Invitation to The Life Span 3rd Edition By Berger – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

1. Discuss how growth rate affects the eating habits of young children, and name at least three of the most common nutritional problems of young children.

 

 

2. Discuss the role of the corpus callosum in children’s brain development. What is it, what does it do, and what happens if it does not develop correctly?

 

 

3. Explain the functions of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system in early childhood. What changes occur in a child’s behavior as a result of the maturing limbic system and prefrontal cortex?

 

 

4. Explain the important function of myelination in the nervous system.

 

 

5. Explain the concept of animism. Give two examples of how children demonstrate this concept.

 

 

6. Explain at least three main characteristics of preoperational intelligence.

 

 

7. Explain the difference between Piaget’s concept of egocentrism and the concept of egocentrism in everyday usage. Give an example of each of the two different usages.

 

 

8. What is conservation? Describe an example of a conservation task, noting the initial presentation of the material, the transformation of the material, and the questions that children are asked. What is a preoperational child’s response?

 

 

9. Francesca is frustrated trying to learn to tie her shoelaces. According to Vygotsky, should the parents get involved, or should they let her try to master this task on her own? If they decide to get involved, what should her parents do?

 

 

10. Explain theory of mind, and indicate at what age it generally begins to develop.

 

 

11. Explain and discuss the process of fast-mapping and the related idea of logical extension. Give an example of each concept.

 

 

12. Discuss the concept of language shift in bilingualism. What is it, and how do young children exhibit it?

 

 

13. Discuss the major differences between child-centered and teacher-directed early-childhood education programs. What does each type of program emphasize in its work with young children?

 

 

14. Intensive early-childhood programs have been implemented in the United States. Give at least four examples of ways in which children benefit from early intervention (in the short term or the long term).

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. Children grow more slowly between the ages of 2 and 6 than they did in the first two years of life. As a result, their appetite decreases. There are also some common nutritional problems that may affect young children. For example, (1) many young children are compulsive about daily routine, which may result in a limited diet; (2) children may have food allergies, even to healthy foods; and (3) children may have too much sugar and not enough fiber in their diet, resulting in obesity and tooth decay.

 

  Good (5 pts) Fair (3 pts) Weak (1-0 pts)
Discuss growth rate’s effect on eating habits Discusses why appetite decreases States that appetite decreases without explaining why Does not state that appetite decreases
Name the most common nutritional problems Names at least three of the nutritional problems Names two nutritional problems Names one or no nutritional problems
2. The corpus callosum is a band of nerve fibers that connects the two hemispheres of the brain. It is essential to the communication between the two sides of the brain, which results in children being able to coordinate both sides of their bodies. If the corpus callosum does not develop correctly, a serious disorder such as autism spectrum disorder could result.

 

  Good (5 pts) Fair (3 pts) Weak (1-0 pts)
Explain what the corpus callosum is and what it does Explains what the corpus callosum is and what it does Explains what the corpus callosum is or what it does Does not explain what the corpus callosum is or what it does
Explain what happens if it develops incorrectly Knows that this could be a potential cause of autism Knows that a serious disorder can result without naming it Does not state that serious disorder can result
3. The prefrontal cortex is the executive of the brain, essential to planning, reasoning, and anticipating. The limbic system controls the expression and regulation of emotions and processes memory. As the prefrontal cortex matures, the child’s ability to plan increases and impulsiveness decreases. As the limbic system matures, memory improves while nightmares and irrational fears decrease.

 

  Good (5 pts) Fair (3 pts) Weak (1-0 pts)
Explain the functions of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system Explains the functions of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system Explains the function of the prefrontal cortex or limbic system Does not explain the function of the prefrontal cortex or limbic system
Describe the changes that occur in a child’s behavior as these systems mature Describes the changes that occur in a child’s behavior as these systems mature Describes the changes that occur in a child’s behavior as either system matures Does not describe the changes that occur in a child’s behavior as either system matures
4. Myelin is a fatty coating on axons. Myelination of the axons increases the speed of signals between neurons. It allows young children to think and react much more quickly than toddlers can. It is invaluable in processing several thoughts in succession.

 

  Good (5 pts) Fair (3 pts) Weak (1-0 pts)
Explain the important function of myelination in the nervous system Explains at least four of the ways in which myelination affects the nervous system Explains three of the ways in which myelination affects the nervous system Explains two or less ways in which myelination affects the nervous system
5. Animism is a child’s belief that inanimate objects are alive and that nonhuman objects or animals have the same human characteristics as the child. For example, a child may believe that a doll has emotions, that her pet cat thinks like she does, or that the chair on which she stubbed her toe did it to her on purpose.

 

  Good (5 pts) Fair (3 pts) Weak (1-0 pts)
Explain concept of animism Explains the concept of animism Is vague about the concept of animism Does not explain the concept of animism
Give examples of animism Gives two examples of animism Gives one example of animism Does not give an example of animism
6. Preoperational children lack an understanding of logical operations. They are able to: (1) think in symbols, but they hold beliefs that are incorrect, such as animism. When assessing a situation, they tend to (2) centrate, or focus, on a single aspect (e.g., the height of the water in a glass, while ignoring the width of the glass). When considering information, they (3) display egocentrism (i.e., can only consider through their own perspective, literally). They (4) focus on the appearance of things and (5) consider the world to be static. Once an object has been manipulated (e.g., the water has been poured from a short, fat glass into a tall, skinny one), children (6) demonstrate irreversibility; that is, they can’t imagine simply returning the object to its original state.

 

  Good (5 pts) Fair (3 pts) Weak (1-0 pts)
Explain main characteristics of preoperational thinking Explains three or more main characteristics of preoperational thinking Explains two main characteristics of preoperational thinking Explains one or no main characteristics of preoperational thinking
7. Egocentrism in Piagetian terminology means that young children assume that everyone else experiences and perceives the world exactly as they do. For example, a child may buy a gift for his mother that he actually wants; he believes that she will be delighted with it because he would be. In everyday usage, the word egocentrism is synonymous with being selfish or concerned only with oneself. For example, an egocentric adult will assume that because he likes to have music blaring from his speakers, his neighbors are enjoying his loud music, too.

 

  Good (5 pts) Fair (3 pts) Weak (1-0 pts)
Explain difference between child’s egocentrism and common usage Explains the difference between child’s egocentrism and common usage Explains either child’s egocentrism or common usage Does not explain either type of egocentrism
Give an example of each Gives an example of each Gives an example of either type Does not give an example of either type
8. Conservation is the understanding that the amount of something remains the same despite changes in its appearance. For example, one test of conservation begins with two identical glasses containing the same amount of a liquid. The liquid from one glass is then poured into a taller, narrower glass. The child is then asked whether one glass contains more liquid or if both glasses contain the same amount of liquid. Children who are in the preoperational stage of cognitive development will believe that the taller glass contains more liquid.

