Learning and Memory 3rd Edition by Mark A. Gluck – Test Bank

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 Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

1. Explain how operant conditioning is different from classical conditioning.

 

 

2. Jonah has listened to his new CD over and over since he bought it. His favorite song is the fourth song on the album. Now, when he hears the third song, he becomes excited in anticipation of hearing his upcoming favorite song. Is this an example of classical or operant conditioning? Explain.

 

 

3. Carlita used to get nervous whenever she has to travel by airplane. Recently, her friend taught Carlita some deep-breathing techniques to help her relax. Carlita tried them out and felt much better when she next flew. Now, she always does deep breathing exercises before she flies. Is this an example of classical or operant conditioning? Explain.

 

 

4. Normally, Francis’s children must go to bed at 8 p.m. But when grandma visits, the children are allowed to stay up late if they ask. Identify the stimulus, response, and outcome in this scenario.

 

 

5. Describe how one could use shaping to get a child to do his homework.

 

 

6. Give an example of a secondary reinforcer, and explain how it might be related to a primary reinforcer.

 

 

7. List and describe the four factors that determine the effectiveness of punishment, as discussed in the textbook.

 

 

8. Suppose a mayor who wants to use punishment to decrease crime in the city. Based on the textbook’s discussion, how can the mayor make sure the punishment is as effective as possible?

 

 

9. Give one example of negative reinforcement, and explain why it is negative reinforcement. Make clear what behavior is being reinforced in the example.

 

 

10. Indicate which schedule of partial reinforcement (FR, VR, FI, or VI) is being used in the following example: A soccer player makes a goal on average of every 20 attempts. Explain the selected choice.

 

 

11. Indicate which schedule of partial reinforcement (FR, VR, FI, or VI) is being used in the following example: A manager gets his paycheck every other Friday. Explain the selected choice.

 

 

12. Suppose a teenager spends more time talking on the phone than doing her homework. According to the Premack principle, how could her parents get their daughter to do her homework more often?

 

 

13. What is the role of the dorsal striatum in operant conditioning? Discuss one piece of evidence to support the claim.

 

 

14. Discuss the evidence suggesting that dopamine is involved in reinforcement.

 

 

15. Suppose one has a friend who drinks alcohol. How would one determine whether her drinking is just a bad habit and not a pathological addiction?

 

 

16. Describe how positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement play a role in drug addiction.

 

 

17. Describe how the distinction between wanting a drug and liking a drug is implemented in the brain.

 

 

18. Suppose one wants to stop the bad habit of eating too much chocolate. Describe how one could do this using: (1) distancing, (2) reinforcement of alternative behaviors, and (3) delayed reinforcement.

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. Grading criteria: In operant conditioning the outcome is contingent on making the response; in classical conditioning, the outcome (US) occurs regardless of whether a response was made.
2. Grading criteria: This is classical conditioning. The outcome (fourth song) occurs, regardless of what Jonah does. No response is needed.
3. Grading criteria: This is operant conditioning. The outcome (feeling relaxed/removing the nervousness) occurs only if Carlita does the deep-breathing exercises.
4. Grading criteria: S—grandma, R—asking to stay up late, O—being allowed to stay up late.
5. Grading criteria: The answer must break the behavior down into components and describe reinforcement of successive approximations; for example, reinforce sitting at desk, and picking up pencil, and so forth. The process must not be a description of chaining (i.e., reinforcing the component behaviors separately). The reinforcer must be the same throughout.
6. Grading criteria: One example is money, which can be used to obtain primary reinforcers such as food.
7. Grading criteria: The answer must identify the four factors (punishment leading to more variable behavior, discriminative stimuli encouraging cheating, concurrent reinforcement undermining punishment, and initial intensity of punishment) and indicate how each affects punishment’s effectiveness.
8. Grading criteria: (1) Discriminative stimuli—as much as possible, make sure the offense is always punished, regardless of the context; (2) concurrent reinforcement—remove rewards for the undesirable behavior (e.g., ad campaigns that reduces any “glamour” associated with crime); (3) variable behavior—punish all alternative behaviors, and/or reinforce all good behaviors; (4) intensity—first-time offenders should receive strong punishment, not just warnings.
9. Grading criteria: The example must be one that is valid;  the explanation must identify the behavior that is being increased and the aversive consequence that is being removed.
10. Grading criteria: The correct answer is VR. The reinforcement is getting a goal. It is variable because it occurs only on average, rather than exactly, every 20 attempts; it is a ratio because it is a fixed number of attempts.
11. Grading criteria: The correct answer is FI. The reinforcement is getting paid. It is fixed because it occurs exactly every two weeks; it is an interval schedule because reinforcement occurs after a certain amount of time has passed.
12. Grading criteria: There are two possibilities: (1) make her do her homework in order to be allowed to talk on the phone; (2) restrict her access to homework in order to make it the preferred activity.
13. Grading criteria: Role—it is important for learning S–R associations. Evidence—(1) Rats with dorsal striatum lesions can learn R–O associations (e.g., pressing a bar to obtain food) but have trouble learning such associations when discriminative stimuli are involved (e.g., pressing a bar to obtain food only when a light is on); (2) people with damage to the striatum due to Parkinson’s or Huntington’s disease have trouble associating a stimulus with a correct response.
14. Grading criteria: (1) Primary and secondary reinforcers trigger DA release from the VTA/SNc; (2) primary and secondary reinforcers trigger activity in DA target sites like the striatum in humans; (3) in Aplysia, DA is released during positive reinforcement; and (4) drugs that interfere with DA reduce responding in a trained animal.
15. Grading criteria: Give examples of behaviors that would qualify her drinking as an addiction, such as alcohol-related health problems, missing work/school to drink, preferring alcohol to friends/family, spending all her money on alcohol, and so on.
16. Grading criteria: Positive reinforcement equals the high from the drug and leads to an increase in drug-taking behavior; negative reinforcement equals avoidance of withdrawal symptoms and also leads to an increase in drug-taking behavior.
17. Grading criteria: Discuss DA involvement in wanting and opioid involvement in liking.
18. Grading criteria: (1) Distancing: stay away from places where one is tempted to eat chocolate; (2) reinforcement of alternative behaviors: reward oneself when eating something healthy or exercising instead of eating chocolate; (3) delayed reinforcement: when one is tempted to eat chocolate, wait for 10 minutes before indulging.

