Leadership Research Findings Practice and Skills 8th Edition by Andrew J. DuBrin – Test Bank

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 Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

 

True / False

 

1. Contingency theories of leadership specify the personal characteristics of the leader that will contribute to effectiveness in a wide variety of situations.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Contingency theorists believe that forces in the situation are three times as strong as the leader’s personal characteristics in shaping his or her behavior.See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

2. An example of a situational force in leadership is group member characteristics.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   The essence of a contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces, including group member characteristics.See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

3. According to Fiedler’s theory, task-motivated leaders perform the best in situations of high control and low control.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   According to Fiedler’s theory, task-motivated leaders perform best when they have the most control and the least control. See “Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

4. According to Fiedler’s theory, relationship-motivated leaders perform the best in situations of low control.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   According to Fiedler’s theory, relationship motivated leaders perform best when they have moderate control. See “Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

5. A major proposition of the path-goal theory is that the leader should engage in behaviors that run counter to the subordinates’ environment and abilities.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   The major proposition of path-goal theory is that the manager should choose a leadership style that takes into account the characteristics of the group members and the demands of the task.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

6. If a leader wants to practice the path-goal theory of leadership, he should be prepared to compensate for the deficiencies of subordinates.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Leaders should engage in these behaviors in a manner that compensates for deficiencies and that enhances subordinate satisfactions as well as individual and work unit performance. See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

7. According to the path-goal theory, the participative style is recommended when group members are performing repetitive tasks.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   The participative leader is best suited for improving the morale of well-motivated employees who perform nonrepetitive tasks.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

8. The achievement-oriented leadership style works well with group members working on ambiguous and nonrepetitive tasks.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   This leadership style works well with achievement oriented team members and with those working on ambiguous and nonrepetitive tasks.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

9. In the situational leadership model II, the key contingency factor is the development level of group members as determined by commitment and competence.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   The combination of the subordinate’s commitment and competence determines his or her developmental level. See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

10. In the situational leadership model II, the supporting style leader emphasizes low directing, low supporting behaviors.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   A supporting leadership style refers to low directive and high supportive behavior. See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

11. In the situational leadership model II, when group members have the highest level of competence and commitment, the directing style is recommended.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   According to situational leadership II, effective leaders adapt their behavior to the level of commitment and competence of a particular subordinate to complete a given task.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

12. In the normative decision model, the leader examines certain factors within the situation to determine which decision-making style will be the most effective.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   The normative decision model views leadership as a decision-making process in which the leader examines certain factors within the situation to determine which decision-making style will be the most effective.See “The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

13. In the normative decision model, decision significance is defined as the significance of the decision to the success of the project or organization.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   According to the normative decision model,decision significance is the significance of the decision to the success of the project or organization. See “The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Engage

 

14. An important situational factor in the normative model is the importance of commitment.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   An key situational factor, in the context of the normative decision making model is the importance of commitment. See “The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Engage
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

15. An ineffective way to lead an organization through a crisis is to strongly defend yourself against your critics or deny wrongdoing.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   One of the worst ways to lead a group through a crisis is to strongly defend yourself against your critics or deny wrongdoing.See “Leadership During a Crisis.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership During a Crisis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

16. Branch manager Marissa uses evidence-based leadership when she will accuse subordinates of wrongdoing only when she can heavily document her accusations.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Evidence-based leadership or management is an approach whereby managers translate principles based on best evidence into organizational practices.See “Evidence-Based Leadership for the Contingency and Situational Approach.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Evidence-Based Leadership for the Contingency and Situational Approach
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

17. A success factor for the leader of an organization or a key organizational unit is to think strategically, including visualizing the big picture.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   A success factor for the leader of an organization or a key organizational unit is to think strategically, including seeing the big picture.See “Leadership During a Crisis.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership During a Crisis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

Multiple Choice

 

18. When asked about leadership effectiveness, an executive said in part, “The length of the leash varies with different people. . . .” The executive’s comments support the _____ perspective on leadership.

  a. contingency
  b. relationship-oriented
  c. task-oriented
  d. universal theory

