Language Disorders in Children 2nd Edition by Joan N. Kaderavek – Test Bank

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CHAPTER GUIDE

Chapter 5: Children with Specific Language Impairment

 

Summary

Specific language impairment (SLI) is a diagnosis based on exclusionary criteria. A child with SLI has significant language impairment without associated hearing loss, cognitive deficit, neurological, or motor impairments. About 15% of children who are clinically considered to be SLI do not meet all of these exclusionary characteristics. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition–Text Revision (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000) lists three major subtypes of SLI: a major delay in receptive language, a major delay in expressive language, or a delay in both receptive and expressive language. Before age 4, children who are language delayed are sometimes called late talkers (rather than SLI) because many children who are language delayed as toddlers catch up with their peers in late preschool. It is very important, however, to identify language delay at an early age. The prevalence of SLI is 7%.

Current research suggests a genetic cause of SLI. Two theories, the extended optional infinitive and the surface theory, describe the inherited deficits underlying SLI. A primary focus of intervention is the development of morphosyntax, which is a primary area of difficulty in children with SLI. Young children with SLI have difficulty with verb forms (including auxiliary verbs), possessives, and pronouns, in addition to difficulty learning complex syntax and vocabulary. Pragmatic problems often occur because of problems with interactive communication. Children with SLI more frequently have phonological impairments compared to their peers. Research has documented processing difficulties and the presence of neurological soft signs. Fifty-nine percent of children diagnosed with SLI also are diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Parent-child interactions sometimes require intervention

to facilitate language learning for children who have SLI. During the school years, children with SLI often have difficulty with reading and writing development and peer interactions.

Peer-mediated treatment is a form of intervention that focuses on children’s social skills. Three basic paradigms for social skill building are social intervention with peers, peer confederate training, and sociodramatic script training. Interventionists can facilitate children’s ability to (a) enter into play with other children, (b) play cooperatively, and (c) interact socially with school-age peers.

A critical component of the assessment process is language sample analysis (LSA); additionally assessors complete norm-referenced and criterion-referenced assessments on children with SLI. Two criterion-referenced assessments are parent-child interaction observations and curriculum-based language assessments. Both are forms of naturalistic assessment providing multiple opportunities for an individual to perform skills across domains (i.e., social, cognitive, motor, communication).

Three intervention approaches for children who are SLI include enhanced milieu training (EMT), conversational recast training (CRT), and sentence combining. EMT includes the teaching strategies of mand-model, time-delay, and incidental teaching along with adult modeling. CRT uses a strategy called sentence recasting. Sentence combining is an intervention appropriate for school-aged students who need to improve sentence complexity.

 

 

 

Chapter Overview Questions

 

  1. What criteria are used to diagnose a child with specific language impairment (SLI)? How does SLI differ from the term late talker?
  2. What is the primary language deficit of children with SLI? Give examples.
  3. What are some intervention approaches used as part of social communication intervention?
  4. How does language theory guide assessment? Explain two assessment protocols and describe their theoretical framework.
  5. Describe three different intervention approaches appropriate for children with SLI. How do the interventions differ in theoretical stance and approach?

 

Chapter Key Terms

 

Specific language impairment (SLI) Page 175
Late talker Page 176
Extended optional infinitive theory Page 177
Surface theory Page 177
Directive language Page 177
Non word repetition tasks Page 182
Neurological soft signs Page 182
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Page 182
Phonological awareness deficits Page 183
Reading decoding Page 183
Social intervention with peers Page 184
Peer confederate training Page 184
Sociodramatic script training Page 184
Social scripts Page 184
Naturalistic assessment Page 188
Parent-child interaction assessments Page 188
Curriculum-based language assessment Page 192
Enhanced milieu teaching (EMT) Page 194
Mand-model procedure Page 196
Time delay Page 196
Incidental teaching Page 196
Conversational Recast Training (CRT) Page 200
Sentence combining Page 204

 

 

Chapter PowerPoint Presentation Outline

 

Please note: Additional suggestions and information from the text are included in the notes section of most slides.