 

 

 

1. The process by which an organism learns to produce a specific response in order to avoid or obtain an outcome is:
  A) observing.
  B) learning.
  C) operant conditioning.
  D) classical conditioning.

 

 

2. In the case of Thorndike’s cats learning to escape from a puzzle box, the stimulus (S) was _____ and the response (R) was _____.
  A) their movements that opened the door; escaping and getting food
  B) escaping and getting food; the box
  C) the box; their movements that opened the door
  D) escaping and getting food; their movements that opened the door

 

 

3. According to the law of effect, which circumstance would lead to a weakening of the association between stimulus and response?
  A) giving candy to a whining child
  B) grounding a teenager for staying out too late
  C) giving a child $1 for doing well on a spelling test
  D) taking a painkiller to get rid of a headache

 

 

4. Using an umbrella when it rains allows one to escape from getting wet. In this case, the stimulus is _____, the response is _____, and the outcome is _____.
  A) the rain; using an umbrella; staying dry
  B) staying dry; rain; using an umbrella
  C) using an umbrella; rain; staying dry
  D) rain; staying dry; using an umbrella

 

 

5. In what way does operant conditioning differ from classical conditioning?
  A) In classical conditioning, learning is fastest during the early trials, while, in operant conditioning, learning is fastest during the later trials.
  B) In classical conditioning, the consequence arrives regardless of the animal’s behavior, while, in operant conditioning, it only arrives once the animal has made a response.
  C) Classical conditioning can be used to train animals to make responses they would not normally make; operant conditioning cannot be used to do this.
  D) Extinction occurs in classical conditioning but not in operant conditioning.

 

 

6. Which statement demonstrates operant rather than classical conditioning?
  A) A car salesperson receives a bonus for doing a good job at work. Afterwards, she continues to work hard at selling cars.
  B) A toddler squeals and curls up in a ball when his mother moves her fingers as if she is going to tickle him.
  C) A diner begins salivating as soon as he sees the waiter bringing dessert to the table.
  D) Hearing the music of an ice cream truck causes children to get excited.

 

 

7. Skinner’s method of studying learning is known as a:
  A) discrete-trial paradigm.
  B) behavioral economics method.
  C) drive-reduction paradigm.
  D) free-operant paradigm.

 

 

8. Which statement demonstrates the free-operant paradigm?
  A) After reaching the end of a maze, a rat is returned to the starting point by the experimenter.
  B) When a cat escapes from a puzzle box, the experimenter puts the cat back in.
  C) A rat in a Skinner box can press a bar at any time to receive food.
  D) After reaching the end of a maze, a rat is put back inside its home cage.