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   The essence of a contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces, including group member characteristics.See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

19. The contingency approach to leadership explains that leaders are most effective when they:

  a. plan for emergencies before they occur.
  b. make their behavior tuned to situational forces.
  c. follow universal managerial principles when faced with contingencies.
  d. create backup plans to deal with human resources problems.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   The essence of a contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces, including group member characteristics.See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

20. Baxter, a chief operating officer, practices contingency leadership when he:

  a. warns workers in advance about potential punishments.
  b. maintains an optimistic, positive attitude.
  c. challenges the use of new technologies.
  d. discards old ideas that no longer fit the situational forces.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   The essence of a contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces, including group member characteristics.See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

21. Contingency leadership theorists believe that in terms of shaping the leader’s behavior,_____.

  a. forces in the situation are more important that the leader’s personal characteristics.
  b. the internal environment is more critical than the external environment.
  c. the leadership situation has a negligible influence.
  d. the leader’s personal characteristics have a negligible influence.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Contingency theorists believe that forces in the situation are three times as strong as the leader’s personal characteristics in shaping his or her behavior. See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

22. A _____ perspective is that the leader’s behavior is profoundly influenced by the situation.

  a. path goal leadership
  b. contingency leadership
  c. normative decision model
  d. middle of the road management

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   The essence of a contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces, including group member characteristics.See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

23. In Fiedler’s contingency theory, an important dimension for rating the situation is :

  a. position power.
  b. leader-member relations.
  c. personal power.
  d. task structure.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   An important dimension to rate a situation, according to Fiedler’s contingency model is leader-member relations.See “Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

24. The general point of Fiedler’s contingency theory of leadership is that the best style of leadership is determined by:

  a. the leader’s personality.
  b. how well the leader gets along with group members.
  c. a balance of task and relationship factors.
  d. the situation in which a leader works.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Fred E. Fiedler developed a widely researched and quoted contingency model more than forty years ago that holds that the best style of leadership is determined by the situation in which the leader is working.See “Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

25. Following Fiedler’s contingency model, a leader can increase situational control by:

  a. decreasing the task structure for group members.
  b. creating conflict between himself or herself and group members.
  c. increasing his or her position power.
  d. increasing the demands on group members.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Exercising more position power by requesting more formal authority from higher management is a tactic to make the situation favorable to the leader. See ” Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

26. Division manager Pedro believes strongly in the path-goal theory of leadership, so he engages in behaviors that:

  a. have a high probability of winning.
  b. set quite high goals for all subordinates.
  c. complement subordinate characteristics and task demands.
  d. follow a logical path.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   The major proposition of path-goal theory is that the manager should choose a leadership style that takes into account the characteristics of the group members and the demands of the task.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

27. The general thrust of path-goal theory is to specify what the leader must do to:

  a. make a directive style of leadership acceptable.
  b. achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation.
  c. improve the work attitudes of group members.
  d. make the situation more favorable.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   The path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness, as developed by Robert House, specifies what a leader must do to achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

28. In path-goal theory, the directive leader improves morale when:

  a. group members perform repetitive tasks.
  b. group members are highly motivated.
  c. there is ample time for task completion.
  d. the task is unclear and vague.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   In the path-goal theory, when the task is unclear, the directive style improves morale.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

29. In path-goal theory, the participative leader is best suited for improving the morale of:

  a. well-motivated employees who perform repetitive tasks.
  b. well-motivated employees who perform nonrepetitive tasks.
  c. poorly-motivated employees who perform repetitive tasks.
  d. poorly-motivated employees who perform nonrepetitive tasks.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   The participative leader is best suited for improving the morale of well-motivated employees who perform nonrepetitive tasks.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

30. A suggestion to the leader based on path-goal theory is for the leader to:

  a. give people careful instructions, even when they can perform the task well.
  b. encourage group members to provide their own structure.
  c. purposely make ambiguous the path between goal attainment and receiving a reward.
  d. reduce frustrating barriers to reaching goals.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Reducing frustrating barriers to reaching goals is one step a leader can take to influence performance and satisfaction. See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