 

 

  Good (5 pts) Fair (3 pts) Weak (1-0 pts)
Define conservation Defines conservation Is vague about what conservation is Does not define conservation
Describe a conservation task and questions asked Describes a conservation task and the questions asked Describes a conservation task or the questions asked Does not describe a conservation task or the questions asked
Tell preoperational child’s response Tells a preoperational child’s response to the questions Tells a preoperational child’s response to the questions Does not tell a preoperational child’s response to the questions or gives the wrong response
9. Vygotsky would say that the parents definitely should get involved. The parents can serve as mentors and offer scaffolding by providing direct instruction, encouraging the child to try to do it, interacting with Francesca, gradually letting her do it more on her own, using directive comments, and helping her to see her progress. The parents should see what Francesca is currently capable of and then offer the next step (the zone of proximal development) to achieve the task. For example, once she can make the first tie in the shoelaces, they can show her how to make the first bow. Once she can do that, they can show her how to go around that bow with the other shoestring (or make a second bow with the other shoestring and cross it if teaching the “bunny ears” method). Helping her to master each step in succession is called scaffolding.

 

  Good (5 pts) Fair (3 pts) Weak (1-0 pts)
State whether Vygotsky would want parents to be involved States that Vygotsky would want parents to be involved Is vague about whether Vygotsky would want parents to be involved Does not state that Vygotsky would want parents to be involved
Tell what parents should do Mentions the zone of proximal development and guided participation Mentions the zone of proximal development or guided participation Does not mention the zone of proximal development or guided participation
10. Theory of mind is a person’s theory of what other people might be thinking. To have a theory of mind, children must realize that other people are not necessarily thinking the same thoughts that they are. Theory of mind also includes the realization that people may hold false beliefs. Having a theory of mind is seldom possible before the age of 4.

 

  Good (5 pts) Fair (3 pts) Weak (1-0 pts)
Explain theory of mind and age it develops Explains theory of mind and the age it develops Explains theory of mind or the age it develops Does not explain theory of mind or the age it develops
11. Both fast-mapping and logical extension refer to the surge in a child’s learning of perceptual interrelationships among words. Fast-mapping refers to the phenomenon by which young children develop an interconnected set of categories for words, a kind of mental map, which makes speedy vocabulary acquisition possible. Fast-mapping speeds the development of learning new words because children immediately assign a new word to one of the categories in their mental language grid. Thus, the first time a child sees a pet ferret, he may assign it the status of a type of dog or a kind of cat because he does not have a weasel concept. The child’s understanding of the new word is not always precise. Children refine their understanding through use and experience.

 

Logical extension refers to a child applying a newly learned word to another related object. A young girl who was just read a story about a Dalmatian dog may then refer to a black-and-white cow as a Dalmatian cow.

 

  Good (5 pts) Fair (3 pts) Weak (1-0 pts)
Explain fast-mapping and logical extension Explains fast-mapping and logical extension Explains fast-mapping or logical extension Does not explain fast-mapping or logical extension
Give an example of each concept Gives an example of each concept Gives an example of either concept Does not give an example of either concept
12. Language shift refers to the tendency of children to become more fluent in their new language than in the language spoken at home. This shift often occurs since young children are static thinkers. They focus on the immediate status of their language (not on future usefulness or past glory), on appearance more than substance.

 

  Good (5 pts) Fair (3 pts) Weak (1-0 pts)
Define language shift Defines language shift Vaguely defines language shift Does not define language shift
Explain how children exhibit it Explains how children exhibit it Explains how children exhibit it without making clear that children show preference for the second language Does not explain how children exhibit it
13. Child-centered programs are based on Piaget’s theory that children will discover new ideas on their own and Vygotsky’s theory that children will learn best with guidance from other children and adults. These programs include a variety of opportunities for children to find their own interests and skills, including artistic, cognitive, and life-skills challenges. Montessori schools and Reggio schools are good examples of child-centered programs.

 

Teacher-directed programs are based on behaviorist theories that emphasize step-by-step learning and repetition, with reinforcement for accomplishment, and assert that children who learn basic academic skills early will be more successful in school over the long run. Teacher-directed programs tend to be behavioral in their approach, structured on a basis of reward and punishment, and focused on school readiness. These programs, which are often taught by one adult to the entire group, include basic academic activities such as writing letters, sounding out words, and counting. Good behavior and adherence to routine are rewarded. Most preschool teachers, whether they are aware of it or not, run their classrooms in a teacher-centered way.

 

  Good (5 pts) Fair (3 pts) Weak (1-0 pts)
Discuss the major differences between child-centered and teacher-directed education Discusses the major differences between child-centered and teacher-directed education and mentions Piaget, Vygotsky, Reggio, and Montessori Discusses differences between child-centered and teacher-directed education without mentioning Piaget, Vygotsky, Reggio, and Montessori Does not adequately discuss the major differences between child-centered and teacher-directed education
Tell what child-centered education emphasizes and what teacher-directed education emphasizes Tells what child-centered education emphasizes and what teacher-directed education emphasizes Tells what child-centered education emphasizes or what teacher-directed education emphasizes Does not tell what child-centered education emphasizes or what teacher-directed education emphasizes
14. The benefits are most apparent for children with the lowest family incomes, living in rural areas, and with disabilities. Early education’s long-term benefits become most apparent when the children are in the third grade or older. Children from these programs scored higher on math and reading achievement tests at age 10 than did other children from the same backgrounds, schools, and neighborhoods. They are also less likely to be placed in special classes for slow or disruptive children. In adolescence, the children who had intensive preschool education had higher career aspirations, more pride, and were less likely to have been abused. As young adults, they were more likely to attend college and less likely to go to jail. As middle-aged adults, they were more often employed, paying taxes, healthy, and not needing government subsidies. The greatest lifetime return came from boys from high-poverty neighborhoods in the Chicago preschool program, with a social benefit over the boys’ lifetime more than 12 times the cost.

 

  Good (5 pts) Fair (3 pts) Weak (1-0 pts)
Give four examples of specific age groups benefiting Gives four examples of specific age groups benefiting Gives three examples of a specific age group benefiting Gives two or fewer examples of specific age groups benefiting

 

 

 

1. Between the ages of 2 and 6, appetite _____.

 

 

2. Six-year-old Shelby eats green and orange vegetables regularly. She can be expected to gain _____ but not fat.

 

 

3. Samantha allows her 3-year-old to drink sweetened beverages daily. The child’s favorite drinks are soda and apple juice. Samantha should be aware that this habit could result in _____.

 

 

4. By the age of 2, a human’s brain weighs _____ percent of what it will weigh in adulthood.

 

 

5. The executive function area of the brain where planning, prioritizing, and reasoning occur is called the _____.

 

 

6. The band of nerve fibers known as the _____ connects the two halves of the brain.

 

 

7. The part of the brain that allows children to coordinate functions involving both halves of the body is the _____.

 

 

8. The term used to describe brain specialization whereby one side of the body or brain is dominant for certain functions is _____.