 

 

9. If a pigeon is allowed to peck at the switch in order to receive food whenever it chooses, this is an example of which type of paradigm?
  A) learning
  B) free-operant
  C) operational conditioning
  D) discrete trial

 

 

10. A mouse is placed in a maze and timed to see how long it takes him to reach the end. Once the first trial is completed, the experimenter places him back in the maze again to see if the speed in which he completes it changes; this is referred to as a:
  A) token response.
  B) drive-reduction method.
  C) free-operant paradigm.
  D) discrete trial.

 

 

11. A conditioning chamber called a _____ delivers reinforcement or punishment automatically whenever an animal makes a particular response.
  A) classroom
  B) Thorndike box
  C) pigeon box
  D) Skinner box

 

 

12. A _____ is a device that records total number of behavioral responses.
  A) stimulus reactor
  B) Skinner box
  C) cumulative recorder
  D) graphical log

 

 

13. Discriminative stimuli are:
  A) successive approximations to a desired response.
  B) stimuli that signal whether a particular response will lead to a particular outcome.
  C) outcomes that increase the probability of a behavior.
  D) outcomes that decrease the probability of a behavior.

 

 

14. If a person wants to use shaping to train a new puppy to respond to a name, he would call the name and then:
  A) reward once the puppy comes all the way to him.
  B) reward when the puppy looks at him, then for turning toward him, and then for taking a few steps in his direction.
  C) jingle some keys or shake a dog toy to get the puppy interested enough to come over to him.
  D) pull the puppy with a leash, then reward when the puppy reaches him.

 

 

15. Which statement is TRUE about shaping?
  A) It is a difficult and time-consuming process.
  B) It has not yet been successfully used for modifying human behavior.
  C) It is a good way to train an animal very quickly.
  D) It involves giving bigger rewards as one gets closer to making the correct response.

 

 

16. Chaining involves _____, whereas shaping involves _____.
  A) reinforcement; punishment
  B) punishment; reinforcement
  C) reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior; training individual components of a complex response
  D) training individual components of a complex response; reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior

 

 

17. Which item is an example of a primary reinforcer?
  A) money
  B) praise
  C) water
  D) grades

 

 

18. Which item is an example of a secondary reinforcer?
  A) money
  B) food
  C) sleep
  D) sex

 

 

19. Which statement demonstrates the use of a token economy to encourage good behavior in school children?
  A) giving children praise whenever they are behaving well
  B) making children stay after school when they misbehave
  C) awarding children successively more privileges for longer periods of good behavior
  D) awarding children points for good behavior, which they can exchange at the end of the day for small toys

 

 

20. In a _____, items called “tokens” work like secondary reinforcers that can be exchanged for items of value.
  A) primary reinforcer
  B) negative reinforcer
  C) token economy
  D) token system

 

 

21. If an organism expects its favorite reinforcer but receives a less-preferred reinforcer, the phenomenon of _____ predicts that the organism may respond less than if it had received that less-preferred reinforcer at the start.
  A) negative contrast
  B) negative reinforcement
  C) negative behavior
  D) negative correlation

 

 

22. After working for $15 an hour, Sally’s pay was cut to $8 an hour. She stopped working so hard, working much less than her coworkers, who had been earning $8 an hour all along. This is an example of:
  A) negative contrast.
  B) negative reinforcement.
  C) positive punishment.
  D) negative punishment.

 

 

23. The process of providing consequences for a behavior that decreases the probability of that behavior is called:
  A) reinforcement.
  B) punishment.
  C) discrete-trial learning.
  D) free-operant learning.

 

 

24. The main difference between reinforcement and punishment is that:
  A) punishment involves adding a consequence, while reinforcement involves removing a consequence.
  B) punishment involves removing a consequence, while reinforcement involves adding a consequence.
  C) punishment increases a behavior, while reinforcement decreases a behavior.
  D) punishment decreases a behavior, while reinforcement increases a behavior.

 

 

25. For punishment to be MOST effective:
  A) it should start out weak and become gradually stronger each time the behavior is repeated.
  B) the organism should know under what circumstances a particular behavior will and will not be punished.
  C) the behavior cannot be concurrently reinforced.
  D) All of the answers are correct.

 

 

26. Which statement is TRUE about punishment?
  A) There is a general agreement that it is an ineffective way to change a behavior.
  B) It is considered a good way to change behavior, regardless of how it is used.
  C) It is most effective when one begins with a weak punishment and gradually works up to a stronger punishment.
  D) Its effects can be counteracted if the punished behavior is simultaneously being reinforced.

