Living in the Environment 18th Edition Miller – Test Bank

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CHAPTER 5—BIODIVERSITY, SPECIES INTERACTIONS, AND POPULATION CONTROL

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. What was the primary reason the southern sea otter nearly went extinct by the early 1900s?
a. They scared the tourists.
b. They have thick, luxurious fur.
c. They were ruining the kelp beds.
d. They were eating all the shellfish.
e. They raided valuable bird nests.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-0 Core Case Study: The Southern Sea Otter: A Species in Recovery

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. The primary reason why southern sea otter recovery is important is because they ____.
a. are educational
b. are a keystone species
c. encourage tourism
d. eliminate common pests
e. have luxurious, thick fur

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-0 Core Case Study: The Southern Sea Otter: A Species in Recovery

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. Species can, over a long period of time, develop adaptations that allow them to reduce or avoid competition by sharing resources. This is called ____.
a. competitive exclusion principle
b. resource partitioning
c. population distribution
d. interspecific competition
e. mimicry

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Some prey species discourage predators with chemicals that are poisonous, irritating, foul smelling, or bad tasting. What is this called?
a. chemotoxicity
b. biological warfare
c. chemical warfare
d. behavioral warfare
e. behavioral strategies

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. When populations of two different species interact over long periods of time, changes in the gene pool of one species can lead to changes in the gene pool of the other. What is this called?
a. competition
b. coevolution
c. coincidence
d. commensalism
e. predation

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. Bats prey on certain species of moths by using high frequency echolocation to locate their prey.  Certain moths have evolved ears that can hear these frequencies allowing them to escape. This is an example of ____.
a. mimicry
b. coevolution
c. a behavioral strategy
d. commensalism
e. mutualism

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply                               NOT:  New

 

  1. What is said to occur when one organism feeds on another organism by living on or in the other organism?
a. interspecific competition
b. predation
c. parasitism
d. mutualism
e. commensalism

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. Parasites ____.
a. rarely kill their hosts
b. are usually larger than their hosts
c. must be internal to their hosts
d. may strengthen their hosts over a long period of time
e. are usually microscopic

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. From the ____ point of view, parasites are harmful, but from the ____ perspective, parasites can promote diversity.
a. population’s; host’s
b. host’s; population’s
c. predator’s; prey’s
d. prey’s; predator’s
e. community’s; individual’s

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply                               NOT:  New

 

  1. When two species behave in ways that benefit both by providing each with food, shelter, or some other resource, it is called ____.
a. mimicry
b. coevolution
c. parasitism
d. commensalism
e. mutualism

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. The relationship between clownfish and sea anemone is called ____.
a. interspecific competition
b. predation
c. parasitism
d. mutualism
e. commensalism

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The relationship between bacteria that live in the digestive systems of animals, such as humans, is ____.
a. interspecific competition
b. predation
c. parasitism
d. mutualism
e. commensalism

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. What occurs when an interaction benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other?
a. interspecific competition
b. predation
c. parasitism
d. mutualism
e. commensalism

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. Plants such as bromeliads share a commensalism interaction with large trees in tropical and subtropical forests by attaching to the trunks or branches of the trees. The bromeliads are an example of ____.
a. parasites
b. opportunistic parasites
c. epiphytes
d. prey
e. herbivores

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply                               NOT:  Modified

 

  1. Which of the following is not considered a form of nondestructive behavior?
a. reducing competition by foraging at different times
b. reducing competition by foraging in different places
c. orchids attached to branches of forest trees
d. using the energy or body of another organisms as a food source
e. bacteria breaking down food for a host and having a sheltered habitat

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. What occurs when members of two or more species interact to gain access to the same limited resources?
a. interspecific competition
b. predation
c. parasitism
d. mutualism
e. commensalism

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. What is the most common interaction between species?
a. competition
b. predation
c. parasitism
d. mutualism
e. commensalism

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. If multiple species find themselves competing for the same resource, the competition can be reduced by which of the following?
a. camouflage
b. cooperation
c. resource partitioning
d. resource expansion
e. mimicry

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The non-poisonous ____ butterfly gains protection by looking like the bad-tasting ____ butterfly, which is a protective device known as ____.
a. monarch; viceroy; camouflage
b. monarch; zebra swallowtail; camouflage
c. viceroy; zebra swallowtail; mimicry
d. viceroy; monarch; mimicry
e. viceroy; monarch; camouflage

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   Figure 5-6 | 5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s:Evaluate

 

  1. Kelp forests help reduce ____ by blunting the force of incoming waves and trapping some of the outgoing sand.
a. runoff
b. shore erosion
c. coastal pollution
d. tidal waves
e. tidal pools

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   Science Focus 5-1 Threats to Kelp Forests

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. Kelp forests are a very important ecosystem in marine waters by supporting important biodiversity. These kelp forests are threatened by all of the following except _____.
a. water pollution containing herbicides
b. sea urchins
c. southern sea otters
d. global warming
e. water pollution containing fertilizers

