whether the tendency to respond in the same way in the future will be strengthened or weakened.
  2. a) Classical conditioning
  3. b) The effect and reliability hypothesis
  4. c) Insight learning
  5. d) The law of effect

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 153

Textbook LO 5.7: What did Thorndike and Skinner discover about the consequences of behavior?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Thorndike, Skinner, and the Consequences of Behavior

 

  1. Sofia loves that she gets attention from her kindergarten teacher every time she uses her manners. Because of it, she continues to use her manners. What does this demonstrate?
  2. a) classical conditioning
  3. b) the law of effect
  4. c) shaping
  5. d) the social learning theory

Answer: b It is the nature of the consequences of her behavior that makes Sofia want to continue it.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 153

Textbook LO 5.7: What did Thorndike and Skinner discover about the consequences of behavior?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Thorndike, Skinner, and the Consequences of Behavior

 

  1. The type of learning in which the consequences of behavior are manipulated to increase or decrease the frequency of the behavior, or to shape an entirely new behavior, is _____
  2. a) operant conditioning.
  3. b) classical conditioning.
  4. c) insight learning.
  5. d) social-cognitive learning.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 153

Textbook LO 5.7: What did Thorndike and Skinner discover about the consequences of behavior?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Thorndike, Skinner, and the Consequences of Behavior

 

  1. A consequence that brings about an increase in the frequency of a behavior is a(n) _____; a consequence that decreases the frequency of a behavior is a(n) _____
  2. a) punishment; successive approximation.
  3. b) positive reinforcement; shaping.
  4. c) modeling; successive approximation.
  5. d) reinforcement; punishment.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 153

Textbook LO 5.7: What did Thorndike and Skinner discover about the consequences of behavior?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Thorndike, Skinner, and the Consequences of Behavior

 

  1. Voluntary behavior that accidentally brings about a consequence is called _____
  2. a) a reinforce.
  3. b) shaping.
  4. c) an operant.
  5. d) an unconditioned stimulus.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 153

Textbook LO 5.7: What did Thorndike and Skinner discover about the consequences of behavior?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Thorndike, Skinner, and the Consequences of Behavior

 

  1. Fourteen-year-old Judy Ann is frustrated with the way the kids at school treat her during lunch. Instead of sitting by herself like she normally does, she sits with another student at lunch. As they begin to engage in conversation, she notices that no one stops to make fun of her. Because of this, she decides to no longer sit by herself at lunch. Which of the following can be considered the operant?
  2. a) the kids making fun of her
  3. b) sitting with another student instead of sitting by herself
  4. c) her frustration
  5. d) the student she talks to at lunch

Answer: b The behavior that brought the unintended consequence of not being made fun of is the operant.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 153

Textbook LO 5.7: What did Thorndike and Skinner discover about the consequences of behavior?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Thorndike, Skinner, and the Consequences of Behavior

 

  1. If Behavior A brings about a desirable Consequence B, and Behavior A reoccurs, then Consequence B can be considered _____.
  2. a) a punisher
  3. b) an operant
  4. c) a conditioned stimulus
  5. d) a reinforcer

Answer: d A consequence that increases the frequency of a behavior is called a reinforcer.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 153

Textbook LO 5.7: What did Thorndike and Skinner discover about the consequences of behavior?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Thorndike, Skinner, and the Consequences of Behavior

 

  1. Fourteen-year-old Judy Ann is frustrated with the way the kids at school treat her during lunch. Instead of sitting by herself like she normally does, she sits with another student at lunch. As they begin to engage in conversation, she notices that no one stops to make fun of her. Because of this, she decides to no longer sit by herself at lunch. Which of the following can be considered the reinforcer?
  2. a) the kids making fun of her
  3. b) sitting with another student instead of sitting by herself
  4. c) no one making fun of her
  5. d) her frustration

Answer: c A consequence that increases the frequency of a behavior is called a reinforcer.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 153

Textbook LO 5.7: What did Thorndike and Skinner discover about the consequences of behavior?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Thorndike, Skinner, and the Consequences of Behavior

 

  1. In the process of shaping, behaviors are ordered in terms of increasing similarity to the desired response. These behaviors are called _____
  2. a) primary reinforcers.
  3. b) successive approximations.
  4. c) secondary reinforcers.
  5. d) unconditioned stimuli.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 154

Textbook LO 5.8: How do shaping, generalization, and discrimminative stimuli influence operant conditioning?, APA LO 5.2d

Topic: The Process of Operant Conditioning

Item Analysis: % correct 92 a = 3 b = 92 c = 2 d = 2 r = .41

 

  1. Rewarding successive approximations of a desired behavior is part of which process?
  2. a) reinforcement
  3. b) shaping
  4. c) extinction
  5. d) generalization

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 154

Textbook LO 5.8: How do shaping, generalization, and discrimminative stimuli influence operant conditioning?, APA LO 5.2d

Topic: The Process of Operant Conditioning

 

  1. Skinner designed a soundproof apparatus, often equipped with a lever or bar, with which he conducted his experiments in operant conditioning. This has been called a _____
  2. a) reinforcement chamber.
  3. b) Skinner box.
  4. c) rodent chamber.
  5. d) respondent behavior unit.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 154

Textbook LO 5.8: How do shaping, generalization, and discrimminative stimuli influence operant conditioning?, APA LO 5.2d

Topic: The Process of Operant Conditioning

 

  1. Billy taught two rats how to play basketball for his experimental psychology class. What process did he likely use?
  2. a) operant conditioning
  3. b) shaping
  4. c) reinforcement
  5. d) punishment

Answer: b Billy probably rewarded the rats as they got closer and closer to the target behavior.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 154

Textbook LO 5.8: How do shaping, generalization, and discrimminative stimuli influence operant conditioning?, APA LO 5.2d

Topic: The Process of Operant Conditioning

  1. The kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior is called _____
  2. a) operant conditioning.
  3. b) classical conditioning.
  4. c) effective based learning.
  5. d) spontaneous recovery.

Answer: a Operant conditioning involves a choice and is thus voluntary behavior.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 154

Textbook LO 5.8: How do shaping, generalization, and discrimminative stimuli influence operant conditioning?, APA LO 5.2d

Topic: The Process of Operant Conditioning

Item Analysis: % correct 89 a = 89 b = 7 c = 4 d = 0 r = .32

 

  1. In operant conditioning, _____ is associated with a voluntary response.
  2. a) reinforcement
  3. b) the law of negative effect
  4. c) conceptual emotional linkages
  5. d) a long time delay

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 154

Textbook LO 5.8: How do shaping, generalization, and discrimminative stimuli influence operant conditioning?, APA LO 5.2d

Topic: The Process of Operant Conditioning

Item Analysis: % correct 100 a = 100 b = 0 c = 0 d = 0 r = .00

 

  1. Mary’s parents want her to put her books in her bookcase. At first, they praise her for putting the books together in one pile. Then they praise her for getting the books on the same side of the room as the bookcase. When she gets the books on top of the bookcase, she gets praise. Finally, her parents praise her when she puts her books in the bookcase. This is an example of ____
  2. a) negative reinforcement.
  3. b) punishment.
  4. c) extinction.
  5. d) shaping.