 

 

27. Which statement is an example of how discriminative stimuli can encourage cheating?
  A) A child who makes silly faces during class is reprimanded by the teacher, but his classmates tell him how funny he is.
  B) A teenager is punished for swearing at home but still swears when she is with her friends at school.
  C) A drug user is given a warning for his first offense and jail time if he repeats the offense.
  D) A politician who is exposed for illegally obtaining money one way will then find another way to obtain the money.

 

 

28. Children may misbehave in order to get the attention that is associated with being punished. In this example, the attention serves as _____ for misbehavior.
  A) negative reinforcement
  B) positive reinforcement
  C) negative punishment
  D) positive punishment

 

 

29. Parents who decide to use punishment on a misbehaving child should:
  A) spank the child, as spanking is the only effective punisher.
  B) make sure that the punishment involves giving the child lots of attention.
  C) not use spanking because it has been shown to be completely ineffective.
  D) also reinforce good behavior.

 

 

30. If a pigeon is being trained to peck at a disc for a food reward, which delay between pecking and receiving the reward will lead to the FASTEST learning?
  A) 0 seconds
  B) 2 seconds
  C) 5 seconds
  D) 10 seconds

 

 

31. Suppose a person is trying to save for a new television, but his friends are pressuring him to go out with them tonight to the new club in town. He is MOST likely to stay home and save his money if he:
  A) is a teenager.
  B) has arranged for his paycheck to be automatically deposited into a savings account.
  C) knows it will be a long time before he has enough money to buy the television.
  D) All of the answers are correct.

 

 

32. Positive reinforcement involves _____ an outcome to _____ a behavior.
  A) adding; increase
  B) adding; decrease
  C) taking away; increase
  D) taking away; decrease

 

 

33. Suppose a child whines continuously until his parents give him a cookie. The cookie would be _____ of the child’s behavior of whining.
  A) positive reinforcement
  B) positive punishment
  C) negative reinforcement
  D) negative punishment

 

 

34. Suppose a child whines continuously until his parents give him a cookie. The cessation of the child’s whining would be _____ of the parents’ behavior of giving the cookie.
  A) positive reinforcement
  B) positive punishment
  C) negative reinforcement
  D) negative punishment

 

 

35. Suppose a man has his driver’s license revoked due to several unpaid traffic tickets. The taking away of his license would be _____ of the man’s behavior of not paying tickets.
  A) positive reinforcement
  B) positive punishment
  C) negative reinforcement
  D) negative punishment

 

 

36. Negative punishment involves _____ an outcome to _____ a behavior.
  A) adding; increase
  B) adding; decrease
  C) taking away; increase
  D) taking away; decrease

 

 

37. A child is given a gold star every time she gets an “A” on a test. This is an example of:
  A) partial reinforcement.
  B) a fixed-interval schedule.
  C) continuous reinforcement.
  D) a variable-interval schedule.

 

 

38. A hotel maid is allowed to take a 15-minute break every time she cleans three rooms. This is an example of a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
  A) fixed-ratio
  B) fixed-interval
  C) variable-ratio
  D) variable interval

 

 

39. A postreinforcement pause is seen when _____ schedules of reinforcement are used.
  A) variable-interval and variable-ratio
  B) fixed-interval and fixed-ratio
  C) variable-interval and fixed-ratio
  D) fixed-interval and variable-ratio

 

 

40. A baseball player gets a hit approximately every third time at bat. This is an example of a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
  A) fixed-ratio
  B) fixed-interval
  C) variable-ratio
  D) variable-interval

 

 

41. A professor gives her class donuts every Monday. This is an example of a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
  A) fixed-ratio
  B) fixed-interval
  C) variable-ratio
  D) variable-interval

 

 

42. A student watches for shooting stars on a clear night and sees one approximately every 2 minutes. This is an example of a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
  A) fixed-ratio
  B) fixed-interval
  C) variable-ratio
  D) variable-interval

 

 

43. A pigeon is given a choice between pecking an upper key on a VI 2′ schedule and pecking a lower key on a VI 4′ schedule. According to the matching law of choice behavior, the pigeon should:
  A) always peck the lower key.
  B) always peck the upper key.
  C) peck the lower key twice as frequently as the upper key.
  D) peck the upper key twice as frequently as the lower key.

 

 

44. The matching law of choice behavior states that, given two responses that are reinforced on different VI schedules, an organism will:
  A) give only the response that provides the better rate of reinforcement.
  B) respond in order to approximately match the relative rate of reinforcement for each response.
  C) give both responses at roughly equal rates.
  D) become confused and stop responding altogether.