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   Science Focus 5-1 Threats to Kelp Forests

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. What is a population’s distribution of individuals among various age groups called?
a. reproductive structure
b. genetic structure
c. age structure
d. reproductive composition
e. age composition

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. What describes an organism that is too old to reproduce?
a. prereproductive
b. reproductive
c. postreproductive
d. nonreproductive
e. elderly

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. Each population in an ecosystem has a ____ to variations in its physical and chemical environment.
a. low tolerance
b. high tolerance
c. range of tolerance
d. high resilience
e. low resilience

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. Too much or too little of any physical or chemical factor can prevent the growth of a population, even if all other factors are at or near the optimum conditions. What is this ecological principle?
a. tolerance
b. limiting factor
c. resilience
d. persistence
e. optimal level

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. What is the number of individuals in a population found within a defined area or volume that can limit the size of some populations?
a. population density
b. population control
c. the range of tolerance
d. the age structure
e. the optimum population level

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. Some species that tend to reproduce later in life and have a small number of offspring with long life spans ____.
a. have high population growth rates
b. have high environmental resistance
c. have low environmental resistance
d. are unlikely to ever face extinction
e. are vulnerable to extinction

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze                            NOT:  New

 

  1. There are ____ limits to population growth in nature.
a. never
b. sometimes
c. always
d. low
e. high

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. The maximum population of a given species that a particular habitat can sustain indefinitely is the definition of ____.
a. logistic growth
b. environmental resistance
c. exponential growth
d. carrying capacity
e. biotic potential

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember                        NOT:  Modified

 

  1. When plotting the number of individuals in a population against time, the data yield a J-shaped curve. What does this curve indicate?
a. logistic growth
b. environmental resistance
c. exponential growth
d. carrying capacity
e. biotic potential

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Exponential growth followed by a steady decrease in population growth until the population size stabilizes is typical of ____.
a. logistic growth
b. environmental resistance
c. exponential growth
d. carrying capacity
e. biotic potential

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze                            NOT:  Modified

 

  1. By 1900, white-tailed deer populations in the U.S. were reduced to about ____, but now, since laws have been passed to protect them and their natural predators have nearly been eliminated, their population is over ____ in the U.S.
a. 500; 1 million
b. 5,000; 1 million
c. 50,000; 5 million
d. 50,000; 25 million
e. 100,000; 10 million

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. What would cause a population to overshoot its carrying capacity?
a. an increase in predators
b. a decrease in birth rates
c. an increase in emigration
d. a decrease in environmental pressures
e. a reproductive time lag between birth and death rates

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. A group of interbreeding individuals of the same species in the same geographic region is called a(n) ____.
a. community
b. population
c. ecosystem
d. biosphere
e. biome

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. What is the most common distribution of populations?
a. random
b. uniform
c. clumped
d. circles
e. none of these

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. A population increases through birth and ____.
a. assimilation
b. integration
c. socialization
d. emigration
e. immigration

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. Emigration is the ____.
a. arrival of individuals into an established population
b. arrival movement of individuals into an uninhabited area
c. departure movement of individuals from a population to another area
d. repeated movement into and out of an area
e. lack of immigration into an area

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. Kelp forests are composed of large concentrations of a(n) ____.
a. algae
b. phytoplankton
c. seaweed
d. trees
e. anemone

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   Science Focus 5-1 Threats to Kelp Forests

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember                        NOT:  New

 

  1. Which of the following has caused the population of the southern sea otters to fluctuate?
a. decline in population of orcas
b. parasites from house cats
c. parasites from dolphins
d. high reproductive rates
e. extinction of algal species

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

TOP:   Science Focus 5-2 Why Do California’s Sea Otters Face an Uncertain Future?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze                            NOT:  Modified

 

  1. What is succession that begins in an area where an ecosystem has been disturbed, removed, or destroyed, and that contains soil or bottom sediment?
a. primary succession
b. secondary succession
c. ecological establishment
d. disturbance succession
e. facilitation

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. Which of the following exhibits secondary ecological succession?
a. abandoned parking lot
b. newly cooled lava
c. newly constructed reservoir
d. a crumbled concrete building
e. recently flooded land

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. The situation in which one set of species makes an area suitable for species with different niche requirements and often, less suitable for itself, is called ____.
a. primary succession
b. secondary succession
c. facilitation
d. inhibition
e. tolerance

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember                        NOT:  New

 

  1. Late successional plants are largely unaffected by plants at earlier stages of succession because they are not in direct competition for resources, a factor called ____.
a. facilitation
b. imperturbability
c. inhibition
d. tolerance
e. intolerance

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. Most ecologists now recognize that mature, late-successional ecosystems ____.
a. are in a state of continual disturbance and change
b. are in a stable state of equilibrium
c. are in natural balance with their environment
d. have followed an expected path to their stable state as a climax community
e. have inevitably progressed through succession and no longer face competition