31. The situational leadership model II emphasizes contingency factors relating to:

  a. characteristics of group members.
  b. characteristics of the organizational climate.
  c. the attitudes of the leader.
  d. the skills of the leader.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Situational Leadership II explains how to match leadership style to the capabilities of group members on a given task.See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

32. _____ is designed to increase the frequency and quality of conversations about performance and professional development between managers and group members so that competence is developed, commitment takes place, and turnover among talented workers is reduced.

  a. The charismatic leadership theory
  b. The Path goal model
  c. Situational leadership II
  d. The normative decision model

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Situational leadership II is designed to increase the frequency and quality of conversations about performance and professional development between managers and group members so that competence is developed, commitment takes place, and turnover among talented workers is reduced.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   | Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

33. The coaching style of leadership in the situational leadership model II is described as:

  a. high on directing and high on supporting behaviors.
  b. high on directing and low on supporting behaviors.
  c. low on directing and low on supporting behaviors.
  d. low on directing and high on supporting behaviors.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   In the context of situational leadership II, the coaching style of leadership is one which is high on directing and high on supporting behavior.See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

34. According to the situational leadership model II, the directing style is the most effective when team members are:

  a. low in competence but high on commitment.
  b. at the highest level of commitment and competence.
  c. growing in competence but with variable commitment.
  d. having some competence but are low in commitment.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   In the context of situational leadership II, a directive style of leadership is preferred when the team members are low in competence, but high in commitment. See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

35. According to the normative decision model, leaders must choose a style that brings about the correct degree of _____ when making decisions.

  a. group participation
  b. group motivation
  c. goal setting
  d. job satisfaction

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Another contingency viewpoint is that leaders must choose a style that elicits the correct degree of group participation when making decisions. Since many of a leader’s interactions with group members involve decision making, this perspective is sensible.See “The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

36. The contingency factors in the normative decision model are known as:

  a. commitment requirements.
  b. decision-making styles.
  c. characteristics of the leader.
  d. problem attributes.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   The situational factors, or problem variables, make the model a contingency approach.See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

37. Which one of the following is the most recommended approach to leadership during a crisis?

  a. Lead with compassion.
  b. Rely heavily on consensus leadership.
  c. Move group members away from their usual work routine.
  d. Choose a circle-the-wagons mentality.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   In the context of the normative decision model, group support refers to the degree to which the team supports the organization’s objectives at stake in the problem. See “The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

38. According to the normative decision model, group support refers to:

  a. the likelyhood that the team might commit to a decision that it might take on its own.
  b. team members’ knowledge or expertise in relation to the problem.
  c. the degree to which the team supports the organization’s objectives at stake in the problem.
  d. the ability of team members to work together in solving problems.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   In the context of the normative decision model,group support refers to the degree to which the team supports the organization’s objectives at stake in the problem.See “The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

39. Which one of the following is a recommended approach to leadership during a crisis?

  a. Think tactically
  b. Lead with compassion
  c. Be a transactional leader
  d. Be indecisive

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Displaying compassion with the concerns, anxieties, and frustrations of group members is a key interpersonal skill for crisis leadership.See “Leadership During a Crisis.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership During a Crisis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

40. The general purpose of disaster planning is to:

  a. deal effectively with a crisis.
  b. practice transformational leadership skills.
  c. minimize leadership liability for a crisis.
  d. prevent a crisis.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   The ideal form of crisis leadership is to prevent a crisis through disaster planning.See “Leadership During a Crisis.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership During a Crisis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

41. A key part of evidence-based leadership or management is to:

  a. keep a log of the mistakes of subordinates.
  b. justify asking for an increased budget.
  c. prove that your decision was the right one.
  d. translate principles into practice.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Evidence-based leadership or management is an approach whereby managers translate principles based on best evidence into organizational practices.See “Evidence-Based Leadership for the Contingency and Situational Approach.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