 

 

9. The left side of the brain controls the _____ side of the body.

 

 

10. In most adults, the brain is organized in such a way that the areas of language development are located in the _____ hemisphere of the brain.

 

 

11. Jacob is a preschooler. His teacher has noticed that his reaction time regarding sounds and sights has decreased over the last year. This results from myelination in the _______ and _____ areas.

 

 

12. Myelination results in more rapid _____ of neural impulses.

 

 

13. A child can’t find his blankie at bedtime; he begins to cry uncontrollably and is still crying until he falls asleep half an hour later. His continued crying is an example of _____.

 

 

14. Young Diana has been upset lately by frightening nightmares. The part of her brain that registers her fear is the _____.

 

 

15. The part of the brain that is a central processor of memory, especially for locations, is the _____.

 

 

16. The part of the limbic system that responds to signals from the amygdala and the hippocampus by producing cortisol is the _____.

 

 

17. The belief that inanimate things (furniture, moon, clouds) are alive is called _____.

 

 

18. The term for preschoolers’ tendency to view the world and others exclusively from their own personal perspective is _____.

 

 

19. _____ is a particular type of centration in which a child may insist that Daddy is his father, not his cousin’s uncle.

 

 

20. The four obstacles to logical thinking during the preoperational period include centration, focus on appearance, irreversibility, and _____.

 

 

21. Three-year-old Joss does not want to eat the sandwich his mother made because it has mustard on it. His mother wipes off the mustard, but Joss still will not eat it. This characteristic of preoperational thought, in which the child feels that a thing cannot be undone or restored, is known as _____.

 

 

22. Young children make mistakes in conservation problems because they focus strictly on _____.

 

 

23. Jana always chooses the taller of two glasses when her older brother pours each of them a glass of juice. Even though each glass holds the same amount of juice, she believes that her glass has more. Jana is demonstrating that she does not yet understand the concept of _____.

 

 

24. A child watches a ball of modeling clay being rolled into a long, sausage-like shape. If the child perceives that the amount of modeling clay remains the same after it is rolled, that child understands the concept of _____.

 

 

25. The developmentalist who viewed children’s cognitive development as embedded in a social context was _____.

 

 

26. The set of skills children can perform with assistance but not independently is considered to be within their _____.

 

 

27. A temporary, sensitive support structure set up to help children work in the zone of proximal development is called _____.

 

 

28. The process by which one person learns from another, more experienced mentor as they share social experiences and explorations is known as _____.

 

 

29. When 2- to 6-year-old children imitate an adult’s action that is irrelevant, perhaps even inefficient, it is called _____.

 

 

30. Children’s desire to develop theories to explain what they see and hear is called _____.

 

 

31. Beginning around age 4, children go through a change in thinking that allows them to develop a set of ideas about other people’s thinking. This new perspective indicates that the children have developed a _____.

 

 

32. Most children understand around 500 words by age 2 and 10,000 words by the age of 6. This demonstrates the _____.

 

 

33. Learning vocabulary by connecting a new word to words and categories that are already understood is called _____.

 

 

34. The rapid and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by placing them in mental categories based on their perceived meaning is called _____.

 

 

35. When a child learns a word and then uses it to describe other objects in the same category (such as calling a black-and-white cow a “Dalmatian cow” after learning about Dalmatian dogs), the child is using _____.

 

 

36. The child who says, “I seed the dog,” or “My tooths hurt,” is demonstrating a language error called _____.

 

 

37. Four-year-old Yvonne is putting on her shoes and says, “I need to put my shoes on my foots.” She is exhibiting _____.

 

 

38. Jane and her 4-year-old son, Michael, are eating at a friend’s house when Michael blurts out, “This food is disgusting.” Michael clearly does not fully understand the _____ of polite speech yet.

 

 

39. Neuroscience finds that in young children who are _____, both languages are located in the same areas of the brain yet the children manage to keep them separate.

 

 

40. Marjorie is becoming more fluent in English than her native French. She is exhibiting a _____.

 

 

41. The major research conclusion about what is important for early-childhood education, whether at home or at school, is the _____ of the educational environment.

 

 

42. Jace designed her preschool classroom with several play areas that enable groups of children to learn from one another. Her classroom shows the influence of _____, who thought that children learn from other children in addition to adults.

 

 

43. Child-centered programs are influenced by _____, who believed that children can learn much from other children with the guidance of adults.

 

 

44. Early-childhood educational programs designed to meet children’s developmental and growth needs are called _____ programs.

 

 

45. In addition to being influenced by Vygotsky, child-centered programs are also influenced by _____, who believed that each child is capable of discovering new ideas.

 

 

46. A special educational program with structured, individualized projects meant to give children a sense of accomplishment was designed by _____.

 

 

47. A preschool program that teaches basic skills (precursors to reading, writing, and arithmetic) in order to prepare children to be “ready to learn” when they enter elementary school is called a _____ program.

 

 

48. The federally funded early-childhood education program that was started in 1965 to help foster better health and cognition in disadvantaged children before first grade is called _____.

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. decreases (declines, drops)
2. bone mass
3. tooth decay
4. 75
5. prefrontal cortex
6. corpus callosum
7. corpus callosum
8. lateralization
9. right
10. left
11. motor; sensory
12. transmission (movement)
13. perseveration
14. amygdala
15. hippocampus
16. hypothalamus
17. animism
18. egocentrism
19. Egocentrism
20. static reasoning
21. irreversibility
22. appearances
23. conservation
24. conservation
25. Vygotsky
26. zone of proximal development
27. scaffolding
28. guided participation
29. overimitation
30. theory-theory
31. theory of mind
32. vocabulary explosion
33. fast-mapping
34. fast-mapping
35. logical extension
36. overregularization
37. overregularization
38. pragmatics
39. bilingual
40. language shift
41. quality
42. Vygotsky
43. Vygotsky
44. child-centered
45. Piaget
46. Maria Montessori
47. teacher-directed
48. Head Start

 

 

 

1. A person’s average body mass index (BMI) is the lowest at the ages of _____.
  A) 1 to 2
  B) 5 to 6
  C) 9 to 10
  D) 13 to 14

 

 

2. Between the ages of 2 and 6, a child’s appetite _____.
  A) increases slightly
  B) increases dramatically
  C) stays the same
  D) decreases

 

 

3. Over the past three decades, what has been the trend in children’s health and body growth in Brazil?
  A) Children have gone from suffering malnutrition to being healthy.
  B) Children have become more impoverished, leading to malnutrition.
  C) Children have become less impoverished, which has led to malnutrition.
  D) Children no longer suffer from undernutrition, but now face overnutrition.