Answer: d Rewarding successive approximations is shaping the behavior.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 154

Textbook LO 5.8: How do shaping, generalization, and discrimminative stimuli influence operant conditioning?, APA LO 5.2d

Topic: The Process of Operant Conditioning

 

  1. Skinner found that a pigeon reinforced for pecking at a yellow disk is likely to peck at another disk similar in color. This is an example of _____
  2. a) generalization.
  3. b) shaping.
  4. c) extinction.
  5. d) classical conditioning.

Answer: a The response is now happening when a similar stimulus is presented.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 154

Textbook LO 5.8: How do shaping, generalization, and discrimminative stimuli influence operant conditioning?, APA LO 5.2d

Topic: The Process of Operant Conditioning

 

  1. A _____ signals whether a certain response or behavior is likely to be rewarded, ignored, or punished.
  2. a) reinforcer
  3. b) generalized stimulus
  4. c) discriminative stimulus
  5. d) primary reinforcer

Answer: c This stimulus is designed to let a person/animal “discriminate” whether a behavior will be reinforced at a given time.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 155

Textbook LO 5.8: How do shaping, generalization, and discrimminative stimuli influence operant conditioning?, APA LO 5.2d

Topic: The Process of Operant Conditioning

 

  1. Professor Rochelle told her students that if her door was closed, it meant that she was unavailable to them and would be angry if they knocked on her door. But if her door was open, it meant that she was in a rare good mood and would answer questions at that time. Professor Rochelle’s door being open was a _____ for _____
  2. a) discriminative stimulus; asking questions.
  3. b) discriminative stimulus; not asking questions.
  4. c) discriminative response; asking questions.
  5. d) discriminative response; not asking questions.

Answer: a Professor Rochelle’s door being open was a discriminative stimulus for asking questions because it let students know what response to make—flee from her wrath or ask her a question.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 155

Textbook LO 5.8: How do shaping, generalization, and discrimminative stimuli influence operant conditioning?, APA LO 5.2d

Topic: The Process of Operant Conditioning

Item Analysis:

% correct 75 a = 75 b = 5 c = 18 d = 2 r = .20

% correct 74 a = 74 b = 0 c = 21 d = 8 r = .28

 

  1. Susan trained her rat to press a bar in a Skinner box in order to get a food pellet. Susan’s rat pressed the bar a lot. However, later when Susan ran out of food pellets, her rat eventually stopped pressing the bar. What had happened?
  2. a) conditioned aversion
  3. b) satiation
  4. c) extinction
  5. d) withdrawal

Answer: c The removal of the reinforcement caused the desired behavior to extinguish.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 154–155

Textbook LO 5.8: How do shaping, generalization, and discrimminative stimuli influence operant conditioning?, APA LO 5.2d

Topic: The Process of Operant Conditioning

 

  1. A reinforcer is a consequence that will _____ a behavior, while a punisher is a consequence that may _____ a behavior.
  2. a) motivate; stimulate
  3. b) weaken; strengthen
  4. c) inhibit; motivate
  5. d) increase; decrease

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 153

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Reinforcement

 

  1. Adding something good as a consequence of a behavior is called _____ reinforcement.
  2. a) positive
  3. b) effective
  4. c) neutral
  5. d) preferred

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 155

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Reinforcement

 

  1. Taking away something that hurts or bothers someone is called _____ reinforcement.
  2. a) positive
  3. b) effective
  4. c) negative
  5. d) preferred

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 155

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Reinforcement

 

  1. Negative reinforcement will _____ a behavior.
  2. a) increase
  3. b) decrease
  4. c) punish
  5. d) not change

Answer: a Negative reinforcement removes (subtracts) an aversive (bad thing) from the subject’s environment. Since this is a good consequence, it will increase the behavior.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 155

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Reinforcement

 

  1. A student studied very hard in order to get a good grade. It worked. The good grade is an example of _____
  2. a) positive reinforcement.
  3. b) punishment.
  4. c) negative reinforcement.
  5. d) partial reinforcement.

Answer: a Receiving something good as a consequence of a behavior is positive reinforcement.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 155

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Reinforcement

 

  1. A student studied very hard in order to avoid getting bad grades and losing her driving privileges. It worked. What was the type of reinforcer she experienced?
  2. a) positive reinforcement
  3. b) negative punishment
  4. c) negative reinforcement
  5. d) partial reinforcement

Answer: b Because the student is reinforced by the fact that the behavior took away a bad thing, it is a negative reinforcer.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 155

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Reinforcement

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
  2. a) Marty knocks over his mother’s prize fern so she gives him a time out.
  3. b) Peter comes in late from his lunch and is fired from his job.
  4. c) Tara takes an aspirin, and her headache begins to go away.
  5. d) Gwen mows the lawn and her dad takes her out for ice cream.

Answer: c The action (taking the medicine) is rewarded when the aversive stimulus (the pain) is removed.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 155

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Reinforcement

 

  1. A _____ reinforcer is any reward that satisfies a basic, biological need, such a hunger, thirst, or touch.
  2. a) primary
  3. b) negative
  4. c) positive
  5. d) secondary

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 155

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Reinforcement

 

  1. _____ is an example of a primary reinforcer, whereas _____ is an example of a secondary reinforcer.
  2. a) A cupcake; a certificate of achievement
  3. b) A kiss; money
  4. c) Water; food
  5. d) A gold star; a cupcake

Answer: a Cupcake relates to food, a biologically-based need. The certificate does not.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 156

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Reinforcement

 

  1. Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer?
  2. a) water
  3. b) food
  4. c) shelter
  5. d) a gold star

Answer: d A gold star does not meet a biological need.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 156

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Reinforcement

 

  1. Praise, awards, and good grades are all examples of _____
  2. a) reciprocal reinforcement.
  3. b) primary reinforcement.
  4. c) partial reinforcement.
  5. d) secondary reinforcement.

Answer: d None of these meet biological needs, so they are secondary, not primary, reinforcers.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 156

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Reinforcement

 

  1. The most efficient way to condition a new response is _____
  2. a) punishment.
  3. b) partial reinforcement.
  4. c) negative reinforcement.
  5. d) continuous reinforcement.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 156

Textbook LO 5.10: What are the four types of schedules of reinforcement?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement

 

  1. When the number of responses is important to the schedule of reinforcement, that schedule is called a(n) _____ schedule.
  2. a) ratio
  3. b) interval
  4. c) conditioned
  5. d) time-delayed

Answer: a Ratio schedules’ reinforcement is based on the number of responses made by a subject.

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 156

Textbook LO 5.10: What are the four types of schedules of reinforcement?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement

Item Analysis: % correct 79 a = 79 b = 15 c = 4 d = 3 r = .39

 

  1. In a(n) _____ schedule, the first response made after a specific period of time has elapsed brings the reinforcement.
  2. a) variable-interval
  3. b) interval
  4. c) variable-ratio
  5. d) fixed-ratio

Answer: b Schedules in which the reinforcement is delivered after a specific amount of time has elapsed while the behavior is being done are called interval schedules.

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 156

Textbook LO 5.10: What are the four types of schedules of reinforcement?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement

 

  1. A teacher gives her class at least one unannounced quiz every week. The students never know which day it will fall on. The teacher is attempting to influence their study habits by using a _____
  2. a) variable-ratio.
  3. b) fixed-ratio.
  4. c) variable-interval.
  5. d) fixed-interval.

Answer: c The schedule is based on intervals of time. The intervals vary so it is a variable interval schedule.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 157

Textbook LO 5.10: What are the four types of schedules of reinforcement?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement

 

  1. The partial reinforcement effect refers to the fact that a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, of the desired behaviors is _____ to extinction than a response that gets continuous reinforcement.
  2. a) more resistant
  3. b) less resistant
  4. c) more variable in its resistance
  5. totally resistant

Answer: a The response will be more resistant to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response).