42. Plant manager Kristina practices evidence-based leadership when she:

  a. uses leadership practices proven to be effective.
  b. carefully documents poor performance.
  c. asks group members to justify their claims.
  d. maintains a log of her interactions with group members.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Evidence-based leadership or management is an approach whereby managers translate principles based on best evidence into organizational practices.See “Evidence-Based Leadership for the Contingency and Situational Approach.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Evidence-Based Leadership for the Contingency and Situational Approach
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

43. Adapting to changing times is the most important for which approach to leadership?

  a. Leadership Grid
  b. Charismatic
  c. Trait approach
  d. Contingency approach

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   In the context of the contingency approach,the effective leader adapts to changing circumstances.See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

44. ​Ayan, the newly appointed team manager of the sales team, practices autocratic leadership in his team. However, his team members who are quite experienced and equipped in their fields are not satisfied with the style of leadership practised by Ayan, which negatively affects the team productivity. This scenario depicts the violation of  _____.

  a. ​a contingency approach to leadership
  b. ​a strict authoritarian approach to leadership
  c. ​a liberal authoritarian approach to leadership
  d. ​a middle of the road approach to leadership

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   The essence of a contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces, including group member characteristics.A manager who supervises competent employees might be able to practice consensus leadership readily.See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

45. ​Alan used to follow a libertarian leadership style. He recently decided to become stricter toward productivity targets as a result of the fluctuations in the market. He does this in order to make his team more task oriented. This is an example of _____.

  a. ​leaders using debasement techniques
  b. ​situations shaping how leaders behave
  c. ​leaders using techniques of ingratiation
  d. ​dividing the group into in-group and out-group

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   This is an example of situations affecting leader behavior.Contingency theorists believe that forces in the situation are three times as strong as the leader’s personal characteristics in shaping his or her behavior. See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

46. George and Jonathan are the production and marketing managers of a firm. While George is optimistic to work out the issues of his least preferred coworker, Jonathan ​is adamant that the least preferred coworker in his team has to be replaced. In this case, which of the following statements is true?

  a. ​Both George and Jonathan are task motivated leaders.
  b. ​George is relationship motivated , while Jonathan is task motivated.
  c. ​Jonathan is relationship motivated, while George is task motivated.
  d. ​Both George and Jonathan are relationship motivated.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   A leader who describes the least preferred coworker in relatively favorable terms tends to be relationship motivated. In contrast, a person who describes this coworker in an unfavorable manner tends to be task motivated.See “Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

47. ​Alfred intends to follow a directive style of leadership among his team members. In the context of the path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness, which of the following situations would have made Alfred stick to a directive leadership style?

  a. ​The exact sales revenue that his team should bring in is unclear, however the team is given orders to improve its performance.
  b. ​A few of the group members have gone through an emotionally disturbing phase and they need emotional support from the leader.
  c. Each group member has a thorough knowledge of their individual contributions to the team, making the task of the leader easier.
  d. ​The team has been performing exceptionally well, and therefore further focus will be on building relationships with members of the team.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   The leader who is directive emphasizes formal activities such as planning, organizing, and controlling.When the task is unclear, the directive style improves morale.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

48. Annette’s team has been able to meet the production target of 20,000 units per year. In the next financial year, Annette sets a target of 25,000 units for the team. Accordingly, the individual targets are set to increase. In the context of the path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness, Annette follows the _____ of leadership. ​

  a. ​directive and controlling style
  b. ​supportive style
  c. ​participative style
  d. ​achievement oriented style

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   A leader who is achievement oriented sets challenging goals, pushes for work improvement, and sets high expectations for team members, who are also expected to assume responsibility.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

49. In the context of Situational Leadership​ II, who among the following is identified as an enthusiastic beginner?

  a. ​Adrian, a highly skilled employee who exceeds his targets
  b. ​Milan, who is capable of achieving her targets but is not dependable
  c. ​Tina, who needs help with her technical skills but is a motivated learner
  d. ​Alfina, a high performing employee, who occasionally takes long vacations

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   An enthusiastic beginner is one who has low competence, but high commitment. See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