 

 

4. To ensure adequate nutrition and vitamin intake, what is recommended?
  A) Eat six to eight times a day.
  B) Take vitamin and mineral supplements.
  C) Eat breakfast cereals that contain 100 percent of the day’s nutrients and vitamins.
  D) Eat well-balanced meals with a variety of foods.

 

 

5. A common food allergy for young children is _____.
  A) soy
  B) rice
  C) oats
  D) bananas

 

 

6. Bernie is a 5-year-old who has never visited a dentist, even though his family has dental insurance that allows for free regular checkups. His parents say that they will start taking him to the dentist when his first permanent tooth erupts. What should his parents know about delayed dental care?
  A) Untreated decay in “baby” teeth can harm permanent teeth.
  B) There is no medical need to visit a dentist before permanent teeth emerge.
  C) Visiting the dentist at a young age will cause the child to fear the dentist.
  D) Children do not need to brush their baby teeth but they should visit the dentist to get fluoride treatments.

 

 

7. Which statement about oral health is true?
  A) It is not necessary to brush until children start to lose their baby teeth.
  B) Almost all young children in the United States have been to the dentist.
  C) Diet soda is a good option to help prevent tooth decay in children.
  D) Young children should develop the habit of tooth brushing.

 

 

8. Cynthia wants to keep her son from getting cavities, so she gives him diet soda instead of regular soda. Her dentist tells her that her strategy won’t work because _____.
  A) diet soda is sweetened using high fructose corn syrup
  B) all sweetened beverages can lead to tooth decay
  C) diet soda contains the calcium needed for strong teeth
  D) diet soda will keep the fluoride in drinking water from being ingested

 

 

9. A 2-year-old human’s brain is _____ percent of the adult brain’s weight.
  A) 55
  B) 65
  C) 75
  D) 80

 

 

10. Which of the following is most likely the difference between the brain of Tarik, a 2-year-old, and Terrence, his father?
  A) Tarik’s brain is about 75 percent of the weight of Terrence’s.
  B) Terrence’s brain has more activity in the angular gyrus than Tarik’s.
  C) Tarik’s brain is the same weight at Terrence’s.
  D) Terrence’s brain is less lateralized than Tarik’s.

 

 

11. Researchers had children sort picture cards by shape. Then they asked the same children to sort the same cards by color. They found that children under the age of 4 _____.
  A) could easily switch their original sorting pattern
  B) could switch to sorting by shape but not by color
  C) could switch to sorting by color but not by shape
  D) had difficulty changing to a new sorting pattern

 

 

12. Juan is left-handed and always kicks with his left foot when playing soccer. This preference demonstrates _____, which advances with the development of the corpus callosum.
  A) myelination
  B) lateralization
  C) pragmatics
  D) overregularization

 

 

13. The long band of nerve fibers that connects the brain’s hemispheres is _____.
  A) myelination
  B) the corpus callosum
  C) the prefrontal cortex
  D) the axon cord

 

 

14. Alden is beginning to learn how to write. He can hold a pencil in one hand and steady the paper with his other hand. This new ability to coordinate the duties of his right and left hands is likely due to _____.
  A) the growth of his corpus callosum
  B) his arms and legs growing longer
  C) his brain’s lateralization
  D) adequate calcium in his diet

 

 

15. Jerome is 4 years old and has recently begun coordinating the two sides of his body more efficiently. This improvement can be attributed to _____.
  A) the growth of his corpus callosum
  B) his arms and legs growing longer
  C) his brain’s lateralization
  D) adequate protein in his diet

 

 

16. One of several possible causes of autism spectrum disorder may be _____.
  A) rigid myelination
  B) abnormal development of the corpus callosum
  C) lesions in the prefrontal cortex
  D) incomplete axon cords

 

 

17. A disorder that may result from abnormal development of the corpus callosum is _____.
  A) hearing impairment
  B) nearsightedness
  C) extreme impulsivity
  D) autism spectrum disorder

 

 

18. The specialization of the functioning of the two halves of the brain is called _____.
  A) lateralization
  B) linearization
  C) equalization
  D) disequilibrium

 

 

19. The left side of the brain notices _____, while the right side grasps _____.
  A) the big picture; the details
  B) the details; emotions
  C) emotions; language
  D) creative impulses; detailed analysis

 

 

20. Today, about 10 percent of adults in Great Britain and the United States claim to be _____.
  A) left-handed
  B) right-handed
  C) left hemisphere dominant
  D) right hemisphere dominant

 

 

21. Today, about _____ percent of people in Great Britain and the United States are left-handed.
  A) 5
  B) 10
  C) 20
  D) 50

 

 

22. The number of people who claim to be left-handed in the United States and Great Britain has ____ since 1900.
  A) increased
  B) decreased
  C) remained the same
  D) become equal to rates of right-handedness

 

 

23. The process through which axons become coated with a fatty substance that speeds up the transmission of nerve impulses is called _____.
  A) myelination
  B) action potential
  C) transmission
  D) mylarization

 

 

24. Myelination is important because it _____.
  A) connects the two halves of the brain
  B) compensates for loss of brain function due to injury
  C) promotes regular childhood sleep patterns
  D) speeds up the transmission of neural impulses

 

 

25. Steven, a 6-year-old, can correctly name objects, catch a ball and throw it, and write his ABCs in proper sequence. His younger brother Harvey is much less speedy and skillful in all of these areas. What is the best explanation for Steven’s superior performance?
  A) Steven most likely eats healthier foods than Harvey.
  B) Steven’s brain has experienced greater myelination than Harvey’s.
  C) Steven’s frontal cortex is less mature than Harvey’s.
  D) Steven has fewer dendrites than Harvey.

 

 

26. The ability to generate several thoughts in rapid succession is most specifically related to _____.
  A) eating healthy foods
  B) myelination
  C) frontal cortex maturation
  D) development of new axons

 

 

27. Lin is able to play “Go Fish,” a card game that requires quick thinking. What brain change most directly supports his ability to think quickly?
  A) hypothalamic functioning
  B) myelination
  C) frontal cortex maturation
  D) development of new axons

 

 

28. Isaac suffered a brain injury as a result of an automobile accident. His abilities to speak and to process language were severely affected. His injury was to the _____.
  A) right side of his brain
  B) left side of his brain
  C) corpus collosum
  D) prefrontal cortex

 

 

29. Nicoli suffered a stroke in the left hemisphere of his brain. Which of the following skills is most likely to have been affected?
  A) speech
  B) face recognition
  C) emotion processing
  D) location in space

 

 

30. During a long car trip, Lex and Nicole asked “Are we there yet?” so many times that their father became irritated. His children were exhibiting _____.
  A) impulsiveness
  B) emotional regulation
  C) perseveration
  D) habituation

 

 

31. Beth is a 3-year-old who is working on a craft project at preschool. She has to be repeatedly reminded to sit still, to continue working on the craft, and to stop interfering with her classmate’s work. What is the most likely explanation for Beth’s behavior?
  A) She is not artistically inclined.
  B) She is displaying normal lack of impulse control.
  C) She is not yet mature enough to be in preschool.
  D) She has ADHD.