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 156–157

Textbook LO 5.10: What are the four types of schedules of reinforcement?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement

 

  1. _____ is the opposite of reinforcement.
  2. a) Partial reinforcement
  3. b) Continuous reinforcement
  4. c) Negative reinforcement
  5. d) Punishment

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 158

Textbook LO 5.11: How does punishment affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Punishment

 

  1. When a bad thing (aversive stimulus) is applied to a person or animal and decreases the probability of a particular behavior, it is known as _____
  2. a) positive punishment.
  3. b) negative punishment.
  4. c) negative reinforcement.
  5. d) negative expectation.

Answer: a Punishment is defined as a stimulus that causes a decrease in the likelihood of a behavior, and punishment that adds an aversive stimulus to their environment/experience is called positive punishment.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 158

Textbook LO 5.11: How does punishment affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Punishment

Item Analysis: % correct 32 a = 32 b = 18 c = 46 d = 4 r = .26

 

  1. When something desirable is taken away from a subject’s environment or experience in response to their behavior, it is called _____
  2. a) positive punishment.
  3. b) negative punishment.
  4. c) negative reinforcement.
  5. d) negative expectation.

Answer: b Removing a desirable thing is negative punishment.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 158

Textbook LO 5.11: How does punishment affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Punishment

 

  1. When you take something good away from someone in response to their behavior, it is called _____
  2. a) positive punishment.
  3. b) negative punishment.
  4. c) negative reinforcement.
  5. d) positive reinforcement.

Answer: B

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 158

Textbook LO 5.11: How does punishment affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Punishment

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding punishment?
  2. a) The effect of punishment is often temporary.
  3. b) Severe punishment creates fear and anger.
  4. c) Punishment is the opposite of reinforcement.
  5. d) All of these statements are true.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 158

Textbook LO 5.11: How does punishment affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Punishment

 

  1. An expert on parenting is addressing parents at the local grade school. When the topic of punishment is discussed, what is one outcome of punishment the expert is likely to note for the parents to consider?
  2. a) Punishment can also lead to the child acting aggressively.
  3. b) Punished children tend to do really well in school.
  4. c) Punishment motivates the child to focus on schoolwork.
  5. d) Punishment tends to increase the number of nightmares experienced.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 158

Textbook LO 5.11: How does punishment affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Punishment

 

  1. Olivia is punished for spilling her cereal. Her parents give her a spanking and send her to her room, where she cries. Later, her puppy makes a mess on the floor. Olivia kicks her puppy and puts it out in the yard where it whines sadly. Which of the following statements explains her behavior toward the puppy?
  2. a) Olivia is correctly applying Skinnerian principles of negative reinforcement to change her dog’s behavior.
  3. b) Olivia is using negative punishment on her dog and it will change the dog’s behavior.
  4. c) Olivia is modeling the aggressive behavior her parents demonstrated to her.
  5. d) This is how all children behave.

Answer: c Olivia is modeling the aggressive behavior and that is a problem with punishment.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 158

Textbook LO 5.11: How does punishment affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Punishment

Item Analysis: % correct 94 a = 1 b = 5 c = 94 d = 0 r = .21

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding learned helplessness?
  2. a) It is learned through repeated exposure to inescapable or unavoidable aversive events.
  3. b) It is a concept that can only be applied to human behavior.
  4. c) It was initially studied by Pavlov and Skinner using dogs that were exposed to electric shocks.
  5. d) It is not possible to avoid learned helplessness.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 161

Textbook LO 5.12: How do escape and avoidance learning occur?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Escape and Avoidance Learning

 

  1. Many students dread public speaking so much that they do not give oral presentations or take speech classes. This is an example of _____
  2. a) avoidance learning.
  3. b) learned helplessness.
  4. c) extinction learning.
  5. d) generalized learning.

Answer: a These students have learned to avoid an unpleasant event before it occurs.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 161

Textbook LO 5.12: How do escape and avoidance learning occur?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Escape and Avoidance Learning

 

  1. Sammy took two aspirin to treat a pounding headache. This is an example of _____
  2. a) avoidance learning.
  3. b) extinction learning.
  4. c) escape learning.
  5. d) learned helplessness.

Answer: c Similar to the effects of negative reinforcement, Sammy has learned that he can escape the unpleasant situation by engaging in a specific behavior.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 161

Textbook LO 5.12: How do escape and avoidance learning occur?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Escape and Avoidance Learning

 

  1. People who are exposed repeatedly to unpleasant events over which they have no control may become passively resigned to those outcomes. This is called _____
  2. a) avoidance learning.
  3. b) learned helplessness.
  4. c) extinction.
  5. d) cognitive dissonance.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 161

Textbook LO 5.12: How do escape and avoidance learning occur?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Escape and Avoidance Learning

 

  1. The person most closely associated with research on learned helplessness is _____
  2. a) Thorndike.
  3. b) Wolpe.
  4. c) Seligman.
  5. d) Bandura.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 161

Textbook LO 5.12: How do escape and avoidance learning occur?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Escape and Avoidance Learning

Item Analysis: % correct 25 a = 33 b = 2 1 c = 25 d = 21 r = .19

 

  1. College students faced with unsolvable problems eventually give up and make only half-hearted attempts to solve new problems, even when the new problems can be solved easily. This behavior is probably due to _____
  2. a) learned helplessness.
  3. b) contingency blocking.
  4. c) latent learning.
  5. d) response generalization.

Answer: a Students’ lack of success in the past taught them to not even bother trying, a phenomenon Seligman called learned helplessness.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 161

Textbook LO 5.12: How do escape and avoidance learning occur?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Escape and Avoidance Learning

 

  1. While watching the evening news, you see a story about domestic abuse and wonder, “Why would anyone stay in a relationship where they are being abused?” According to Seligman, one factor that may contribute to victim’s staying in abusive relationships is _____
  2. a) observational learning.
  3. b) learned helplessness.
  4. c) conditioned emotional response.
  5. d) instinctive drift.

Answer: b Because victims may feel helpless to control their situation, this would be an example of learned helplessness.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 161

Textbook LO 5.12: How do escape and avoidance learning occur?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Escape and Avoidance Learning

 

  1. Utilizing classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and/or observational learning in an effort to change behaviors is referred to as _____
  2. a) shaping.
  3. b) behavior modification.
  4. c) generalization.
  5. d) a token economy.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 162

Textbook LO 5.13:What are some applications of operant conditioning?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Applications of Operant Conditioning

 

  1. Shay is a nursery school teacher who works with 2- and 3-year-old children. Because she knows this is the time when most children become potty trained, she uses a technique in her classroom that encourages this behavior. Shay tells the children that they will get a sticker on their chart each time they successfully use the bathroom. Whenever a child gets 10 stickers, the child receives a small prize. What technique is Shay using?
  2. a) classical conditioning
  3. b) generalization
  4. c) modeling
  5. d) token economy

Answer: d Because the children accumulate tokens (stickers) that they can save up for more desirable reinforcers, this is the token economy model.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 163

Textbook LO 5.13:What are some applications of operant conditioning?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Applications of Operant Conditioning

 

103.To use behavior modification, you first have to identify a _____

  1. a) reinforcer.
  2. b) punishment.
  3. c) target behavior.
  4. d) reinforceable behavior.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 163

Textbook LO 5.13:What are some applications of operant conditioning?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Applications of Operant Conditioning

 

  1. In order for behavior modification to work, the behavior must be _____ and _____
  2. a) aversive; changeable.
  3. b) reinforceable; conditionable.
  4. c) observable; measurable.
  5. d) subjective; qualitative.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 163

Textbook LO 5.13:What are some applications of operant conditioning?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Applications of Operant Conditioning

 

  1. In a token economy, when the tokens stop coming, the reinforced behaviors usually _____
  2. a) stop.
  3. b) continue.
  4. c) increase.
  5. d) become unpredictable.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 163

Textbook LO 5.13:What are some applications of operant conditioning?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Applications of Operant Conditioning

 

  1. Time out is a behavior modification technique that is _____
  2. a) a negative punishment.
  3. b) a negative reinforcement.
  4. c) unsuccessful.
  5. d) a positive punishment.