50. Who among the following is a coaching leader?​

  a. ​Milan, who neither gives clear task directions to her teammates, nor encourages and listens to them
  b. ​Ryan, who gives clear task directions to his teammates and encourages and listens to them
  c. ​Aftab, who gives clear directions to his teammates , but does not encourage or listen to his teammates
  d. ​Linda, who does not give clear directions to her teammates, but encourages and listens to them

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   In the context of Situational Leadership II,A coaching leader is one with a high directive and a supportive behavior. See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

51. ​Who among the following is a delegating leader?

  a. ​Ryan, who neither sets clear goals for his teammates, nor encourages them
  b. ​Brian, who sets clear goals for his teammates and encourages them
  c. ​Rahul, who sets clear goals for his teammates, but does not encourage them
  d. ​Milan, who encourages her teammates, but does not set clear goals for them

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   In the context of Situational Leadership® II, a delegating leader is one who has a low directive behavior, and a low supportive behavior. See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

52. Kevin announces that starting next financial year, 25% of his team members’ salaries will depend on their performance. His team members had no say in this process. In the context of the Normative Decision Model, Kevin demonstrates _____.

  a. ​facilitating
  b. ​deciding
  c. delegating
  d. ​consulting

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   In the context of the normative decision model, deciding is a decision making style in which the leader either announces the decision or sells it to the group, after making the decision by himself. See “The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

53. ​Craig, a sales manager, has been asked to explain the under performance of his team in the previous financial year. Instead of understanding and working on resolving the team’s issues, Craig comes up with a number of defensive statements and deny wrong doing from his team’s part. This is known as _____ the problem.

  a. ​stonewalling
  b. ​debasing
  c. ​ingratiating
  d. ​reinforcing

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   One of the worst ways to lead a group through a crisis is to strongly defend against one’s critics or deny wrongdoing. The same denial approach is referred to as maintaining a bunker mentality or stonewalling the problem.See “Leadership During a Crisis.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership During a Crisis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

54. ​Which of the following serves as an example for evidence based leadership?

  a. ​The management decides to refer to management practices in the past to find out a solution to the isuue in hand.
  b. ​The management decides to collect feedback from the employees about the existing compensation policy.
  c. ​The management decides to carry out job appraisal of individual employees.
  d. ​The management decides to  keep a check on politics in the firm.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Evidence-based leadership or management is an approach whereby managers translate principles based on best evidence into organizational practices.See “Evidence-Based Leadership for the Contingency and Situational Approach.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Evidence-Based Leadership for the Contingency and Situational Approach
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

55. ​Which of the following is true of leadership during a crisis?

  a. ​It is important to prevent potential crisis through disaster planning.
  b. ​It is important to think tactically and have short term goals, to avoid any crisis.
  c. ​It is important that the work is flexible and non-routinistic, to prevent crisis.
  d. ​It is important to be a transactional, and not a transformational leader, to minimize crisis.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   The ideal form of crisis leadership is to prevent a crisis through disaster planning.See “Leadership During a Crisis.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership During a Crisis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

56. A consultative or collaborative decision-making style is likely to bring about the best results when​:

  a. ​the problem is clearly defined.
  b. ​the leader needs information from the teammembers to solve a problem in hand.
  c. ​team members’ acceptance of the decision is trivial.
  d. ​there is urgency in decision making.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   A consultative or collaborative decision-making style is likely to bring about the best results when the leader requires information from others to solve the problem.See “The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

57. ​Which of the following is true of a delegating decision making style?

  a. ​The leader works behind the screen.
  b. ​The leader makes decisions for the group.
  c. ​The leader directly intervenes in group deliberations.
  d. ​The leader sells his decisions.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   In a delegating leadership style, the leader works behind the scene by encouraging the group members.The leader also permits the group to make decisions within the prescribed limits.See ” The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

Essay

 

58. Rohan is asked by his supervisors to study the contingency approach to leadership and the path goal model to implement the essential tactics drawn from both these theories in his team. Provide a database that will help Rohan make a decision in this regard.