 

 

32. Nathan, a 4-year-old, is playing with his building blocks. When his mother announces that they have to leave to pick up his sister, he launches into a tantrum. What is the best explanation for Nathan’s reaction?
  A) Nathan is perseverating on the building blocks.
  B) Nathan is spoiled.
  C) Nathan’s mother should have given a warning.
  D) Four-year-olds throw many tantrums.

 

 

33. An imbalance between the left and right sides of the prefrontal cortex and abnormal growth of the corpus callosum seem to underlie _____.
  A) hearing impairment
  B) nearsightedness
  C) extreme impulsivity
  D) ADHD

 

 

34. The area of the brain that is crucial in expressing and regulating emotions is the _____.
  A) limbic system
  B) prefrontal cortex
  C) fusiform face area
  D) corpus callosum

 

 

35. The amygdala is a brain structure that registers _____.
  A) body temperature
  B) emotions
  C) speech perception
  D) memories

 

 

36. The increased activity of the amygdala is a reason that young children experience _____.
  A) a language explosion
  B) the ability to write
  C) frightening nightmares
  D) an increased susceptibility to disease

 

 

37. Because the amygdala responds to comfort but not logic, which of the following is the best strategy for a parent to adopt when their preschooler has had a scary dream?
  A) Tell the child that it was only a dream, and to go back to sleep.
  B) Explain to the child that dreams are only imaginary, and so their dreams can’t hurt them.
  C) Ask them what was scary about the dream, and then convincingly pretend to scare off that content.
  D) Laugh at the scary content, and remind the child that it’s not real.

 

 

38. The hippocampus is a structure in the brain that processes _____.
  A) language
  B) coordination
  C) memories
  D) emotions

 

 

39. As an adult, Xavier has a panic attack whenever he must ride in an elevator. He has absolutely no recollection of ever having had a bad experience in an elevator. According to the text, it is possible that his panic reaction is due to _____.
  A) natural fears of elevators that everyone shares
  B) deep emotional memories from early childhood
  C) Xavier’s general fearfulness
  D) a recent misadventure in an elevator that Xavier has repressed

 

 

40. Preoperational intelligence _____.
  A) allows children to think in symbols
  B) includes logical reasoning
  C) is characterized by reversibility of thought
  D) relies on children’s motor skills and senses

 

 

41. Piaget called the stage of human cognitive development between the ages of 2 and 6 _____ intelligence.
  A) operational
  B) egocentric
  C) preoperational
  D) sensorimotor

 

 

42. Piaget called the stage of human cognitive development between the ages of 2 and 6 “preoperational intelligence” because children do not yet _____.
  A) have intelligence
  B) use logical operations
  C) understand language
  D) produce language

 

 

43. Piaget believed that until about age 6, it is difficult for children to think _____.
  A) subjectively
  B) egocentrically
  C) logically
  D) about animism

 

 

44. One of the milestones of preoperational thought is the ability to _____.
  A) use symbolic thought
  B) understand reversibility
  C) display conservation
  D) think logically

 

 

45. Marcy was playing under the kitchen table when she stood up suddenly and bumped her head. She pointed at the table and sternly said, “Naughty table!” This is an example of _____.
  A) egocentrism
  B) operational thinking
  C) centration
  D) animism

 

 

46. Preoperational thinking is all of the following EXCEPT _____.
  A) magical
  B) symbolic
  C) logical
  D) pretending

 

 

47. To focus on one aspect of a situation and simultaneously exclude all other aspects is called _____.
  A) magical thinking
  B) static reasoning
  C) centration
  D) animism

 

 

48. A magician’s goal is to get the audience to focus on one aspect of his demonstration while he manipulates another. This is easy to do with preoperational children, as they are fooled by their tendency to _____.
  A) be logical thinkers
  B) reverse things in their minds
  C) demonstrate centration
  D) equilibrate

 

 

49. Nine-year-old Amanda has no problem understanding that the 20-year-old woman who sometimes stays with her is both a student and a babysitter. According to Piaget, this is because Amanda’s thinking has moved beyond _____.
  A) conservation
  B) object permanence
  C) overregularization
  D) centration

 

 

50. “You are your Mom’s daughter, right?” Grandpa asked Beatriz.

“Yes!” Beatriz eagerly answered.

“Well, your Mom is my daughter,” Grandpa replied.

“No! She’s my Mommy!” Beatriz exclaimed. Why did Beatriz make this error?

  A) conservation
  B) object permanence
  C) overregularization
  D) centration

 

 

51. The Piagetian term for a particular type of centration in which a child thinks about the world only from his or her personal perspective is _____.
  A) static reasoning
  B) egocentrism
  C) irreversibility
  D) conservatism

 

 

52. Rose and her mother were shopping for a birthday gift for Rose’s older brother. “How about this? My brother would love it!” Rose exclaimed, showing her mother a pink and purple toy horse with flowing mane and tail. Beverly’s belief that her teenage brother would enjoy a toy that she herself would enjoy is an example of _____.
  A) static reasoning
  B) egocentrism
  C) irreversibility
  D) conservatism

 

 

53. A young child thinks a tall 20-year-old man is older than a short 40-year-old man. This is an example of _____.
  A) egocentrism
  B) static thinking
  C) focus on appearance
  D) symbolic thinking

 

 

54. After her haircut was complete, Tania began crying inconsolably. “You turned me into a boy!” she cried. Which obstacle to logic was Tania demonstrating?
  A) egocentrism
  B) static thinking
  C) focus on appearance
  D) symbolic thinking

 

 

55. Seeing his third-grade teacher in the grocery store shocks Armand because he is used to seeing her only in school. This is likely due to Armand’s _____.
  A) static reasoning
  B) abstract reasoning
  C) concrete thinking
  D) irreversibility

 

 

56. When children assume that the world is unchanging, they are engaging in _____.
  A) magical thinking
  B) static reasoning
  C) centration
  D) a focus on appearance

 

 

57. The characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child thinks that nothing changes is called _____.
  A) animism
  B) conservation
  C) static reasoning
  D) centration

 

 

58. Evelyn dropped ketchup on her pants during lunch. Although her teacher was able to remove the stain completely, Evelyn cries hysterically, saying that she wants to go home because her outfit is ruined. Her behavior demonstrates the characteristic of preoperational thought known as _____.
  A) irreversibility
  B) centration
  C) egocentrism
  D) conservation

 

 

59. Irreversibility refers to the preoperational child’s tendency to _____.
  A) focus on something other than appearances
  B) use deductive reasoning to solve a problem
  C) believe that what has been done cannot be undone
  D) engage in centration when another solution is needed

 

 