Answer: a Because it takes the child away from pleasurable activities, it is negative punishment.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 163

Textbook LO 5.13:What are some applications of operant conditioning?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Applications of Operant Conditioning

 

  1. Another aspect of time out that relates to its effectiveness is that it prevents the _____ from being _____
  2. a) child; a bother.
  3. b) unwanted behavior; reinforced.
  4. c) conditioning; reinforced.
  5. d) reinforcement; lost.

Answer: b Because the child does not get to interact with anyone during time out, the unwanted behavior can’t be accidentally reinforced.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 163

Textbook LO 5.13:What are some applications of operant conditioning?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Applications of Operant Conditioning

 

  1. A reduction in your auto insurance cost for a year accident free is an example of _____
  2. a) conditioning.
  3. b) latent learning.
  4. c) behavior modification.
  5. d) insight.

Answer: c Since the insurance company has created a reinforcement to induce you to drive more safely, they want to modify your driving behavior.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 162

Textbook LO 5.13:What are some applications of operant conditioning?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Applications of Operant Conditioning

 

  1. Which of the following are examples of behavior modification?
  2. a) Your boss gives you a raise for good performance.
  3. b) A husband compliments his wife every time she remembers to close the garage door.
  4. c) A wife cleans up the kitchen whenever her husband makes dinner.
  5. d) All of the above are examples of behavior modification.

Answer: d Each uses a principle of conditioning to shape a behavior.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 162

Textbook LO 5.13:What are some applications of operant conditioning?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Applications of Operant Conditioning

 

  1. The majority of behavior modification programs use the principles of _____
  2. a) classical conditioning.
  3. b) operant conditioning.
  4. c) insight.
  5. d) latent learning.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 162

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Applications of Operant Conditioning

 

  1. In an experiment, a bunch of bananas was placed just beyond a chimpanzee’s reach. Boxes and sticks were left in its housing area. After trying various ways of getting the bananas, the chimps seemed to give up, and then return in a while with an idea that worked. They were demonstrating _____
  2. a) latent learning.
  3. b) insight.
  4. c) conditioning.
  5. d) reinforcement.

Answer: b Because they returned to the task and immediately used a new solution, they demonstrated insight.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Learning by Insight

 

  1. Wolfgang Kohler believed that _____, rather than _____ learning, is more easily learned.
  2. a) insight; trial-and-error
  3. b) conditioning; trial-and-error
  4. c) reinforcement; conditioned
  5. d) cognition; latent

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Learning by Insight

  1. In terms of cognitive processing, a sudden realization of how to successfully solve or complete a problem is known as _____
  2. a) insight.
  3. b) cognitive awareness.
  4. c) generalization.
  5. d) latent learning.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Learning by Insight

 

  1. The “Aha!” experience is known as _____
  2. a) latent learning.
  3. b) insight learning.
  4. c) thoughtful learning.
  5. d) serial enumeration.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Learning by Insight

 

  1. Which of the following is true of research on insight?
  2. a) Researchers have found that only human beings are capable of insight learning.
  3. b) Researchers have found support for the existence of both human and animal insight learning.
  4. c) Researchers have found that apes are capable of insight only after being taught this by humans.
  5. d) Researchers have proven that all creatures, even one-celled organisms such as the amoeba, are capable of insight learning.

Answer: b Humans and apes are capable of insight learning. We are very similar genetically and have a common evolutionary ancestor.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Learning by Insight

 

  1. You need to remove a broken light bulb from a lamp. Without a pair of gloves, you are likely to cut yourself on the jagged glass. Suddenly, it occurs to you that you can use a cut potato to remove the light bulb from the socket. You have just demonstrated _____
  2. a) generalization.
  3. b) discrimination.
  4. c) latent learning.
  5. d) insight learning.

Answer: d The suddenness with which the solution came to you, with no tria-and-error or effortful problem solving, makes this insight.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Learning by Insight

Item Analysis: % correct 61 a = 4 b = 0 c = 34 d = 61 r = .38

 

  1. Who is best known for studying the phenomenon of insight in animals?
  2. a) Köhler
  3. b) Tolman
  4. c) Seligman
  5. d) Skinner

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Learning by Insight

Item Analysis: % correct 27 a = 27 b = 23 c = 13 d = 38 r = .27

 

  1. Which of the following is a summary of the research on learning done by Edward Tolman?
  2. a) Learning is a passive process that involves little, if any, cognitive processing.
  3. b) Learning involves higher cognitive functions and is therefore a skill of which only humans are capable.
  4. c) When experienced, insight can be generalized to new problems and is not likely to be forgotten.
  5. d) Learning is possible without immediate reinforcement; the newly acquired skill is often not displayed until it becomes necessary to do so.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps

 

  1. Brad, a first grade teacher, is teaching his students various colors. None of them could name all the primary colors. Little Janie is not coloring in her worksheet. All of the students are dismissed for recess except Janie. Brad tells Janie she may go to recess as soon as she can learn the colors. Before Brad could say anything else, Janie correctly names all of the colors. Which type of learning does this best demonstrate?
  2. a) insight learning
  3. b) classical conditioning
  4. c) modeling
  5. d) latent learning

Answer: d The student knew the answer and used the new knowledge later when necessary.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps

 

  1. _____ is a type of learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement and is not demonstrated until the organism is motivated to do so.
  2. a) Observational learning
  3. b) Classical conditioning
  4. c) Latent learning
  5. d) Insight learning

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.13:What are some applications of operant conditioning?, APA LO 2.3c

Topic: Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps

 

  1. The idea that learning occurs and is stored up, even when behaviors are not reinforced, is called _____
  2. a) insight.
  3. b) latent learning.
  4. c) placebo learning.
  5. d) innate learning.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps

 

  1. Learning that occurs, but is not immediately reflected in a behavior change, is called _____
  2. a) insight.
  3. b) innate learning.
  4. c) vicarious learning.
  5. d) latent learning.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps

 

  1. Sarah has just received her driver’s license and is now ready to drive to school. Although she’s never driven to her school before, Sarah knows the way. The fact that Sarah can drive herself to school suggests that _____ has occurred.
  2. a) latent learning
  3. b) classical conditioning
  4. c) operant conditioning
  5. d) classical and operant conditioning

Answer: a Sarah is demonstrating that she learned this route before she actually used that knowledge. This is the concept of latent learning.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps

 

  1. In a classic experiment, Tolman exposed a group of rats to a maze for 11 days before he introduced a food reward. These rats outperformed rats that had been given daily food rewards. This demonstrates _____
  2. a) latent learning.
  3. b) classical conditioning.
  4. c) operant conditioning.
  5. d) observational learning.