 

  1. Introduction
    1. Present slide 5.1 and introduce the new chapter.
    2. Present slide 5.2 and lead students in a discussion in the difference in utterance at different ages.
    3. Present slide 5.3 and review the overview questions.
  2. Specific Language Impairment (SLI)
    1. Present slide 5.4 and review how a child is determined to have a SLI.
    2. Present slide 5.5 and explain the major characteristics of SLI.
    3. Present slide 5.6 and share additional information about SLI.
    4. Present slide 5.7 and explain the role genetics and the environment in SLI.
    5. Present slide 5.8 and review the major deficits of children with SLI.
    6. Present slide 5.9 and review other problems associated with SLI.
  3. Social Communication
    1. Present slide 5.10 and review the information on the social aspect of SLI.
    2. Present slide 5.11 and introduce peer mediated intervention
  4. Assessment For Children With SLI
    1. Present slide 5.12 and review the appropriate assessments
    2. Present slide 5.13 and explain the use of parent-child interaction assessment.
    3. Present slide 5.14 and explain the use of curriculum-based language assessment.
  5. Intervention Approaches For SLI
    1. Present slide 5.15 and introduce Enhanced Milieu Training (EMT).
    2. Present slide 5.16 and introduce Conversational Recast Training (CRT).
    3. Present slide 5.17 and introduce Sentence Combining.
  6. Chapter 5 Case Study
    1. Present slide 5.18 and introduce the case study of Zachary.
    2. Present slide 5.19 and have student discuss the questions listed.

 

 

 

Chapter Discussion Questions and Activities

 

  1. Divide the class into small groups. Have each group role-play a scenario in which they present the results of an assessment to a parent. The child is age 4 and is talking in 2- and 3-word combinations; he demonstrates a number of syntax and morphological errors (e.g., “Me do it!”). His receptive language is higher than his expressive language, but receptive language is slightly delayed. He has a number of phonological errors, but is about 60% intelligible. He is within normal limits in IQ and has normal hearing. The parent wants to know what is causing his child’s impairment. Role-play an answer. Make sure to explain in a way that is meaningful to a parent without background knowledge of language development.

 

  1. Have the groups role-play a social group and have one student use poor social communication

skills to enter the group interaction. Discuss problems and write 1–2 goals that could be implemented to improve the student’s peer interaction.

 

  1. Show the class a videotape of a child with SLI. Use the Utterance-level worksheet in Chapter 2 (Table 2.2) to analyze the child’s language. Discuss the ways that the child is pragmatically successful or unsuccessful. Discuss the errors demonstrated in morphosyntax. How do these two language domains operate independently in the communication of young children? Write an intervention goal for the child as a result of the language sample analysis.

 

  1. Give students a case example with a conversational transcript or a videotape of an older student with SLI. Refer back to the information in Chapter 2 on topic control, conversational repair, informativeness, and conjunctive cohesion. Write an intervention goal based on the decision-making process.

 

  1. Give students a case example with a conversational transcript or a videotape of a young child at Brown’s stage I. Use the enhanced milieu decision tree to determine a possible EMT strategy. Write intervention goals based on the decision-making process.

 

  1. Have students write 2–3 additional goals consistent with the conversational recast approaches and the sentence combining approach. Determine a language target appropriate for either younger children, (e.g., present progressive verbs, third person regular verbs, pronoun use, regular past tense) or older students (e.g., subordinate conjunctions, embedded clauses). Also use objects (dolls, trucks, balls, bubbles, bean bags for younger children) or pictures (for older school-age students). Role-play an adult student interaction representing the two approaches with the items provided.

 

 

TEST BANK

Chapter 5: Children with Specific Language Impairment

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is a diagnosis based on exclusionary criteria. This means that
    1. Criteria are used to exclude other problems.
    2. All possible causes are eliminated.
    3. Other reasons for the language delay have been ruled out.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above.
  2. A child with SLI has a significant language impairment without associated
    1. Hearing loss.
    2. Cognitive deficit.
    3. Neurological, or motor impairments.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above.
  3. Children under age 4 who are language delayed or late talkers
    1. Usually develop SLI.
    2. Often catch up with their peers.
    3. Need intensive intervention.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above.
  4. A primary focus of intervention for children with SLI is
    1. The development of morphosyntax skills.
    2. Advanced discourse skills.
    3. Understanding sarcasm.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above.
  5. Children with SLI often have
    1. Problems with interactive communication.
    2. Phonological impairments.
    3. Difficulty with reading and writing
    4. Problems with peer interactions.
    5. All of the above.
  6. Interventions for children with SLI sometimes require
    1. Training for parents on child interactions that promote language development.
    2. Strategies that enhance social skills.
    3. Cooperation between the classroom teacher and the SLP.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above.
  7. The Peer Entry behavior of a child with SLI may include
    1. A verbal request to play.
    2. Hovering near the group.
    3. Asking the adult to intervene.
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above.
  8. A social script intervention
    1. Provides an opportunity for the SLP to write.
    2. Encourages creative play.
    3. Is a repeated social interaction likely to occur in daily life.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above.
  9. The assessment process for children with SLI includes the following:
    1. A language sample analysis (LSA).
    2. Parent-child interaction observations.
    3. Curriculum-based language assessments.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above.
  10. Enhanced milieu training (EMT), a naturalistic approach to intervention, is appropriate for children who
    1. Are school age.
    2. Have a vocabulary of at least 10 words.
    3. Have not been successful with other approaches.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above.
  11. An example of EMT intervention is
    1. Restating a child’s utterance in a more complex form while maintaining the child’s meaning.
    2. Parents learn to follow their child’s lead, wait for a child’s conversational turn and maintain balanced interactions.
    3. Giving a child several simple sentences and having the child combine them into one complex sentence.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above.
  12. Conversational recast training (CRT)
    1. Is appropriate for children age 2 through early elementary grades.
    2. Facilitates grammatical development.
    3. Uses sentence recasts.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above
  13. An example of CRT intervention is
    1. Restating a child’s utterance in a more complex form while maintaining the child’s meaning
    2. Parents learn to follow their child’s lead, wait for a child’s conversational turn and maintain balanced interactions.
    3. Giving a child several simple sentences and having the child combine them into one complex sentence.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above.
  14. Sentence combining is
    1. Appropriate for school age children.
    2. Directed by the teacher or SLP.
    3. Improves sentence complexity.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above.
  15. An example of Sentence Combining intervention is
    1. Restating a child’s utterance in a more complex form while maintaining the child’s meaning
    2. Parents learn to follow their child’s lead, wait for a child’s conversational turn and maintain balanced interactions.
    3. Giving a child several simple sentences and having the child combine them into one complex sentence.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above.