60. Tyrell’s father takes him to the barber for his first real haircut. At first, Tyrell is excited, but when the barber makes the first cut, he becomes very upset and tells his father to make the barber stop. Despite his father’s efforts to assure him that his hair will grow back, Tyrell is exhibiting the characteristic known as _____.
  A) animism
  B) centration
  C) egocentrism
  D) irreversibility

 

 

61. A child’s inability to understand that undoing a sequence of events will bring about the original situation is called _____.
  A) concrete operations
  B) conservation
  C) irreversibility
  D) symbolic thought

 

 

62. Four-year-old Mac is sitting at the lunch counter next to his sister Tori. They are having hot dogs for lunch. When his Mom cuts his hot dog into five pieces and Tori’s into six pieces, Mac protests, “Tori has more than me!” Which ability does Mac not yet demonstrate?
  A) animism
  B) centration
  C) egocentrism
  D) conservation

 

 

63. Daryl has a ball of Silly Putty. His 6-year-old son, Mason, watches as Daryl flattens the Silly Putty into a thin “pancake.” When Daryl asks Mason if there is now more Silly Putty, Mason replies “Yes” because he has _____.
  A) an understanding of scaffolding
  B) not mastered the concept of conservation
  C) an understanding of object permanence
  D) demonstrated fast-mapping

 

 

64. A child is shown two identical tall containers, both half-filled with water. The contents of one container are then poured into a short, wide container. If the child states that both containers still have the same amount, then the child understands the concept of _____.
  A) classification
  B) conservation
  C) centration
  D) transformation

 

 

65. Researchers now believe that Piaget _____ cognition in infancy and _____ cognition in early childhood.
  A) overestimated; overestimated
  B) underestimated; underestimated
  C) overestimated; underestimated
  D) underestimated; overestimated

 

 

66. According to Vygotsky, guided participation requires that a child _____.
  A) interacts with a mentor to accomplish a task
  B) is told instructions for a task only once
  C) discovers the solution to a task on his or her own
  D) be taught new skills by other children

 

 

67. Each time Juan puts a puzzle together, his father gives him a little less help. Which theorist would be MOST pleased with Juan’s father?
  A) Piaget
  B) Vygotsky
  C) Skinner
  D) Freud

 

 

68. Skills that the child can accomplish with assistance but can’t yet perform independently are part of _____.
  A) private speech
  B) the gap between heredity and learning
  C) distal development
  D) the zone of proximal development

 

 

69. A child who is unable to read a picture book independently accomplishes the task with the help of an adult. This assistance will be effective only if the _____.
  A) assistance is offered in a warm and gentle manner
  B) child is at least 6 years old
  C) child is in the period of preoperations
  D) skill is within the child’s zone of proximal development

 

 

70. According to Vygotsky’s concept of the zone of proximal development, _____.
  A) there is a certain place in a school where most learning occurs
  B) children can only reach a certain level of intelligence
  C) children can master some tasks with the help of others
  D) certain parts of the brain need to be activated

 

 

71. Sydney helps her 2-year-old daughter to make hot chocolate. She helps the child to measure teaspoons of cocoa into a cup, add water, stir the contents, and then use the microwave. Sydney is providing _____.
  A) scaffolding
  B) overstimulation
  C) conservation skills
  D) the zone of proximal development

 

 

72. According to Vygotsky, a teacher who carefully plans each child’s participation in the learning process within the zone of proximal development uses _____.
  A) reinforcements for good behavior
  B) scaffolding
  C) peer mentoring
  D) skill construction

 

 

73. Which is an example of scaffolding?
  A) David helps his son build a model airplane by assembling it while his son watches.
  B) Howard and Priscilla buy a Wii game system for their 5-year-old daughter Rebecca. They set it up for her and then allow her to figure out how to turn it on and use it.
  C) Richard buys a do-it-yourself kite kit for his 6-year-old daughter Angela. He lays all of the pieces out for her and then allows her to read the instructions and follow them herself.
  D) Miriam helps her son Ben to make cookies. She measures all the ingredients out and places them on the counter in small bowls. She reads the recipe aloud as Ben places the ingredients in the bowl and mixes them together with a spoon.

 

 

74. Which capability is demonstrated when young children imitate adult actions that are irrelevant, time-consuming, and inefficient?
  A) observing
  B) scaffolding
  C) modeling
  D) overimitation

 

 

75. Benjy is 5 years old. He can put a dish into the microwave and press the “2” button to cook for 2 minutes. One day, he sees his mother wipe the front of the microwave with a damp paper towel before she presses a number button. After that, Benjy rubs the front of the microwave with a napkin before he presses the number button. Why?
  A) He is overimitating his mother.
  B) He has forgotten how the microwave works.
  C) He is providing scaffolding for his mother.
  D) He is engaging in guided participation.

 

 

76. Young children try to construct a reason for the things that they see and hear. This tendency is known as _____.
  A) reversibility
  B) focus on appearance
  C) theory-theory
  D) logical reasoning

 

 

77. Humans seek reasons, causes, and underlying principles to explain the world around them. The research term for this tendency is _____.
  A) deductive reasoning
  B) conservation
  C) scaffolding
  D) theory-theory

 

 

78. A few days ago, Hester’s parents disciplined her because she refused to eat her green beans. Today, when her parents announced that they were going to get a divorce, Hester cried, “Is it because I was bad? I’ll be good!” Hester’s conclusion that her failure to eat her green beans is the reason her parents are getting divorced displays Hester’s _____.
  A) deductive reasoning
  B) conservation
  C) scaffolding
  D) theory-theory

 

 

79. According to theory-theory, why do children imitate irrelevant adult behaviors?
  A) They mindlessly copy everything adults do.
  B) They theorize that the irrelevant behavior must be important.
  C) They theorize that the adult will reward them for correct imitation.
  D) They derive pleasure from correctly imitating behaviors of all sorts.

 

 

80. A person’s understanding of the thoughts of other people is called _____.
  A) intuitive psychology
  B) psychological schemata
  C) theory of mind
  D) self-schemes

 

 

81. At what age do MOST children develop theory of mind?
  A) 1 year
  B) 2 years
  C) 3 years
  D) 4 years

 

 

82. Britney understands that her father is crying because his best friend died. This shows that Britney has developed _____.
  A) egocentrism
  B) a script for crying
  C) theory of mind
  D) conservation

 

 

83. By the age of 2, a child will typically have a vocabulary of _____ words; by the age of 6, a child will typically have a vocabulary of _____ words.
  A) 500; 10,000
  B) 5,000; 10,000
  C) 200; 40,000
  D) 100; 2,000

 

 

84. Children typically understand the basics of grammar by the _____.
  A) age of 2
  B) time the child has a vocabulary of about 300 words
  C) time the child has a vocabulary of about 600 words
  D) age of 5

 

 

85. A child’s ability to add new vocabulary words very quickly is called _____.
  A) fast-mapping
  B) word mapping
  C) mental language
  D) word charting

 

 