Answer: a Tolman theorized that the rats had been learning the maze in the first eleven days and were only motivated to improve performance after they were rewarded on day eleven.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps

 

  1. If you came home to your apartment in the very early hours of the morning and did not wish to wake your roommate by turning on the lights, you would likely rely upon _____ to aid you in avoiding obstacles in the apartment that might cause injury or noise.
  2. a) modeling
  3. b) a cognitive map
  4. c) latent learning
  5. d) insight learning

Answer: b A cognitive map, which is a mental representation of objects and images, would be useful in helping you avoid turning on a light.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps

 

  1. The mental representation of the layout of a college campus represents _____
  2. a) a cognitive map.
  3. b) latent learning.
  4. c) classical conditioning.
  5. d) observational learning.

Answer: a A cognitive map is a mental (or unseen) representation of the layout or location of specific objects/locations. For example, your ability to get around your own house, even in very dark rooms, exists because you have a cognitive map of your home.

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps

 

  1. You spend days wandering aimlessly around a park with many paths that end at different parts of the park. One day when you arrive at the park, you get a call on your cell phone from a cousin whom you haven’t seen in years, and she says she is waiting for you in a particular section of the park. Even though the paths are complicated and twisted, you manage to find the shortest route to your cousin. Tolman would explain your efficient passage through the park as an example of _____
  2. a) spontaneous recovery.
  3. b) insight.
  4. c) the formation of a cognitive map.
  5. d) unconscious trial-and-error imagery.

Answer: c Tolman postulated the concept of the cognitive map, which was in marked contrast to the behaviorist views of the time.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 165

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps

 

  1. The _____ occurs when an individual engages in a behavior he/she has previously suppressed, solely because someone else is engaging in the behavior without any adverse consequences.
  2. a) disinhibitory effect
  3. b) elicitation effect
  4. c) stimulus effect
  5. d) insight effect

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 167

Textbook LO 5.16: How do we learn by observing others?, APA LO 4.5c

Topic: Observational Learning

 

  1. Which type of learning occurs when we observe how other people act?
  2. a) insight learning
  3. b) operant conditioning
  4. c) classical conditioning
  5. d) observational learning

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 166

Textbook LO 5.16: How do we learn by observing others?, APA LO 4.5c

Topic: Observational Learning

 

  1. Observational learning theory’s foremost proponent is _____
  2. a) Watson.
  3. b) Thorndike.
  4. c) Skinner.
  5. d) Bandura.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 166

Textbook LO 5.16: How do we learn by observing others?, APA LO 4.5c

Topic: Observational Learning

 

  1. Which of the following is the best example of observational learning?
  2. a) Greg hears on the radio that a huge storm is blowing in, so he cancels his trip.
  3. b) After several hours of staring at the computer screen, Marley suddenly realizes the solution to the puzzle he is trying to solve.
  4. c) Carey figures out if she doesn’t give her boss a hard time, he’s a lot nicer to be around.
  5. d) Ingrid swam poorly until she noticed the efficient stroke of the man in the next lane; now her swimming is greatly improved.

Answer: d This demonstrates the concept of observational learning, and specifically the modeling effect, because Ingrid repeated a behavior that she observed in another.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 166

Textbook LO 5.16: How do we learn by observing others?, APA LO 4.5c

Topic: Observational Learning

 

  1. A girl learns that whenever her brother shares his cookie with her, her mother gives him a piece of candy. The girl starts sharing her treats with her friends when they come over in the hopes of getting a similar reward. The girl’s learning to share is an example of _____
  2. a) classical conditioning.
  3. b) operant conditioning.
  4. c) contingency theory.
  5. d) observational learning.

Answer: d Learning by watching others is known as observational learning.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 166

Textbook LO 5.16: How do we learn by observing others?, APA LO 4.5c

Topic: Observational Learning

Item Analysis: % correct 86 a = 0 b = 0 c = 15 d = 86 r = .18

 

  1. Michael grows up in a home where his father is generally unloving toward his mother. He observes his father yell and degrade his mother, and he notices that his mother never resists this treatment. Based on the work of Bandura, what might we predict about Michael’s own relationships when he is older?
  2. a) Michael will probably treat women very well, as he rebels against the behaviors he saw in his father.
  3. b) Michael may treat women with discourtesy and disrespect, as he repeats the behavior he saw in his father.
  4. c) Michael will probably have no relationships with women, as his father has taught him that relationships are not worth having.
  5. d) Michael will always be very distant from his father, as he has learned that his father does not care about anyone but himself.

Answer: b Bandura’s concept of observational learning suggests that children tend to repeat the behaviors that they see in respected authority figures, including their parents.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 166

Textbook LO 5.16: How do we learn by observing others?, APA LO 4.5c

Topic: Observational Learning

 

  1. A congressional hearing is taking place in Washington, D.C. The representatives are discussing whether the portrayals of violence on children’s TV shows are perhaps contributing to the violence we see in schools today. The work of what psychologist is most relevant to their discussions?
  2. a) Bandura
  3. b) Tolman
  4. c) Skinner
  5. d) Pavlov

Answer: a Bandura’s work is most relevant to their discussions.

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 166

Textbook LO 5.16: How do we learn by observing others?, APA LO 4.5c

Topic: Observational Learning

 

  1. Bethany wants to play baseball like her older sisters. Bethany watches them play for hours and is gradually learning how to play by studying what they do. This could be called _____
  2. a) the modeling effect.
  3. b) the disinhibitory effect.
  4. c) the learning effect.
  5. d) classical conditioning.

Answer: a The modeling effect suggests that we can learn to do a behavior by watching it, without actually doing it ourselves.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 167

Textbook LO 5.16: How do we learn by observing others?, APA LO 4.5c

Topic: Observational Learning

 

  1. Children and adolescents are often enticed into drug use, drinking and sexual behavior by observing these behaviors amongst their friends and acquaintances. Being influenced to exhibit behaviors that one has previously learned to suppress is called the _____
  2. a) elicitation effect.
  3. b) inhibitory effect.
  4. c) disinhibitory effect.
  5. d) vicarious impact effect.

Answer: c A classic example of peer pressure is when one’s friends are doing (and encouraging) a behavior that one has previously suppressed.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 167

Textbook LO 5.16: How do we learn by observing others?, APA LO 4.5c

Topic: Observational Learning

 

  1. Jesse chooses not to steal a cookie after watching his sister getting reprimanded for that behavior. Jesse is demonstrating _____
  2. a) elicitation effect.
  3. b) insight effect.
  4. c) inhibitory effect.
  5. d) latent effect.