ANSWER:   The essence of a contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational
forces, including group member characteristics. Both the internal and the​ external environment have a significant impact on leader effectiveness. For example, the quality of the workforce and the competitiveness of the environment can influence which behaviors the leader emphasizes. A manager who supervises competent employees might be able to practice consensus leadership readily. And a manager who faces a competitive environment might find it easier to align people to pursue a new vision.

The path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness, as developed by Robert House, specifies what a leader must do to achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation. In general, a leader attempts to clarify the path to a goal for a group member so that the group member receives personal payoffs. At the same time, this group member’s job satisfaction and performance increase.Similar to the expectancy theory of motivation on which it is based, path-goal theory is multifaceted and has several versions.The major proposition of path-goal theory is
that the manager should choose a leadership style that takes into account the characteristics of the group members and the demands of the task. Furthermore, initiating structure will be effective in situations with a low degree of subordinate task structure, but ineffective in highly structured task situations. The rationale is that in the first situation, subordinates welcome initiating structure because it helps to provide structure to their somewhat ambiguous tasks.

POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1,5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior, The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectivenes, The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analysis
NOTES:   Digital story: Lead

 

59. Jonathan has to make use of the path-goal theory to adopt a specific style of leadership in his team. He consults his superior to get a clear idea on this. In this case, give a picture of what Jonathan’s superior would suggest .​

ANSWER:   The path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness, as developed by Robert House, specifies what a leader must do to achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation.​The major proposition of path-goal theory is that the manager should choose a leadership style that takes into account the characteristics of the group members and the demands of the task. Furthermore, initiating structure will be effective in situations with a low degree of subordinate task structure, but ineffective in highly structured task situations.

To use path-goal theory, the leader must first assess the relevant variables in the environment. Then he or she selects the one of the four styles listed next that fits those contingency factors best:
1. Directive style. The leader who is directive (similar to task motivated) emphasizes formal activities such as planning, organizing, and controlling. When the task is unclear, the directive style improves morale.
2. Supportive style. The leader who is supportive (similar to relationship motivated) displays concern for group members’ well-being and creates an emotionally supportive climate. The supportive leader enhances morale when group members work on dissatisfying, stressful, or frustrating tasks. Group members who are unsure of themselves prefer the supportive leadership style.
3. Participative style. The leader who is participative consults with group members to gather their suggestions, and then considers these suggestions seriously when making a decision. The participative leader is best suited for improving the morale of well-motivated employees who perform nonrepetitive tasks.
4. Achievement-oriented style. The leader who is achievement oriented sets challenging goals, pushes for work improvement, and sets high
expectations for team members, who are also expected to assume responsibility. This leadership style works well with achievemen t oriented team members and with those working on ambiguous and nonrepetitive tasks.

POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analysis
NOTES:   Digital story: Lead

 

60. Vroom, the sales manager of a firm, has tried implementing the path-goal theory among his teammates. However, on further analysis, he tries to study the details of the normative decision model , and apply the key concepts of the model in his team. What would be the key decision making styles from which Vroom can choose a strategy for his team?

ANSWER:   The normative decision model views leadership as a decision-making process in which the leader examines certain factors within the situation to determine which decision-making style will be the most effective.​The normative model (formerly known as the leader–participation model)
identifies five decision-making styles, each reflecting a different degree of participation by group members:
1. Decide: The leader makes the decision alone and either announces or sells it to the group. The leader might use expertise in collecting information from the group or from others who appear to have information relevant to the problem.
2. Consult (Individually):The leader presents the problem to the group members individually, gathers their suggestions, and then makes the
decision.
3. Consult (Group):The leader presents the problem to group members in a meeting, gathers their suggestions, and then makes the decision.
4. Facilitate:The leader presents the problem and then acts as a facilitator, defining the problem to be solved and the boundaries in which the
decision must be made. The leader wants concurrence and avoids having his or her ideas receive more weight based on position power.
5. Delegate:The leader permits the group to make the decision within prescribed limits. Although the leader does not directly intervene in the
group’s deliberations unless explicitly asked, he or she works behind the scenes, providing resources and encouragement.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analysis
NOTES:   Digital story: Lead

 

 

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