 

 

45. The study of how organisms allocate their time and resources among possible options is known as:
  A) the matching law.
  B) behavioral economics.
  C) chaining.
  D) shaping.

 

 

46. Which statement BEST describes behavioral economics?
  A) The average high school student spends $100 a week.
  B) A dieter on a fixed calorie diet must decide whether to eat several low-calorie meals or have a bowl of ice cream.
  C) An average college students spends more time studying than sleeping.
  D) If one allocates earnings, one can save enough for early retirement.

 

 

47. In behavioral economics, the _____ refers to the distribution of resources that maximizes the individual’s subjective value or satisfaction.
  A) behavioral economic
  B) economical distribution
  C) bliss point
  D) economical dispersal

 

 

48. According to the Premack principle, if a child would rather wash dishes than do homework:
  A) homework could be used as a reward for washing dishes.
  B) washing dishes could be used as a reward for doing homework.
  C) the child’s desire to do homework will be increased by restricting access to washing dishes.
  D) the child’s desire to do dishes will be increased by restricting access to doing homework.

 

 

49. _____ expresses that, if an organism has the option to perform, highly frequent behavior can reinforce a less frequent behavior.
  A) Response deprivation
  B) Preference response
  C) The matching law of choice
  D) The Premack principle

 

 

50. If an individual is restricted from performing a specific behavior, in an attempt to make an opportunity to perform this behavior more enticing, the use of the restricted behavior as a reinforcer is known as:
  A) free-operant paradigm.
  B) response deprivation.
  C) operant conditioning.
  D) classical conditioning.

 

 

51. If one has been reading for hours and the idea of taking a break to clean the room sounds very attractive, one is exhibiting:
  A) chaining.
  B) the Premack principle.
  C) response deprivation.
  D) classical conditioning.

 

 

52. The dorsal striatum seems to be particularly important for learning which association(s) in operant conditioning?
  A) S-R
  B) R-O
  C) S-O
  D) All of the answers are correct.

 

 

53. A rat with a dorsal striatum lesion would have trouble learning to:
  A) press a bar for a food reward.
  B) jump over a barrier to escape shock.
  C) run in an exercise wheel to obtain a drink of water.
  D) receive food when a red light comes on.

 

 

54. Which part of the brain seems to be especially important for maintaining habitual or automatic S-R associations?
  A) the dorsal striatum
  B) the orbitofrontal cortex
  C) the sensory cortices
  D) the ventral tegmental area

 

 

55. The orbitofrontal cortex is particularly important for learning:
  A) automatic S-R associations.
  B) to predict the outcomes of behaviors.
  C) R-O associations.
  D) the hedonic value of a stimulus.

 

 

56. Which statement is TRUE regarding the orbitofrontal cortex?
  A) Orbitofrontal neurons respond when the outcome is expected to be pleasant, but not when it is expected to be unpleasant.
  B) Orbitofrontal neurons respond when the outcome is expected to be unpleasant, but not when it is expected to be pleasant.
  C) Neurons code the expectation as well as the specific outcome.
  D) Orbitofrontal neurons code the pleasantness of a stimulus, but not its identity.

 

 

57. Which area of the brain was informally known as the “pleasure center” after Old’s experiment where the rats “liked” the electrical stimulation?
  A) the nueral cortex
  B) the orbitofrontal cortex
  C) the substantia nigra pars compacta
  D) the ventral tegmental area

 

 

58. Electrical stimulation of the _____ is reinforcing to rats.
  A) orbitofrontal cortex
  B) dorsal striatum
  C) ventral tegmental area
  D) motor cortex

 

 

59. Which region in the brain contains the dopamine-producing neurons that project to the frontal cortex?
  A) the nueral cortex
  B) the orbitofrontal cortex
  C) the substantia nigra pars compacta
  D) the ventral tegmental area

 

 

60. Hedonic value refers to _____, while motivational value refers to _____.
  A) how much one wants a reinforcer; how much one likes a reinforcer
  B) how much one likes a reinforcer; how much one wants a reinforcer
  C) the strength of a reinforcer; the salience of a stimulus
  D) the salience of a stimulus; the strength of a reinforcer

 

 

61. If one has just finished eating one’s favorite meal, then that meal will probably have _____ hedonic value and _____ motivational value.
  A) high; low
  B) low; high
  C) high; high
  D) low; low

 

 

62. Which region in the brain contains the dopamine-producing neurons that project to the striatum?
  A) the nueral cortex
  B) the orbitofrontal cortex
  C) the substantia nigra pars compacta
  D) the ventral tegmental area

 

 

63. In rats, dopamine is released from the VTA/SNc is triggered by encounters with:
  A) food.
  B) sex.
  C) secondary reinforcers.
  D) All of the answers are correct.