Answer: c When the observation of another receiving punishment inhibits the same behavior in others, it is called the inhibitory effect.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 167

Textbook LO 5.16: How do we learn by observing others?, APA LO 4.5c

Topic: Observational Learning

 

  1. Benny is throwing rocks at a neighbor’s house. Just as Trisha picks up a rock and is about to throw it, the neighbor comes out and yells at Benny. Trisha quickly decides not to throw the rock. What has she just demonstrated?
  2. a) the elicitation effect
  3. b) the disinhibitory effect
  4. c) the insight effect
  5. d) the inhibitory effect

Answer: b Trisha suppressed the behavior because a model (Benny) is getting in trouble for the behavior.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 167

Textbook LO 5.16: How do we learn by observing others?, APA LO 4.5c

Topic: Observational Learning

 

  1. Isaiah has been taught not to get involved in drugs. However, he puts that aside and tries marijuana after he sees his older brother using it without getting in trouble. Which of the following best explains Isaiah’s behavior?
  2. a) the elicitation effect
  3. b) the disinhibitory effect
  4. c) the insight effect
  5. d) the inhibitory effect

Answer: d Isaiah engages in a behavior he has previously suppressed, solely because his brother is doing it without any adverse consequences.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 167

Textbook LO 5.16: How do we learn by observing others?, APA LO 4.5c

Topic: Observational Learning

 

  1. Toni just started a new job with a large company. She is unsure of what she should do at lunch time. She wonders, should she eat in her office? Should she go out to eat with her coworkers? Should she eat her lunch in the break room? She decides to wait until lunch time and see what others are doing and then follow suit. This is demonstrating _____
  2. a) operant conditioning.
  3. b) insight.
  4. c) latent learning.
  5. d) modeling.

Answer: d Toni is seeking out models to base her behavior on.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 167

Textbook LO 5.16: How do we learn by observing others?, APA LO 4.5c

Topic: Observational Learning

 

  1. Wong is a 5-year-old boy who lives at home with his mom and dad. He has witnessed several incidents of domestic violence between them and has started hitting other kids at school. Based on the information presented, which theory of learning best accounts for Wong’s aggressive behavior?
  2. a) observational learning
  3. b) insight learning
  4. c) Freudian theory
  5. d) operant conditioning

Answer: a Wong is observing the violence at home and is now engaging in behavior that he has observed.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 166

Textbook LO 5.16: How do we learn by observing others?, APA LO 4.5c

Topic: Observational Learning

 

  1. Albert Bandura’s experiments involving the inflated “Bobo Doll” indicate _____
  2. a) observational learning plays a very small role in the acquisition of aggressive behavior.
  3. b) children only model aggression if they see it on television.
  4. c) children will model the aggressive behaviors they see others engage in.
  5. d) children will not model the aggressive behavior they see others engage in.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 167

Textbook LO 5.17: What has research shown regarding learning from media?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Learning from Media

 

  1. Bandura conducted a classic study known as the “Bobo Doll” study. The term “Bobo” refers to _____
  2. a) Bandura’s pet name for the dog used in the study.
  3. b) Bandura’s loyal but strange assistant that carried out the study.
  4. c) Bandura’s nickname that his wife had given him.
  5. d) the type of inflatable doll that was used in the study.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 167

Textbook LO 5.17: What has research shown regarding learning from media?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Learning from Media

 

  1. A famous experiment conducted by _____ showed that children are more likely to be _____ if this behavior is modeled for them.
  2. a) Watson; nice
  3. b) Skinner; well-behaved
  4. c) Bandura; aggressive
  5. d) Thorndike; afraid

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 167

Textbook LO 5.17: What has research shown regarding learning from media?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Learning from Media

 

  1. What was summarized in Albert Bandura’s original, classic experiment with the Bobo dolls?
  2. a) It was made clear that children will likely engage in aggressive behavior upon seeing adults demonstrate aggressive behavior.
  3. b) It clearly identified that classical conditioning can create fear and condition emotions.
  4. c) It clearly identified that some form of reinforcement is required shortly after a target behavior in order for learning to occur.
  5. d) It clearly showed that punishment is not effective for aggressive behaviors.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 167

Textbook LO 5.17: What has research shown regarding learning from media?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Learning from Media

 

  1. A congressional hearing is taking place in Washington, D.C. The representatives are discussing whether the portrayals of violence on children’s TV shows are perhaps contributing to the violence we see in schools today. What psychological process are the representatives probably considering as the reason that TV influences school violence?
  2. a) observational learning
  3. b) operant conditioning
  4. c) classical conditioning
  5. d) insight learning

Answer: a They are worried that children will imitate the aggression they see modeled on TV, which is a process called observational learning.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 166–167

Textbook LO 5.17: What has research shown regarding learning from media?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Learning from Media

Item Analysis: % correct 89 a = 89 b = 0 c = 0 d = 11 r = .19

 

  1. Video games can currently be used to _____
  2. a) enhance spatial cognitive skills.
  3. b) train dogs to fetch.
  4. c) instruct students in guitar techniques.
  5. d) test your knowledge of psychological principles.

Answer: a Research has found that video games can help to enhance special cognitive skills.

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 171

Textbook LO 5.17: What has research shown regarding learning from media?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Learning from Media

 

  1. The various forms of information available to us today have created what some researchers are calling an electronic _____ environment.
  2. a) nightmare
  3. b) overload
  4. c) multi-tasking
  5. d) brain-eating

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 168

Textbook LO 5.17: What has research shown regarding learning from media?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Learning from Media

 

  1. More time spent multitasking will _____
  2. a) make you smarter.
  3. b) make you better at doing many things at once.
  4. c) make you worse at managing your thought processes.
  5. d) improve your processing speed.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 168

Textbook LO 5.17: What has research shown regarding learning from media?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Learning from Media

 

  1. One of Bandura’s studies indicated that seeing aggression _____ had the strongest influence to shape aggressive behavior in children.
  2. a) in person
  3. b) by cartoon characters
  4. c) by human actors on film
  5. d) by children

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 167

Textbook LO 5.17: What has research shown regarding learning from media?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Learning from Media

 

Completion (Fill-in-the-Blank)

 

  1. _____, or learning by association, was developed by _____, while he studied the physiology of digestion in dogs.

Answer: Classical conditioning; Ivan Pavlov

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 146

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Pavlov and the Process of Classical Conditioning

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

 

  1. Classical conditioning is a type of learning which involves the association of _____.

Answer: two stimuli (the UCS and the CS)

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 146–148

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Pavlov and the Process of Classical Conditioning

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

 

  1. Consider this statement: The majority of individuals automatically blink when they feel a puff of air in the eye. In terms of classical conditioning, the puff of air is called the _____.

Answer: unconditioned stimulus

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 146

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Pavlov and the Process of Classical Conditioning

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

 

  1. Loretta watched the movie Jaws many times when she was younger. She remembers how scared she was every time she saw the shark on television. Now, whenever she hears the “da nan… da nan… da nan, da nan, da nan” melody, she feels scared. In terms of classical conditioning, the melody can be labeled as the _____.

Answer: conditioned stimulus (CS)

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 146

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Pavlov and the Process of Classical Conditioning

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

 

  1. Kristy has been classically conditioned to wake up to her particular alarm clock. When she goes on a business trip, she realizes that the alarm sound will not be the same as her own. However, because of _____, Kristy is confident that the hotel’s alarm clock sound will indeed wake her up.

Answer: generalization

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 148

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Changing Conditioned Responses

Textbook LO 5.2: What causes classically conditioned responses to change?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. _____ and _____ were the researchers who conditioned Little Albert to fear the white rat back in 1919.

Answer: John Watson; Rosalie Rayner

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 149

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: John Watson and Emotional Conditioning

Textbook LO 5.3: What did Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment show?, APA LO 2.1c

 

  1. Robert Rescorla’s research implied that _____ was the critical element in classical conditioning, not simply the repeated pairings of the unconditioned and conditioned stimuli.