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. The capacity to withstand external stress and disturbance is called ____.
a. equilibrium
b. stability
c. balance of nature
d. facilitation
e. inhibition

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. The ability of a living system to survive moderate disturbances is called ____.
a. stability
b. inertia
c. constancy
d. tipping point
e. resilience

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. What refers to the ability of a living system to be restored after a period of moderate to severe disturbance?
a. stability
b. inertia
c. constancy
d. tipping point
e. resilience

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. If the resilience of a damaged ecosystem is low enough, the degraded area may not be restored by secondary succession. When this happens, the damaged ecosystem has reached ____.
a. stability
b. inertia
c. constancy
d. a tipping point
e. resilience

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. Grasslands have ____ and can burn easily.
a. low facilitation
b. high facilitation
c. low resilience
d. high inertia
e. low inertia

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply                               NOT:  New

 

  1. Which of the following exhibits primary succession?
a. a rock exposed by a retreating glacier
b. an abandoned farm
c. a clear-cut forest
d. newly flooded land
e. a recently burned forest

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The southern sea otter is a tool-using mammal.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

TOP:   Figure 5-1 | 5-0 Core Case Study: The Southern Sea Otter: A Species in Recovery

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The most common interaction between species is commensalism.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Humans compete with many other species for space, food, and other resources.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. Animal predators tend to kill the sick, weak, aged, and least fit members of a species because they are the easiest to catch.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. In predator-prey relationships, the predator is seeking food for itself and its offspring, while the prey is seeking not to become food for the predator. As a result, predator and prey populations exert tremendous natural selection pressures on each other.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. At the population level, parasites are always harmful to the host species.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Organisms with clumped distributions are fairly rare.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Large mammals, such as elephants and rhinoceroses, are especially vulnerable to extinction because of their reproductive patterns.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. The growth rate of a population increases as its size nears the carrying capacity of its environment.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze                            NOT:  Modified

 

  1. The carrying capacity of any given area is not fixed.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Humans are exempt from population overshoot and dieback.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Primary and secondary ecological succession tend to increase biodiversity of communities and ecosystems by increasing species richness and interactions among species.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. Scientists have changed their view about a stable type of climax community as the end product of succession and are now suggesting we can not predict the course of succession.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Grasslands have a high resilience and therefore can recover quickly following a fire.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. In communities and ecosystems the types and numbers of species change in response to changing environmental conditions.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. The southern sea otter has been classified as a(n) ____________________ species because in their absence, kelp forests would probably be destroyed.

 

ANS:  keystone

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-0 Core Case Study: The Southern Sea Otter: A Species in Recovery

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. ____________________ is a competitive interaction between species for food, water, light and/or space.

 

ANS:  Interspecific competition

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?          KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

NOT:  Modified

 

  1. When two or more species compete with one another their niches are said to ____________________.

 

ANS:  overlap

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?          KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. ____________________ occurs when a member of one species feeds directly on all or part of a member of another species.

 

ANS:  Predation

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?          KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. Bad-tasting, bad-smelling, toxic, or stinging-prey species advertise their characteristics using ____________________.

 

ANS:  warning coloration

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?          KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

NOT:  Modified

 

  1. Some prey species make themselves larger or mimic a predator, both of which are called ____________________.

 

ANS:  behavioral strategies

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?          KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

NOT:  Modified

 

  1. When two different species interact over a long time, changes in the gene pool help both species to become more competitive or avoid competition.  This is called _______________,

 

ANS:  coevolution

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?          KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. In _______________, two species behave in ways that benefit both by providing each with needed resources.

 

ANS:  mutualism

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?          KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. Vast armies of ____________________ inhabit the digestive tracts of animals, such as humans, and help break down or digest their food.

 

ANS:  bacteria

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?          KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. The gradual change in species composition in a given area is called ____________________.

 

ANS:  ecological succession

 

PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. The most common form of population dispersion found in nature is ____________________.

 

ANS:  clumps

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. ____________________ is the combination of all factors that act to limit the growth of a population.

 

ANS:  Environmental resistance

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. A population exceeding its carrying capacity will suffer a(n) ____________________ or ____________________, unless the excess individuals can switch to new resources or move to a new area.

 

ANS:

dieback; crash

crash; dieback

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. ____________________ involves the gradual establishment of biotic communities in lifeless areas where there is no soil.

 

ANS:  Primary succession

 

PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. One of the factors determining the rate of succession is _______________, in which one set of species makes an area suitable for other species with different requirements.

 

ANS:  facilitation

 

PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Describe what happens when species partition resources.

 

ANS:

Resource partitioning occurs when species competing for similar scarce resources evolve specialized traits that allow them to share resources by using parts of them, using them at different times, or using them in different ways.

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?          KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

NOT:  New

 

  1. What method of hunting prey do Arctic foxes use?

 

ANS:

Arctic foxes use camouflage by blending into their snowy background to avoid detection, and then they ambush their prey.