 

 

64. In humans, through the use of PET and f/MRI, increased activity can be seen in dopamine target sites such as the striatum. What triggers this activity?
  A) video games
  B) cocaine
  C) both video games and cocaine
  D) None of the answers is correct.

 

 

65. What neurotransmitter is damaged in individuals suffering from Parkinson’s disease?
  A) dopamine
  B) seratonin
  C) striatum
  D) endorphins

 

 

66. Why is dopamine believed to be involved in reinforcement?
  A) Dopamine release is triggered by primary and secondary reinforcers.
  B) It leads to activity in brain areas known as the dopaminergic region.
  C) It leads to extinction.
  D) All of the answers are correct.

 

 

67. The incentive salience hypothesis says that dopamine:
  A) gives food its “goodness” qualities.
  B) is involved in predicting future rewards.
  C) provides organisms with the motivation to work for reinforcement.
  D) reduces the ability of an organism to enjoy food and other rewards.

 

 

68. Rats that are given a dopamine antagonist will:
  A) prefer rat chow to sugar pellets if both are freely available.
  B) work for sugar pellets, even if rat chow is freely available.
  C) work for rat chow, even if sugar pellets are freely available.
  D) choose rat chow that is freely available over sugar pellets for which they must work.

 

 

69. Interfering with dopamine seems to:
  A) impair motor responses but have no effect on enjoyment of a reinforcer.
  B) reduce enjoyment of a reinforcer but have no effect on motor responses.
  C) reduce motivation to perform a behavior but have no effect on enjoyment of a reinforcer.
  D) reduce enjoyment of a reinforcer but have no effect on motivation to perform a behavior.

 

 

70. If one blocks dopamine in an amphetamine user, one would expect that it would:
  A) increase pleasurable feelings from the drug.
  B) suppress pleasurable feelings from the drug.
  C) suppress cravings for the drug.
  D) increase cravings for the drug.

 

 

71. Increasing dopamine appears to:
  A) decrease how much one wants something but not how much one likes it.
  B) decrease how much one likes something but not how much one wants it.
  C) increase how much one wants something but not how much one likes it.
  D) increase how much one likes something but not how much one wants it.

 

 

72. In the brain, what are the naturally occurring substances that have effects similar to those of opiate drugs such as heroin and morphine?
  A) opiates
  B) amphetamines
  C) dopamine
  D) endogenous opioids

 

 

73. One suggestion regarding the roles of dopamine and opioids in the brain is that:
  A) dopamine is involved in “wanting” a drug, whereas opioids are involved in “liking” a drug.
  B) opioids are involved in “wanting” a drug, whereas dopamine is involved in “liking” a drug.
  C) dopamine and opioids are both involved in “wanting” a drug.
  D) dopamine and opioids are both involved in “liking” a drug.

 

 

74. What part of the brain is responsible for making an individual feel bad for not being picked to play in the basketball game?
  A) the insular cortex
  B) the frontal cortex
  C) the dACC
  D) the orbitofrontal cortex

 

 

75. A person has been working for 2 years and was told that he would receive a $2.00 raise and only received 25 cents. The _____ is responsible for reducing the motivation in this time of situation.
  A) dACC
  B) negative construct
  C) insular cortex
  D) orbitofrontal cortex

 

 

76. A man would be considered to have a pathological addiction to alcohol if he:
  A) drinks more than four drinks a day.
  B) suffers from a medical condition caused by his alcohol use.
  C) is caught driving under the influence of alcohol.
  D) regularly gets drunk with his friends on weekends.

 

 

77. The doctor advises Vince that his blood pressure is high and that he must make changes in his diet, which consist of three pots of coffee a day. After leaving the doctor’s office, he walks into a coffee shop and orders two espressos to go. Vince is exhibiting the sign of _____ addiction.
  A) neurological
  B) behavioral
  C) pathological
  D) nonspecific

 

 

78. Drug addicts continue taking drugs in part to avoid the unpleasant effects of withdrawal. In this case, the behavior of taking drugs is being:
  A) positively reinforced.
  B) negatively reinforced.
  C) positively punished.
  D) negatively punished.

 

 

79. Cocaine and amphetamine work by:
  A) increasing the levels of endogenous opioids.
  B) decreasing the levels of endogenous opioids.
  C) increasing the levels of dopamine.
  D) decreasing the levels of dopamine.