Answer: prediction OR prediction of the unconditioned stimulus

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 150

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: The Cognitive Perspective

Textbook LO 5.4: What did Rescorla demonstrate about classical conditioning?, APA LO 1.2e

 

  1. Even though both Pavlov and Watson believed the repeated pairing of the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus was the critical element in classical conditioning, Rescorla argued that _____ is the critical element in classical conditioning.

Answer: prediction OR prediction of the unconditioned stimulus

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 150

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: The Cognitive Perspective

Textbook LO 5.4: What did Rescorla demonstrate about classical conditioning?, APA LO 1.2e

 

  1. _____ came up with the law of effect after studying hungry cats in his puzzle box.

Answer: Edward Thorndike

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 153

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Thorndike, Skinner, and the Consequences of Behavior

Textbook LO 5.7: What did Thorndike and Skinner discover about the consequences of behavior?, APA LO 5.2c

 

  1. In B. F. Skinner’s theory, a(n) _____ is a voluntary behavior that causes or brings on a consequence.

Answer: operant

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 153–154

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Thorndike, Skinner, and the Consequences of Behavior

Textbook LO 5.7: What did Thorndike and Skinner discover about the consequences of behavior?, APA LO 5.2c

 

  1. In operant conditioning terms, _____ is basically teaching a desired behavior; when that behavior is complex, a series of gradual steps can be used, which is called _____.

Answer: shaping; successive approximations

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 154

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: The Process of Operant Conditioning

Textbook LO 5.8: How do shaping, generalization, and discrimminative stimuli influence operant conditioning?, APA LO 5.2d

 

  1. In operant conditioning terms, if an individual wants to increase the likelihood of a behavior happening again, he/she can use _____ or _____.

Answer: positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 155

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Reinforcement

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

 

  1. At Java Joe’s, if you buy nine coffee drinks within 30 days, your tenth coffee drink is free. The operant conditioning technique used at Java Joe’s to keep customers coming back is _____ reinforcement.

Answer: positive

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 155

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Reinforcement

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

 

  1. Gustav pays his taxes in order to get his tax refund. When he gets his refund, he decides he’ll continue to pay his taxes. In operant conditioning terms, this would be an example of _____.

Answer: positive reinforcement

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 155

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Reinforcement

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

 

  1. If Crystal comes in after her curfew, she will be grounded. In terms of operant conditioning, that would be _____.

Answer: negative reinforcement

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 155

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Reinforcement

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

 

  1. Taking an aspirin every time you get a headache is an example of negative reinforcement. In this scenario, _____ is the behavior that is being strengthened.

Answer: the act of taking an aspirin OR aspirin-taking behavior

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 155

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Reinforcement

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

 

  1. A primary reinforcer such as _____ and a secondary reinforcer such as _____ can both be used with success in _____ conditioning.

Answer: food/water/sleep/termination of pain/sex; money/praise/stickers/attention…; operant

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 156

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Reinforcement

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

 

  1. In terms of operant conditioning, the schedule of reinforcement most resistant to extinction is _____.

Answer: the variable-ratio schedule

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 156

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement

Textbook LO 5.10: What are the four types of schedules of reinforcement?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. _____ is used to decrease undesirable behaviors by adding an unpleasant consequence.

Answer: Positive punishment

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 158

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Punishment

Textbook LO 5.11: How does punishment affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

 

  1. Derek’s father told him he would have to scrub the bathrooms twice a week and wash the dishes every night for three weeks because Derek brought home a poor report card. In terms of operant conditioning, the specific technique Derek’s father is employing is _____ punishment.

Answer: positive

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 158

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Punishment

Textbook LO 5.11: How does punishment affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

 

  1. Raj’s father told him he would not be able to use the car for three weeks because Raj brought home a poor report card. In terms of operant conditioning, the specific technique Raj’s father is employing is _____ punishment.

Answer: negative

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 158

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Punishment

Textbook LO 5.11: How does punishment affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

 

  1. Two of the four disadvantages to using punishment are _____ and _____.

Answer: it doesn’t extinguish the misbehavior; it only suppresses it; it does not teach the more appropriate behaviors; the punished learns to fear the punisher or avoid the punisher; punishment (of the physical type) frequently leads to aggression

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 159

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Punishment

Textbook LO 5.11: How does punishment affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

 

  1. Two of the three factors that can increase the effectiveness of punishment are _____ and _____.

Answer: timing of the punishment; punishment needed at the time of misbehavior or soon after; use minimum severity; consistency of the punishment

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 160

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Punishment

Textbook LO 5.11: How does punishment affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

 

  1. _____ studied insight learning, whereas _____ studied latent learning.

Answer: Wolfgang Köhler; Edward Tolman

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 165

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Cognitive Learning

Textbook LO 5.14: How does insight affect learning?, APA LO 5.3d; LO 5.15: What did Tolman  discover about the necessity of reinforcement?, APA LO 5.2c

 

  1. _____ was the psychologist who contends that we learn by watching and imitating others; he demonstrated this by his landmark research involving Bobo dolls.

Answer: Albert Bandura

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 169

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Observational Learning

Textbook LO 5.16: How do we learn by observing others?, APA LO 4.5c

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Demonstrate your understanding of Pavlov’s work by creating a scenario that involves simple classical conditioning. After you have written out your scenario, identify the neutral stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), the unconditioned response (UCR), the conditioned stimulus (CS), and the conditioned response (CR).

 

Answer: The student should write out a scenario in story format and then identify each component of classical conditioning. For example:

 

Ella was studying for final exams one night and decided to get an espresso drink to help keep her awake. She ordered and drank a quadruple, caffeinated cappuccino. Now for some reason, whenever she passes a Starbucks, she feels jittery.

 

NS – Starbucks; UCS – way too much caffeine; UCR – feeling jittery; CS – Starbucks; CR – feeling jittery

 

Page Ref: 146–147

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Pavlov and the Process of Classical Conditioning

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Imagine a child sitting in a high chair at McDonald’s. The child is eating french fries and becomes frustrated because she has eaten all of them. Wishing to get more fries from her parents, she begins yelling. The parents are embarrassed at their child’s behavior. They decide to give her more french fries so she will stop yelling so loud in the middle of a restaurant. Discuss the two elements of operant conditioning that are present in this scenario.

 

Answer: From the child’s perspective, positive reinforcement is present in this scenario. Every time she yells, she is rewarded with a few french fries. Her yelling behavior is increased because she is getting french fries (rewards) for it.

 

By the same token, negative reinforcement is present from the parents’ perspective. The parent is embarrassed that her child is yelling in the middle of a restaurant. The parents want that unpleasant condition to stop. When the parents give the child a french fry, the quiet behavior increases. Therefore, the parents will continue to give the child a few fries whenever she yells. The unpleasant situation for the parent is the yelling and subsequent embarrassment the parent feels. The parent can remove that unwanted condition by giving the child french fries, which will result in an increase of quiet behavior from the child…for the time being.

 

One situation can be viewed from two different perspectives, thereby involving both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement.

 

Page Ref: 155

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Reinforcement

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. Compare and contrast negative reinforcement with punishment and give examples of each.