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   Figure 5-5 | 5-1 How Do Species Interact?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply                               NOT:  New

 

 

Use the figure above to answer the following question(s).

 

  1. Determine which portion of the accompanying graph represents the number of reindeer that can be sustained indefinitely in a given area. What term illustrates this?

 

ANS:

Letter A represents the carrying capacity.

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze                            NOT:  New

 

  1. What does it mean when a population uses up their resource supplies and temporarily overshoots?  Which letter on this graph represents when this has occurred to a certain reindeer population?

 

ANS:

The population exceeds the carrying capacity of their environment. It is represented by letter B.

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze                            NOT:  New

 

  1. What happens to a population if a dieback occurs, and which portion of the graph represents this?

 

ANS:

A population suffers a sharp decline, also called a population crash.  It is represented by letter C.

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze                            NOT:  New

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Explain why it is important to care about the survival of the endangered southern sea otters of California.

 

ANS:

One reason is for ethical reasons, as many people believe it is wrong to allow human activities to cause the extinction of a species. Another reason is that people love to watch this lovable and intelligent animals as they play in water, which results in millions of dollars a year in tourism revenues. Finally, biologists classify southern sea otters as keystone species, which means that in their absence sea urchins and other kelp-eating species on which sea otters feed would probably destroy the Pacific coast kelp forests and much of the biodiversity they support.

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-0 Core Case Study: The Southern Sea Otter: A Species in Recovery

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze                            NOT:  New

 

  1. Using a small rodent, such as a field mouse, and a predator, such as a snake, explain how coevolution works.

 

ANS:

The rodent responds to the environmental pressure applied by the snake through changes in behavior, anatomy, or physiology to reduce the predation. The snake, facing reducing predatory success, changes in response to the rodent. The rodent again responds to the specifics of the environmental pressure. This step-by-step adaptation is known as coevolution.

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-1 How Do Species Interact?          KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. At the present time the global human population surpasses seven billion people. If we exceed the carrying capacity of the earth, the human population may suffer a substantial collapse.

 

Consider the following formula for population change:

population change = (births + immigration) – (deaths + emigration)

 

What will be required of humans in order to stabilize or reduce our population?

 

ANS:

Speaking on a global scale, there is no place for us to come from (immigration) or go to (emigration). That means population change is limited to births minus deaths. To put it in the crudest of terms, we must either reduce the number of births or increase the number of deaths in order to stabilize or reduce our population. If we choose not to undertake that change, nature will do so as we exceed our carrying capacity.

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze                            NOT:  Modified

 

  1. Some people blame white-tailed deer for invading suburban yards and gardens.  Discuss potential solutions to this problem.

 

ANS:

There are no easy answers to the deer population problem in the suburbs.  Changes in hunting regulations that allow for the killing of more female deer have cut down the overall deer population.  However, since widespread hunting is not allowed in suburban areas, some areas have hired experienced archers to help reduce deer numbers safely.  Some communities spray the scent of deer predators or rotting deer meat on the edges of suburban areas to scare off deer.  Others have used equipment that emits high frequency sounds, which are undetectable to humans.  Some people surround their yards with high fences over which the deer can not jump.  In addition to these deterrents, deer can be trapped and moved, but this is expensive and must be repeated whenever the deer return.  People could try birth control for deer to keep their numbers down or they could try trapping dominant males and sterilizing them.

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze                            NOT:  New

 

  1. Describe the three factors ecologists have identified that affect how and at what rate succession occurs.

 

ANS:

The first factor that affects how and at what rate succession occurs is facilitation.  This is when one set of species makes an area suitable for species with different niche requirements, and often less suitable for itself.  For example, lichens and mosses gradually build up soil on rocks in primary succession, which allows grasses and other plants to move in and crowd out the lichens and mosses.  The second factor is inhibition, in which some species hinder the establishment and growth of other species.  For example, needles dropping off some pine trees make the soil beneath the trees too acidic for most other plants to grow there.  The third factor is tolerance, whereby plants in the late stages of succession succeed because they are not in direct competition with other plants for key resources.  For example, shade-tolerant species can live in shady forests because they do not need as much sunlight as the trees above them do.

 

PTS:   1

TOP:   5-2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze                            NOT:  New

 

 

 

CHAPTER 17—ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS AND HUMAN HEALTH

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. About one-third of the toxic metal, mercury (Hg), is released into the air from natural sources, such as rocks, soil, volcanoes, and the ocean.  The remaining two-thirds comes from ____.
a. automobile exhaust
b. airplane exhaust
c. mercury-rich plants
d. human activities
e. waste from livestock

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-0 Core Case Study: Mercury’s Toxic Effects

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. The probability of suffering harm from a hazard that can cause injury, disease, death, economic loss, or damage is referred to as ____.
a. negligence
b. exposure
c. peril
d. dangerous
e. risk

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-1 What Major Health Hazards Do We Face?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember                        NOT:  New

 