 

 

80. People with long-term addictions to cocaine or amphetamine:
  A) have reduced cravings for the drug as well as a stronger “high” than they did in the early stages of addiction.
  B) have reduced cravings for the drug than they did in the early stages of addiction.
  C) do not receive the same “high” that they did in the early stages of addiction.
  D) receive a much stronger “high” than they did in the early stages of addiction.

 

 

81. Which is an example of a behavioral addiction?
  A) addiction to exercise
  B) addiction to alcohol
  C) addiction to cocaine
  D) addiction to caffeine

 

 

82. Behavioral addictions:
  A) seem to activate the same reinforcement system in the brain as drug addictions do.
  B) do not usually lead to withdrawal symptoms.
  C) activate a unique brain system that is different from the one activated by drug addictions.
  D) do not usually produce cravings.

 

 

83. James’s grades are dropping, and he has isolated himself in his room and doesn’t have any interactions with individuals. His only focus is playing his game. As punishment for his grades dropping, he is grounded from any games. His parents have caught him trying to play at night, and he has even tried to go to his neighbors to do so. What type of addiction is James exhibiting?
  A) behavioral
  B) pathological
  C) nonspecified
  D) neurological

 

 

84. Research on addiction to romantic love has shown that:
  A) romantic love is essentially just a drive to obtain sex.
  B) this kind of addiction is very clearly a pathological addiction.
  C) most people experience clinical depression after romantic rejection.
  D) viewing pictures of a romantic partner can activate reward centers in the brain.

 

 

85. Drugs that block opioid receptors:
  A) have been shown to be ineffective in treating addictions.
  B) have been shown to be effective for the short-term treatment of addictions.
  C) seem to be effective for treating behavioral addictions but not drug addictions.
  D) seem to be effective for treating drug addictions but not behavioral addictions.

 

 

86. Lauren is trying to stop her son from banging his spoon on the table during meals by praising him whenever he uses his spoon to eat his food. This is an example of:
  A) extinction.
  B) distancing.
  C) reinforcement of alternative behaviors.
  D) delayed reinforcement.

 

 

87. Suppose one’s roommate has gotten into the bad habit of talking whenever the roommate is trying to study. The roommate decides to ignore this habit. This is an example of:
  A) extinction.
  B) distancing.
  C) reinforcement of alternative behaviors.
  D) delayed reinforcement.

 

 

88. Which is the BEST example of extinction?
  A) A child is praised every time he raises his hand instead of shouting out the answer
  B) A young child throws a tantrum when he doesn’t get what he wants. The parents decide to ignore the child every time there’s a tantrum.
  C) John feels the need to smoke when he’s around smokers, so he stays away from them.
  D) All of the answers are correct.

 

 

89. The distancing approach to fighting an addiction involves:
  A) avoiding the stimulus that triggers the unwanted response.
  B) removing the reinforcement for producing the unwanted response.
  C) increasing the amount of time between the unwanted response and reinforcment.
  D) rewarding desirable responses instead.

 

 

90. Andrea is trying to stop biting her nails. Whenever she gets the urge to bite her nails, she forces herself to count to 100 before giving in to her urge. This is an example of:
  A) extinction.
  B) distancing.
  C) reinforcement of alternative behaviors.
  D) delayed reinforcement.

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. C
2. C
3. B
4. A
5. B
6. A
7. D
8. C
9. B
10. D
11. D
12. C
13. B
14. B
15. A
16. D
17. C
18. A
19. D
20. C
21. A
22. A
23. B
24. D
25. C
26. D
27. B
28. B
29. D
30. A
31. B
32. A
33. A
34. C
35. D
36. D
37. C
38. A
39. B
40. C
41. B
42. D
43. D
44. B
45. B
46. B
47. C
48. B
49. D
50. B
51. C
52. A
53. D
54. A
55. B
56. C
57. D
58. C
59. D
60. B
61. A
62. C
63. D
64. A
65. A
66. A
67. C
68. D
69. C
70. C
71. C
72. D
73. A
74. A
75. A
76. B
77. C
78. B
79. C
80. C
81. A
82. A
83. A
84. D
85. B
86. C
87. A
88. B
89. A
90. D

 

 

 

 

1. According to the law of effect, Thorndike’s cats learned to escape the puzzle box because they:
  A) learned the correct sequence of responses that led to a desirable outcome.
  B) instinctively knew how to escape.
  C) acquired an understanding of what they needed to do in order to escape.
  D) learned the correct sequence of responses by watching other cats escape from similar boxes.