86. When children hear a new word in a familiar context, they can simply add the word to the general category without fully understanding the word. This is called _____.
  A) lexical addition
  B) categorical embellishment
  C) vocabulary expansion
  D) fast-mapping

 

 

87. Christopher’s mother is considering different wallpapers for decorating his room. She asks him, “Which one do you like better: the striped or the plaid?” Christopher’s vocabulary doesn’t include the word “plaid,” but he’s able to figure out what the word must mean based on the context. Christopher is using _____ to add a new word to his vocabulary.
  A) lexical addition
  B) categorical embellishment
  C) vocabulary expansion
  D) fast-mapping

 

 

88. Four-year-old Faisal and his mother were visiting Faisal’s older sister’s kindergarten classroom. Faisal pointed at his sister’s teacher and asked his mother, “What’s that mom’s name?” Faisal’s apparent assumption that all women are mothers is evidence of his use of _____.
  A) lexical addition
  B) categorical embellishment
  C) vocabulary expansion
  D) fast-mapping

 

 

89. Logical extension involves _____.
  A) linking a newly learned word to other objects in the same category
  B) mentally charting new words
  C) applying a new concept to a preexisting category
  D) equilibration

 

 

90. Caitlin, age 4, visited the city zoo, pointed to a zebra, and exclaimed, “Look at the horse with stripes!” In describing the zebra, she used _____.
  A) logical extension
  B) fast-mapping
  C) overregularization
  D) theory of mind

 

 

91. The structures, rules, and techniques used to communicate meaning in language are called _____.
  A) inflections
  B) logical extensions
  C) grammar
  D) theory-theory

 

 

92. When shown a novel object and told that it is called a “wug,” preschoolers know that two of those objects would be two “wugs.” This ability to correctly add an –s when pluralizing is evidence of their proper use of _____.
  A) inflections
  B) logical extensions
  C) grammar
  D) theory-theory

 

 

93. Overregularization in a child’s speech patterns indicates that _____.
  A) the child is entering a sensitive period of language development
  B) the child can apply grammatical rules to vocalizations
  C) logical extension is now possible
  D) fast-mapping has occurred

 

 

94. “I catched two mouses in a trap” is an example of _____.
  A) egocentric speech
  B) overregularization
  C) literal translation
  D) past imperfect tense

 

 

95. Overregularization occurs because children _____.
  A) tend to regress briefly before progressing to new forms of language
  B) have no understanding of past, present, and future verb tenses
  C) assume that the language is less regular than it actually is
  D) assume their language always follows the rules they already know

 

 

96. Four-year-old Yvonne is putting on her shoes and says, “I need to put my shoes on my foots.” She is exhibiting _____.
  A) pragmatics
  B) executive function
  C) theory of mind
  D) overregularization

 

 

97. Jane and her 4-year-old daughter, Michele, are visiting at a friend’s house when Michele blurts out, “This house is dirty.” Michele clearly does not fully understand the _____ of polite speech yet.
  A) overregularization
  B) pragmatics
  C) grammar
  D) conservation

 

 

98. All of the following are common concerns that parents have about raising bilingual children EXCEPT _____.
  A) that the child will be only semilingual
  B) that the child will master language later than his or her peers
  C) that the child will surpass his or her parents in the second language
  D) that the child will become confused by the two languages

 

 

99. Neuroscience has proven true which statement about young bilingual children?
  A) Even though both languages reside in the same area of the brain, bilingual individuals are able to activate one language and temporarily inhibit the other.
  B) Different languages reside in different areas of the brain, thus allowing a bilingual individual to activate only one area at a time.
  C) Bilingual individuals of any age have difficulty with keeping the two languages totally separate when speaking.
  D) Since both languages reside in the same area of the brain, bilingual individuals consciously inhibit one language while speaking the other.

 

 

100. Demetrius’s family recently immigrated to the United States from the Ukraine. After he attended kindergarten, his parents noticed that his English was more fluent than his native language. Demetrius was exhibiting _____.
  A) a language shift
  B) accelerated bilingualism
  C) a vocabulary explosion
  D) linguistic egocentrism

 

 

101. Which early-childhood method has been found to aid reading later on?
  A) code-focused teaching
  B) teacher-directed programs
  C) the “Hooked on Phonics” program
  D) the “My Baby Can Read” program

 

 

102. Jessica is reading a story aloud to her 3-year-old daughter, Abigail. Abigail’s father says, “Why are you bothering? It’s not like she’s going to learn to read from that.” What would you tell Abigail’s father about reading to preschoolers?
  A) He’s right; it doesn’t matter whether parents read to their preschoolers.
  B) He’s right; children whose parents read aloud to them too early lose interest in books.
  C) He’s wrong; children whose parents read to them as preschoolers tend to be better readers in elementary school.
  D) He’s wrong; children whose parents read to them by age 3 learn to read by the age of 4.

 

 

103. In terms of early-childhood learning, research has found that if the home learning environment is poor, then _____.
  A) a quality preschool will help health, cognition, and social skills
  B) attendance at preschool is detrimental
  C) day care will be more beneficial than preschool
  D) a child-centered program will be more beneficial than another approach

 

 

104. Preschool programs are called “child-centered” when they stress children’s _____.
  A) gross motor skills
  B) fine motor skills
  C) development and growth
  D) language development

 

 

105. Child-centered programs are often influenced by the theories of _____ and _____.
  A) Piaget; Freud
  B) Piaget; Vygotsky
  C) Vygotsky; Skinner
  D) Skinner; Freud

 

 

106. Sunnymont Preschool has plenty of opportunities for the children to play dress-up, dance, build with blocks, finger-paint, and be creative. Sunnymont is most likely a _____ program.
  A) Vygotsky-based
  B) child-centered
  C) teacher-directed
  D) bilingual

 

 

107. Learning Circle Preschool emphasizes individual pride and achievement while focusing on teaching young children literacy-related tasks. Learning Circle’s approach seems to most closely resemble a(n) _____ program.
  A) intervention
  B) Montessori
  C) Reggio Emilia
  D) bilingual

 

 

108. What was Maria Montessori’s objective when she created her preschool?
  A) individual achievement
  B) the development of math skills
  C) creative expression
  D) obedience to a teacher

 

 

109. The Reggio Emilia early-childhood program focuses on _____.
  A) reinforcement for academic accomplishments
  B) assimilation and accommodation skills
  C) children’s creativity and artistic talent
  D) self-esteem and self-concept

 

 

110. Micah’s preschool has a high teacher/child ratio and ample opportunity for creative expression. He has chosen to make dinosaurs out of clay as his long-term art project. Which child-centered approach does Micah’s preschool most closely resemble?
  A) Reggio Emilia
  B) Montessori
  C) Head Start
  D) teacher-directed

 

 

111. Most teacher-directed preschool programs stress _____.
  A) academics
  B) arts and music
  C) social skills
  D) dual languages