  1. Which of the following is considered a biological hazard?
a. disease-carrying pathogens
b. smoking cigarettes
c. drinking too much alcohol
d. natural flooding
e. unsafe working conditions

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-1 What Major Health Hazards Do We Face?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. Which of the following is considered a natural hazard?
a. driving
b. earthquakes
c. poverty
d. poor nutrition
e. infectious diseases

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-1 What Major Health Hazards Do We Face?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. Which of the following is considered a cultural hazard?
a. smoking cigarettes
b. contagious viruses
c. having unsafe sex
d. earthquakes
e. unsafe working conditions

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-1 What Major Health Hazards Do We Face?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. Toxicity is rated according to the amount of a substance that is necessary to kill 50% of humans, given in milligrams per kilogram of body weight. A rating of supertoxic has an LD50 of ____.
a. less than 5 mg/kg
b. 5-50 mg/kg
c. 50-500 mg/kg
d. 500-5000 mg/kg
e. 5000-15000 mg/kg

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

TOP:   Figure 17-1 Toxicity Ratings and Average Lethal Doses for Humans

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. We risk falling behind in our efforts to prevent infectious bacterial diseases with the use of antibiotics because of the ____.
a. apathy of the general public
b. astounding reproductive rates of bacteria
c. lack of incentive for pharmaceutical companies to create these drugs
d. alarming rates of unprotected sex
e. increased rates of air travel

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

TOP:   Science Focus 17-1 Genetic Resistance to Antibiotics is Increasing

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. Hayat Sindi is a scientist who co-founded a nonprofit marketing company called ____ to bring low-cost health monitoring to remote, poor areas of the world.
a. Disease Diagnostics
b. Diagnostics for All
c. Diagnostics for Developing Countries
d. Diagnostics for Infectious Diseases
e. Affordable Diagnostics

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   Individuals Matter 17-1

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember                        NOT:  New

 

  1. Since 1970, the occurrence of malaria has come roaring back in prevalence. Why?
a. Swamplands and marshes have been drained.
b. More vaccines exist.
c. Fewer vaccines exist.
d. Malaria-carrying species of mosquitos have become resistant to insecticides.
e. The use of insecticides in most countries has declined.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

NOT:  New

 

  1. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), between 1970 and 2008, the percentages of all deaths worldwide resulting from infectious diseases ____.
a. increased and then leveled off
b. increased from 5% to 15%
c. increased from 15% to 35%
d. dropped from 35% to 15%
e. dropped from 15% to 5%

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

NOT:  New

 

  1. Which of the following is a non-transmissible disease?
a. diabetes
b. influenza
c. hepatitis B
d. tuberculosis
e. HIV

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

NOT:  Modified

 

  1. A global outbreak of an infectious disease is called a(n)
a. threat
b. parademic
c. pandemic
d. epidemic
e. outbreak

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. Tuberculosis is caused by ____.
a. mosquitoes
b. flies
c. viruses
d. bacteria
e. protozoa

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. About half of the people with active tuberculosis will die from destruction of their ____.
a. lymph nodes
b. heart
c. brain
d. nervous system
e. lung tissue

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

NOT:  New

 

  1. What is a transmissible disease?
a. A disease caused by something other than a living organism
b. A disease that does not spread from one person to another
c. A disease that can be passed from one person to another
d. A disease caused by cancer
e. A disease that will always lead to death

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

NOT:  New

 

  1. Which viral disease is the biggest killer?
a. tuberculosis
b. AIDS
c. hepatitis B
d. influenza
e. West Nile

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

NOT:  New

 

  1. The West Nile virus is transmitted to humans by ____.
a. mosquitoes
b. houseflies
c. birds
d. physical contact
e. coughing and sneezing

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. Which of the following is a transmissible disease?
a. heart disease
b. cancer
c. tuberculosis
d. malnutrition
e. asthma

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

NOT:  Modified

 

  1. About one in every ____ people infected with HIV is not aware of the infection.
a. 5
b. 10
c. 25
d. 50
e. 100

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

NOT:  New

 

  1. Malaria is spread by ____.
a. snails
b. flies
c. contaminated feces
d. certain types of mosquitoes
e. bacteria

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. Ecological medicine is a new interdisciplinary field devoted to ____.
a. wildlife disease connections
b. tracking down disease connections between animals and insects
c. tracking down disease connections between insects
d. tracking down disease connections between animals and humans
e. finding ecologically based medicines for diseases

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   Science Focus 17-2 Ecological Medicine

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. The Lyme disease bacterium is passed onto humans directly from ____.
a. foxes
b. deer
c. white mice
d. field mice
e. ticks

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   Science Focus 17-2 Ecological Medicine

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Teratogens ____.
a. are fatal to humans in low doses
b. cause birth defects
c. are harmful because they are irritating to skin or lungs
d. cause infections
e. cause allergic reactions

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face?         KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. The system responsible for defense against disease and harmful substances is the ____.
a. circulatory system
b. endocrine system
c. immune system
d. excretory system
e. skeletal system