 

 

2. What is the main difference between classical and operant conditioning?
  A) Operant conditioning shows extinction but classical conditioning does not.
  B) Classical conditioning shows extinction but operant conditioning does not.
  C) In operant conditioning, the outcome depends on the response, while, in classical conditioning, the outcome occurs, regardless of the response.
  D) In classical conditioning, the outcome depends on the response, while, in operant conditioning, the outcome occurs, regardless of the response.

 

 

3. If a little boy can hear his mother moving around in the kitchen downstairs in the morning, he can be fairly certain that it is time to get up and have his breakfast. The discriminative stimulus in this example is the:
  A) breakfast.
  B) sounds of his mother moving around.
  C) little boy.
  D) kitchen.

 

 

4. Darren is trying to get his young son to eat his peas. At first, Darren praises him whenever he moves his fork near the peas; after the child does this reliably, Darren praises him only if he actually puts a pea on his fork; then Darren’s praise is only given when the child puts a pea on his fork and moves the fork toward his mouth. Darren carries on this way until the child eats his peas. Darren is using _____ to get his son to eat his peas.
  A) the matching law
  B) a token economy
  C) shaping
  D) chaining

 

 

5. Which is an example of a primary reinforcer?
  A) money
  B) praises
  C) grades
  D) food

 

 

6. Six-year-old Timmy was misbehaving in class one morning. Which punishment is likely to be the MOST effective in preventing Timmy from misbehaving again?
  A) making Timmy stay after school
  B) making Timmy sit in the corner
  C) taking Timmy aside at lunchtime and asking him to stop misbehaving
  D) giving Timmy a warning, and making the punishment more severe if he misbehaves again

 

 

7. Swatting a dog with a newspaper would be _____ of the behavior of chewing up one’s favorite socks.
  A) positive reinforcement
  B) positive punishment
  C) negative reinforcement
  D) negative punishment

 

 

8. If it rains, opening the umbrella keeps one from getting wet. Escaping from getting wet would be _____ of the behavior of opening the umbrella.
  A) positive reinforcement
  B) positive punishment
  C) negative reinforcement
  D) negative punishment

 

 

9. In which example would one MOST likely see a steady rate of responding without any noticeable pauses?
  A) A charitable organization receives a donation for every 10 phone calls it makes on average.
  B) A teenager receives an allowance every Saturday.
  C) A college student gets a call from home every Friday morning.
  D) A blueberry picker receives $1 each time he fills three boxes.

 

 

10. If one buys lottery tickets, one may win on average every 15 times one plays. This is an example of a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
  A) fixed-ratio
  B) fixed-interval
  C) variable-ratio
  D) variable-interval

 

 

11. According to the Premack principle, if a teenager would rather go shopping than clean her room:
  A) her desire to clean her room will be increased by restricting her access to going shopping.
  B) her desire to go shopping will be increased by restricting her access to cleaning her room.
  C) allowing her to go shopping could be used as a reward for cleaning her room.
  D) cleaning her room could be used as a reward for going shopping.

 

 

12. The dorsal striatum seems to be especially important for learning:
  A) whether an outcome is pleasant or unpleasant.
  B) the identity of an expected outcome.
  C) R–O associations.
  D) S–R associations.

 

 

13. Which statement is TRUE?
  A) Only primary reinforcers trigger dopamine release in the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra pars compacta.
  B) Animals will continue to work for electrical brain stimulation if dopamine transmission is blocked.
  C) Dopamine seems to be involved in liking, rather than wanting, a reinforcer.
  D) A trained animal will reduce its response rate if dopamine transmission is blocked.

 

 

14. The major difference between an individual who uses cocaine weekly and tried to stop and can’t and an individual that skydives weekly and can’t stop is that:
  A) they both have a bad habit and can’t stop it.
  B) the first individual is experiencing a pathological addiction, while the second individual is experiencing a behavioral addiction.
  C) both individuals are seeking a “high,” but the skydiver isn’t worried about becoming addicted.
  D) There is no difference—both individuals are suffering from a type of dysfunction.

 

 

15. Malcolm’s 2-year-old daughter throws a tantrum when she doesn’t get what she wants. Malcolm has decided to ignore his daughter whenever she has a tantrum. This is an example of:
  A) extinction.
  B) distancing.
  C) reinforcement of alternative behaviors.
  D) delayed reinforcement.

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. A
2. C
3. B
4. C
5. D
6. B
7. B
8. C
9. A
10. C
11. C
12. D
13. D
14. B
15. A

 

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