 

 

112. The goal of most teacher-directed preschools is to _____.
  A) promote individual achievement
  B) encourage informal social interaction
  C) make all children ready to learn when they enter elementary school
  D) teach children to read by the end of the year

 

 

113. Salim is in a teacher-directed preschool. Which activity would his parents NOT expect him to be doing?
  A) listening to a story read aloud during circle time
  B) forming the letter M in a tray filled with shaving cream
  C) gluing pieces of macaroni on a paper plate to form a number
  D) working on a long-term individual project about birds

 

 

114. In the United States, low-income children are offered a free preschool education through _____.
  A) the War on Poverty
  B) the Public Broadcasting System
  C) the Women, Infants, and Children program
  D) Head Start

 

 

115. An evaluation of Head Start found that benefits were MOST apparent for children _____.
  A) without disabilities
  B) with the lowest family income
  C) living in urban areas
  D) living in suburban areas

 

 

116. Compared with children who did not attend an intensive early intervention program, longitudinal studies showed that the children who did participate _____.
  A) had higher aspirations, more pride, and were less likely to be abused
  B) had higher IQ scores in high school and were more likely to attend college
  C) had lower scores on math and reading assessments
  D) experienced no significantly improved outcomes

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. B
2. D
3. D
4. D
5. A
6. A
7. D
8. B
9. C
10. A
11. D
12. B
13. B
14. A
15. A
16. B
17. D
18. A
19. B
20. A
21. B
22. A
23. A
24. D
25. B
26. B
27. B
28. B
29. A
30. C
31. B
32. A
33. D
34. A
35. B
36. C
37. C
38. C
39. B
40. A
41. C
42. B
43. C
44. A
45. D
46. C
47. C
48. C
49. D
50. D
51. B
52. B
53. C
54. C
55. A
56. B
57. C
58. A
59. C
60. D
61. C
62. D
63. B
64. B
65. B
66. A
67. B
68. D
69. D
70. C
71. A
72. B
73. D
74. D
75. A
76. C
77. D
78. D
79. B
80. C
81. D
82. C
83. A
84. A
85. A
86. D
87. D
88. D
89. A
90. A
91. C
92. C
93. B
94. B
95. D
96. D
97. B
98. C
99. A
100. A
101. A
102. C
103. A
104. C
105. B
106. B
107. B
108. A
109. C
110. A
111. A
112. C
113. D
114. D
115. B
116. A

 

 

 

1. The center of gravity in a 6-year-old drops from the breast to the belly, enabling many motor skills.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

2. By 4 years of age, most children no longer have the large heads, short limbs, and protruding stomachs that toddlers do.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

3. Many parents fear that their children are not getting enough to eat during early childhood, which can contribute to childhood obesity.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

4. A child’s appetite increases between the ages of 2 and 6.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

5. Failure to brush the teeth is the primary cause of early tooth decay.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

6. Too much sugar and too little fiber cause tooth decay in childhood.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

7. By the age of 6 years, the brain has attained about half its adult weight.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

8. The 2-year-old brain has attained about 75 percent of its adult weight.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

9. Research found that 2-year-old humans have similar intellectual abilities as chimpanzees.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

10. The cerebellum is considered the executive of the brain because planning and prioritizing occur there.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

11. The part of the brain that specializes in planning and prioritizing is the prefrontal cortex.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

12. The corpus callosum connects the hemispheres of the brain.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

13. The right side of the brain controls the right side of the body.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

14. Eduardo is a natural-born musician with the ability to pick up and play nearly any musical instrument. His musical talent is controlled by the left side of his brain.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

15. In most people, language abilities are located in the left hemisphere of the brain.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

16. Myelination is essential for basic communication between neurons.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

17. Impulsiveness and perseveration are opposite behaviors with the same underlying cause.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

18. Perseveration is the tendency to continue an activity even when it has become inappropriate to do so.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

19. The amygdala registers emotions.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

20. The hypothalamus is a central processor of memory, especially with regard to locations.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

21. Preoperational thought involves magical, self-centered imagination rather than logic.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

22. Egocentrism is Piaget’s term for a particular type of centration, in which the child thinks about the world from his or her own perspective.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

23. Centration is an obstacle to developing logical operations.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

24. According to Piaget, the preoperational child is incapable of understanding irreversibility.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

25. Conservation refers to a child’s assumption that the world is unchanging.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

26. Vygotsky believed that cognitive growth was a process of individual discovery, propelled by experience and biological maturation.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

27. The process by which people learn from others who lead their experiences and explorations is called guided participation.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

28. Vygotsky’s followers believe in scaffolding, a learning process that involves mentors who guide the child.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

29. The temporary, sensitive structure provided by others to a developing child who is learning new skills is known as the zone of proximal development.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

30. Ten-year-old Sarah and 5-year-old Haley were making a special birthday card for their grandmother. By patiently showing Haley how to carefully glue the lace around the card’s edges, Sarah was providing scaffolding for Haley.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

31. Overimitation is demonstrated when 2- to 6-year-old children imitate adult actions that are irrelevant, time-consuming, and inefficient.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

32. A theory of mind is one’s own personal understanding of the complex interaction among emotions, perceptions, thoughts, and intentions in oneself and others.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

33. The development of theory of mind has been demonstrated only in more affluent cultures.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

34. The underlying factor allowing the development of theory of mind is static reasoning.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

35. The vocabulary explosion typically occurs at about 1 year of age.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

36. By the age of 6, many children have a vocabulary of about 10,000 words.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

37. The charting of new vocabulary words by associating them with already-known words is called fast-mapping.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

38. Children display evidence of fast-mapping before the age of 1.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

39. Overregularization is actually a sign of increased verbal knowledge.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

40. The best time to learn a second language is in adolescence.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

41. A language shift occurs when children become as fluent in their new language as they are in their home language.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

42. It is always better for a young child to attend preschool than to be home with a parent.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

43. If a child’s home environment is poor, early-education programs won’t be beneficial.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

44. Child-centered programs stress children’s development and growth.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

45. Montessori schools focus on using materials and projects in such a way that children have a strong sense of accomplishment.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

46. Reggio Emilia programs emphasize formal classroom instruction by the teacher.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

47. Teacher-directed preschool programs are similar in nature to the Reggio Emilia approach.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

48. Studies suggest that preschool education, such as that provided by Head Start, advances the social and academic development of disadvantaged children.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. A
2. B
3. A
4. B
5. B
6. A
7. B
8. A
9. B
10. B
11. A
12. A
13. B
14. B
15. A
16. B
17. A
18. A
19. A
20. B
21. A
22. A
23. A
24. A
25. B
26. B
27. A
28. A
29. B
30. A
31. A
32. A
33. B
34. B
35. B
36. A
37. A
38. B
39. A
40. B
41. B
42. B
43. B
44. A
45. A
46. B
47. B
48. A

 

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