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face?         KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. Natural and synthetic chemicals in the environment that can harm the human nervous system are called ____.
a. insecticides
b. herbicides
c. neurotoxins
d. chemotoxins
e. antibodies

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face?         KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

NOT:  New

 

  1. A complex network of glands that release tiny amounts of hormones into the bloodstream of humans and other vertebrate animals is the ____.
a. digestive system
b. endocrine system
c. excretory system
d. circulatory system
e. immune system

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face?         KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

NOT:  Modified

 

  1. DDT, PCBs, atrazine, bisphenol-A, and phthalates are all examples of ____.
a. insecticides
b. hormonally active agents
c. estrogens
d. androgens
e. plastic additives

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face?         KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. What are chemicals used to soften polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic found in a variety of products, such as detergents, cosmetics, body lotions, soft vinyl toys, and shower curtains?
a. carcinogens
b. phthalates
c. estrogens
d. androgens
e. BPAs

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face?         KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

NOT:  New

 

  1. Which one of the following is one of the top five toxic substances in terms of human and environmental health?
a. lead
b. formaldehyde
c. tobacco smoke
d. DDT
e. nitrous acid

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face?         KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

NOT:  Modified

 

  1. Carcinogens cause ____.
a. genetic defects
b. birth defects
c. cancer
d. chronic health effects
e. allergic reactions

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face?         KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. Research indicates that the BPA in plastics can leach into water or food when the plastic is ____.
a. at room temperature
b. chilled below freezing temperatures
c. older than five years
d. heated to high temperatures
e. exposed to basic solutions

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   Science Focus 17-3 The Controversy over BPA

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember                        NOT:  New

 

  1. Which of the following is among the seven most deadly infectious diseases?
a. asthma
b. diarrheal diseases
c. mumps
d. type 2 diabetes
e. leukemia

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

TOP:   Figure 17-4 Global Outlook | 17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. What term refers to the amount of a substance a person ingests, inhales, or absorbs through the skin?
a. toxicity
b. biomagnification
c. persistence
d. response
e. dose

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. What term refers to a substance’s resistance to breakdown?
a. toxicity
b. biomagnification
c. persistence
d. response
e. dose

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. What term that is given to the health damage that occurs from exposure to a chemical or other agent?
a. toxicity
b. biomagnification
c. persistence
d. response
e. dose

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember                        NOT:  Modified

 

  1. What is an immediate or rapid harmful reaction to exposure to a chemical, ranging from dizziness to death?
a. bioaccumulation
b. acute response
c. persistence
d. chronic response
e. dose

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. A person experiencing dizziness after using a strong household cleaner is illustrating ____.
a. a chronic effect
b. a subchronic effect
c. an acute effect
d. a subacute effect
e. superacute exposure

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. A person experiencing liver damage after a lifetime of alcohol abuse is illustrating ____.
a. a chronic effect
b. a subchronic effect
c. an acute effect
d. a subacute effect
e. superacute exposure

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which statement is true?
a. All chemicals are unsafe.
b. Natural chemicals are safe, and synthetic chemicals are deadly.
c. Synthetic chemicals are deadly, and natural chemicals are safe.
d. Some chemicals, whether synthetic or natural, are safe and others are deadly.
e. All chemicals are safe except those that cause cancer.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. In 2003, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed that in determining any risk, regulators should assume children have ____ times the exposure risk of adults to cancer-causing chemicals.
a. 5
b. 10
c. 15
d. 25
e. 100

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. What is the study of the harmful effects of chemicals on humans and other organisms?
a. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS)
b. biological accumulation
c. epidemiology
d. toxicology
e. toxicity

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember                        NOT:  New

 

  1. Of the 80,000 registered synthetic chemicals in commercial use, only ____ have been adequately tested to determine whether they are carcinogens, teratogens, or mutagens.
a. 2%
b. 4%
c. 10%
d. 12%
e. 15%

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. What is the ability of a substance to cause injury, illness, or death to a living system?
a. toxicity
b. biomagnification
c. persistent
d. response
e. dose

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. The most dangerous activity that individuals might do on a regular basis is to ____.
a. smoke cigarettes
b. drink alcohol
c. drink coffee
d. fly on airplanes
e. drive or ride in cars

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember                        NOT:  New

 

  1. Research going back three decades shows that ____ causes people to overestimate risks and to worry more about unusual risks than they do about common everyday risks.
a. degree of optimism
b. fear
c. optimism bias
d. instant gratification
e. evaluation

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze                            NOT:  New

 

  1. In determining how much risk an individual is willing to accept, for most people, a one in ____ chance of dying or suffering serious harm from exposure to an environmental hazard is a threshold for changing their behavior
a. 100
b. 1,000
c. 10,000
d. 100,000
e. 1,000,000

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. In terms of number of premature deaths per year and reduced life span, what is by far the greatest risk?
a. AIDS
b. poverty
c. smoking
d. malaria
e. industrial chemicals