 

Answer: Negative reinforcement and punishment are similar in that they are both components of operant conditioning, a form of learning devised by B. F. Skinner. They also both have an effect on behavior. That, however, is where the similarities seem to end. Negative reinforcement is a type of reinforcement. By definition, any type of reinforcement will always increase the likelihood that a behavior will occur again. Therefore, negative reinforcement will likely increase behaviors. It can be done by removing an unpleasant stimulus or condition. For example, when a person gets into his/her car and begins to drive without putting on the seatbelt, an annoying buzz will usually come on to remind the driver that a seatbelt should be used. If the driver puts on the seatbelt, the annoying noise will stop. The behavior that is being increased is wearing a seatbelt. The negative reinforcer in this instance is the annoying buzz. If the annoying buzz (unpleasant stimulus) is removed, the seatbelt wearing behavior increases.

 

Punishment, on the other hand, is designed to decrease behaviors. If an undesirable behavior occurs, punishment can be used to reduce or eliminate that behavior. For example, if a teenager comes home past his/her curfew, the parents can use a removal of privileges as a punishment. They parents can tell the teen that he/she cannot use the car for two weeks (the punishment) as a way of decreasing the coming-home-past-curfew behavior.

 

In essence, negative reinforcement and punishment have the opposite effect. One increases behaviors while the other decreases behaviors.

 

Page Ref: 144, 158

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d; LO 5.11: How does punishment affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Reinforcement and Punishment

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. One day as your professor is driving to work, another driver runs through a red light and hits his car. The professor is shaken up but survives the incident. However, the next time he starts to enter the intersection, he becomes nervous and fearful. Soon, he starts going to work via another route to avoid the intersection, even though this route adds twenty minutes to his commute in each direction.

 

According to the principles of classical conditioning, why does the professor become scared of the previously harmless intersection? What can he do about this, as going via the other route is very time consuming? Be specific.

 

Answer: The answer should identify the UCS, CS, UCR and CR and how they were paired. It should discuss how to extinguish the response.

 

Page Ref: 146–147

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Pavlov and the Process of Classical Conditioning

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. Explain the concept of conditioned taste aversion and how it might be applied to people undergoing chemotherapy or radiation treatments for cancer.

 

Answer: The answer should include biological predispositions to form strong aversions to food that are paired with feeling sick. The use of pairing non-favorite foods with chemotherapy to limit the aversion to foods that are liked in order to help maintain adequate nutrition and weight should be discussed.

 

Page Ref: 151–152

Textbook LO 5.5: How do biological predispositions affect classical conditioning?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Biological Predispositions

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

 

Critical Thinking Questions

 

  1. Why does the definition of learning have to include the phrase “relatively permanent change” in knowledge, behavior, or attitude?

Answer: If we truly learn something, then that “new thing” (whether it is a behavior, attitude, or knowledge) becomes part of who we are. Merely experiencing something once or twice does not constitute learning. These fleeting experiences would be considered transient or chance occurrences. If the “new thing” sticks, if you will, then it is more likely considered to be learning.

Page Ref: 145

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Pavlov and the Process of Classical Conditioning

 

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Why would an infant’s blinking not be an accurate example of a skill one acquires through learning?

Answer: Blinking is a reflex that humans are born with; it is not acquired through learning. Our brains are programmed to blink as a way to protect our eyes. In order for a behavior or skill to be an accurate example of learning, it cannot be one that is a reflex or one that develops through maturation (biologically programmed development/behavior).

Page Ref: 145

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Pavlov and the Process of Classical Conditioning

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Though Pavlov’s classical conditioning and Skinner’s operant conditioning are both forms of learning, what is it that makes them different?

Answer: Pavlov’s classical conditioning is considered a passive form of learning in that the subject is not really aware that the learning is occurring. The two stimuli are associated through repeated pairings and then the organism reflexively responds to that particular stimulus. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is an active type of learning. Operant conditioning begins with a voluntary behavior and then the organism learns to engage in or not engage in that behavior again based on the consequence (reinforcement or punishment) that follows. Thus, though classical and operant conditioning are both forms of learning, one (classical conditioning) is a passive type whereas the other (operant conditioning) seems to be an active type.

Page Ref: 145, 154

Textbook LO 5.1: How does the kind of learning Pavlov discovered happen?, APA LO 5.2c;  LO 5.8: How do shaping, generalization, and discriminative stimuli influence operant conditioning? APA LO 5.2d

Topic: Pavlov and the Process of Classical Conditioning and The Process of Operant Conditioning

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. Why do drug counselors strongly encourage those recovering from addictions to avoid the people and places from their past drug-using days?

Answer: Those particular people and places can, and often do, serve as environmental cues associated with the previous drug use. If we consider classical conditioning here, these cues (also called the conditioned stimuli) can produce irresistible cravings (also called the conditioned response). The presence of irresistible cravings can interfere with the goal of staying clean and sober. Thus, in order to help individuals through recovery, visiting people and places from the previous drug-using days are strongly discouraged.

Page Ref: 152

Textbook LO 5.6: What are some examples of classical conditioning in everyday life?, APA LO 5.3a

Topic: Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Why is ecological relevance significant in classical conditioning?

Answer: Research has demonstrated that when a neutral stimulus has an authentic or genuine connection to an unconditioned stimulus, classical conditioning is much more likely to happen. Moreover, that conditioning will happen faster and will be more resistant to extinction.

Page Ref: 152

Textbook LO 5.6: What are some examples of classical conditioning in everyday life?, APA LO 5.3a

Topic: Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Would negative reinforcement be a good choice to use when you see your toddler hitting your beloved family pet? Why or why not?

Answer: Seeing the toddler hit the pet is clearly an undesirable behavior. However, utilizing negative reinforcement increases the likelihood of a behavior happening again. Therefore, it is not the appropriate choice in this scenario. Using it would only strengthen that undesirable behavior.

Page Ref: 155

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Reinforcement

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. Some individuals have erroneously learned over time that negative reinforcement is the same as punishment. Why is this inaccurate?

Answer: Negative reinforcement is type of reinforcement. Reinforcement, by definition, strengthens (or increases) the likelihood of a behavior happening again. Thus, whether it is positive or negative, reinforcement always strengthens behavior. Punishment, by definition, decreases behaviors. As you can see, reinforcement and punishment are actually opposites. Because it is impossible to both strengthen and weaken a target behavior, negative reinforcement and punishment are not the same. They actually have the opposite effect.

Page Ref: 155, 159

Textbook LO 5.9: How do positive and negative reinforcement affect behavior? APA LO 2.3d;  LO 5.11: How does punishment affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Reinforcement and Punishment

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. Why does physical punishment frequently lead to aggression?

Answer: The person being physically punished is also learning by observing. If an individual watches (or in this case is the recipient of) physical punishment, he/she is also learning that exact behavior. In essence, the punisher is teaching the individual being punished that the behavior is an option for solving problems or dealing with frustration.

Page Ref: 159

Textbook LO 5.11: How does punishment affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Punishment

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Why is punishment by itself not a very effective way of learning?

Answer: Even though punishment can decrease undesirable behaviors, it does not teach the right thing to do or what to do instead. Additionally, Skinner contends that punishment suppresses misbehaviors, but does not eliminate them entirely.

Page Ref: 159

Textbook LO 5.11: How does punishment affect behavior?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Punishment

 

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Why was Albert Bandura’s follow up study of aggression (1963) so significant?

Answer: Bandura’s research found that the group of children who watched an aggressive adult on film showed the highest level of aggression. That finding had (and continues to have) important implications in the area of television and children. This research suggests that perhaps children are more likely to imitate what they see on television than what they see in real life.

Page Ref: 169

Textbook LO 5.17: What has research shown regarding learning from media?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Learning from Media

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

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