 

Matching Questions

 

1. Specific language impairment (SLI) A.  Students with typical language

are trained to use social strategies to encourage communication from students

with communication disorders.

2. Late talker B. Considers the academic content and social interaction demands of the curriculum, assesses the language skills the student brings to the curriculum, determines the knowledge and language skills the student needs to succeed academically, and identifies instructional modifications to enhance the student’s academic success.

 

3. Peer confederate training C. The adult manipulates the environment so that the child is more likely to talk.

 

4. Sociodramatic script training D. The adult uses a verbal prompt in the form of a question.

 

5. Parent-child interaction assessments E. The adult restates the child’s utterance while maintaining the child’s meaning.

 

6. Curriculum-based language assessment F. Uses simple questions and requests for child imitation along with adult language modeling techniques.

 

7. Enhanced milieu teaching (EMT) G. A language deficit without other accompanying factors.

 

8. Mand-model procedure

 

 

9. Time delay

H. The adult gives the student two or more simple sentences and requires the student to combine the simple sentences into a longer, more complex sentence.

I. Observing the parent and child reading a book or playing with toys together.

 

10. Incidental teaching J. Children whose language may or may not catch up with their peers.

 

11. Conversational Recast Training (CRT) K. The adult uses role-playing to teach students daily discourse routines.

 

12. Sentence combining L. The adult uses a non-verbal prompt and waits for the child to respond.

 

 

True False Questions

 

  1. A child with SLI has significant language impairment without associated hearing loss, cognitive deficit, neurological, or motor impairments.
  2. Children who are language delayed are sometimes called late talkers (rather than SLI) because these children catch up with their peers in late preschool there is not need to be concerned.
  3. The prevalence of children diagnosed with SLI is 7%.
  4. The primary area of difficulty in children with SLI is morphosyntax.
  5. Fifty-nine percent of children diagnosed with SLI also are diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
  6. Children with SLI need intervention that focuses on enhancing their social skills.
  7. The language sample analysis (LSA) has no bearing on the assessment of SLI.
  8. The most effective assessments provide multiple opportunities for an individual to perform skills across domains.
  9. Enhanced milieu training (EMT) includes the teaching strategies of mand-model, time-delay, and incidental teaching along with adult modeling.
  10. CRT uses a strategy called sentence combining an intervention appropriate for school-aged students who need to improve sentence complexity.

 

Short Answer Questions 

 

  1. What criteria are used to diagnose a child with specific language impairment (SLI)?
  2. What is the primary language deficit of children with SLI? Give examples.
  3. Describe three intervention approaches used as part of social communication intervention.

 

Essay Question

How does language theory guide assessment? Explain two assessment protocols and describe their theoretical framework.

 

Chapter 5 Answer Key

 

Multiple Choice Matching True False
1. D 1. G 1. T
2. D 2. J 2. F
3. B 3. A 3. T
4. A 4. K 4. T
5. E 5. I 5. T
6. D 6. B 6. T
7. B 7. F 7. F
8. C 8. D 8. T
9. D 9. L 9. T
10. B 10. C 10. F
11. B 11. E    
12. D 12. H    
13. A        
14. D        
15. C        

 

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