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. How much of the American population is either overweight or obese?
a. one-quarter
b. one-third
c. one-half
d. two-thirds
e. three-fourths

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. Cigarette smoking is the world’s most preventable major cause of premature death among adults, resulting in one death every ____ seconds.
a. 2
b. 4
c. 6
d. 8
e. 10

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. People who smoke one to two packs of cigarettes daily have how much higher risk of getting Alzheimer’s disease?
a. 76%
b. 65%
c. 52%
d. 44%
e. 31%

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. One significant source of mercury emissions into the atmosphere is from coal-burning power plants.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-0 Core Case Study: Mercury’s Toxic Effects

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember                        NOT:  New

 

  1. The greatest risk from exposure to low levels of methylmercury is brain damage in fetuses and young children.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-0 Core Case Study: Mercury’s Toxic Effects

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember                        NOT:  New

 

  1. Statistically determining how much harm a particular hazard can cause is called risk management.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-1 What Major Health Hazards Do We Face?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. A nontransmissible disease is caused by something other than a living organism.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. AIDS is a pandemic.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. People with AIDS are 30 to 50 times more likely to develop active tuberculosis.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Viruses respond well to antibiotics.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. For people who do not take anti-viral drugs, it takes an average of three to five years for an HIV infection to progress to AIDS.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

NOT:  Modified

 

  1. Over the course of human history, malarial protozoa probably have killed more people than all the wars ever fought.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?       KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Teratogens are chemicals that cause cancer.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face?         KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. In the “lock-and-key” relationship of the endocrine system, the hormone is the “lock” and the receptor is the “key.”

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face?         KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply

NOT:  New

 

  1. Numerous studies of animals and humans suggest that males of species exposed to hormone blockers can become more feminized.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face?         KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

NOT:  New

 

  1. A basic principle of toxicology is that any synthetic or natural chemical can be harmful if ingested in a large enough quantity.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember                        NOT:  New

 

  1. Only 50% of the registered synthetic chemicals in commercial use have been screened for toxicity before they were deemed acceptable for use.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. Type 2 diabetes is the world’s most preventable major cause of premature death among adults.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

TOP:   17-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. Under certain conditions in aquatic systems, bacteria can convert inorganic mercury compounds to highly toxic __________________, which can be biologically magnified in food chains and webs.

 

ANS:  methylmercury (or CH3Hg1)

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-0 Core Case Study: Mercury’s Toxic Effects

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember                        NOT:  New

 

  1. The term ____________________ refers to the probability of suffering harm from a hazard that can cause injury, disease, death, economic loss, or damage.

 

ANS:  risk

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-1 What Major Health Hazards Do We Face?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. ____________________involves deciding whether or how to reduce a particular risk to a certain level and at what cost.

 

ANS:  Risk management

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-1 What Major Health Hazards Do We Face?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. A(n) ____________________ is an organism that can cause disease in another organism.

 

ANS:  pathogen

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-1 What Major Health Hazards Do We Face?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. The overuse of ____________________ for colds, flus, and sore throats can cause bacteria to develop genetic  resistance.

 

ANS:  antibiotics

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   Science Focus 17-1 Genetic Resistance to Antibiotics is Increasing

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. A(n) ____________________ disease is an infectious disease that can be transmitted from one person to another.

 

ANS:

transmissible

contagious

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. A large-scale outbreak of an infectious disease in an area or country is called a(n) ____________________.

 

ANS:  epidemic

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The biggest viral killer is the _______________ virus.

 

ANS:

influenza

flu

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The  ____________________ of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) means that infected people often spread the virus for several years without knowing they’re infected.

 

ANS:  long incubation period

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. Harmful ____________________ occurring in reproductive cells can be passed on to offspring and to future generations.

 

ANS:  mutations

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  Modified

 

  1. The ____________________ consists of specialized cells and tissues that protect the body against disease and harmful substances by forming antibodies.

 

ANS:  immune system

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

  1. ____________________ is a measure of the harmfulness of a substance; that is, its ability to cause injury, illness, or death to a living organism.

 

ANS:  Toxicity

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. A substance’s resistance to breakdown is its ____________________.

 

ANS:  persistence

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. In terms of the number of premature deaths per year and reduced life span, the greatest risk by far is ____________________.

 

ANS:  poverty

 

PTS:   1

TOP:   17-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Remember

 

  1. ____________________ is the world’s most preventable major cause of suffering and premature death among adults.

 

ANS:  Cigarette smoking

 

PTS:   1

TOP:   17-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Why is it difficult to determine the level of exposure to a particular toxic chemical that will cause harm to humans?

 

ANS:

This is difficult to determine because of the many variables involved in estimating the effects of human exposure to chemicals.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Critical Thinking

TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?                KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand

NOT:  New

 

  1. Why do scientists use dose-response curves?

 

ANS:

Scientists estimate the toxicity of a chemical by determining the effects of various doses of the chemical on test organisms and plotting the results in a dose-response curve.

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply                               NOT:  New

 

  1. What is a lethal dose and what is a median lethal dose (LD50)?

 

ANS:

The lethal dose is the dose that will kill an animal and a chemical’s median lethal dose (LD50) is the dose that kills 50% of the animals in a test population.

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Understand                       NOT:  New

 

 

Use the hypothetical dose-response curve above to answer the question(s) below.

 

  1. Based on the accompanying graph, what is the hypothetical median lethal dose (LD50)?

 

ANS:

7 (hypothetical units)

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Critical Thinking

TOP:   Figure 17-17 | 17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Evaluate                           NOT:  New

 

  1. Based on the accompanying graph, what percentage of the population would be killed if given a dose of a chemical of 6 (hypothetical units)?

 

ANS:

25%

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Critical Thinking

TOP:   Figure 17-17 | 17-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Evaluate                           NOT:  New

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Explain the two ways in which humans are exposed to the toxic element, mercury (Hg).

 

ANS:

First, humans eat fish and shellfish that can be contaminated with methylmercury, which accounts for 75% of all human exposure to toxic mercury.  Second, humans inhale vaporized mercury or particles of inorganic mercury salts such as mercury sulfide (HgS) and mercuric chloride (HgCl2) – pollutants in the air coming mostly from coal-burning power plants and solid-waste incinerators.

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-0 Core Case Study: Mercury’s Toxic Effects

KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply                               NOT:  New

 

  1. Since 1990, the world has seen a rapid resurgence of tuberculosis (TB).  Explain what TB is and describe the factors that account for its recent spread.

 

ANS:

TB is a contagious bacterial infection of the lungs.  Several factors account for its recent spread.  One is that there are too few TB screening and control programs, especially in less-developed countries, where 95% of new cases occur.  A second problem is that most strains of the TB bacterium have developed genetic resistance to the majority of the effective antibiotics.  Also, population growth, urbanization, and air travel have greatly increased person-to-person contacts, and TB is spreading faster in areas where large numbers of poor people crowd together.  In addition, AIDS greatly weakens its victims’ immune system, making AIDS patients highly susceptible to unchecked growth of the TB bacteria.

 

PTS:   1                    TOP:   17-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Apply                               NOT:  New

 

  1. What is risk analysis, and how might an evaluator perform a risk analysis?

 

ANS:

Risk analysis involves identifying hazards and evaluating their associated risks (risk assessment), ranking risks (comparative risk analysis), determining options and making decisions about reducing or eliminating risks (risk management) and informing decision makers and the public about risks (risk communication).

 

Evaluators use statistical probabilities based on past experience, animal testing, and other assessments to estimate risks from older technologies and chemicals.  To evaluate new technologies and products, risk evaluators use more uncertain statistical probabilities, based on models rather than on actual experience and testing.

 

PTS:   1

TOP:   17-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze                            NOT:  New

 

  1. Explain the five factors that cause people to see a technology or a product as being more or less risky than experts judge it to be.

 

ANS:

  1. Fear – research shows fear causes people to overestimate risks and to worry more about unusual risks than they do about common, everyday risks. For example, people tend to overestimate numbers of deaths caused by natural disasters and terrorist attacks, and to underestimate numbers of deaths from such things as influenza, diabetes, heart attacks, and automobile accidents.
  2. Degree of control – most people have a greater fear of things over which they do not have personal control. For example, some feel safer driving than flying, but the numbers show a much greater frequency of fatal car accidents than plane crashes.
  3. Whether a risk is catastrophic – people are usually more frightened by news of catastrophic accidents, such as plane crashes, than they are of deaths caused by such things as smoking, which actually causes more deaths over time.
  4. Optimism bias – some people tend to believe that risks that apply to other people do not apply to them. For example, some may think that others should not text and drive but they may do so themselves at times.
  5. Instant gratification – many of the things people do are highly pleasurable and the potential harm from such activities comes later. For example, smoking, tanning, and overeating.

 

PTS:   1

TOP:   17-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze                            NOT:  New

 

  1. Outline the four guiding principles of evaluating and reducing risk.

 

ANS:

  1. Compare risks – questioning whether a danger is great enough to worry about. Ask “How risky is it compared to other risks?”
  2. Determine how much risk you are willing to accept – most people accept a chance of a 1 in 100,000 of dying or suffering from a hazard as a threshold for changing their behavior. The EPA suggests a chance of 1 in 1 million is acceptable.
  3. Evaluate the actual risk involved – the news and media of exaggerate daily risks to capture attention, and therefore many people believe the world is much more risk-filled than it really is.
  4. Concentrate on evaluating and carefully making important lifestyle choices – this will help in having a greater chance of living a longer, healthier, and less fear-filled life. There is no point in worrying about risks over which there is no control, but one can control such choosing to smoke, practice safe sex, drive safely, exercise, and sun tan.

 

PTS:   1

TOP:   17-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them?

KEY:  Bloom’s: Analyze                            NOT:  New

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