INTRODUCTION TO CRIMINAL JUSTICE, 8E ROBERT M. BOHM – Test Bank

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Chapter 05

History and Structure of American Law Enforcement

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The vast majority of American law enforcement agencies are
    A.local.
    B. federal.
    C. multi-jurisdictional.
    D. state.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Limited Authority of American Law Enforcement

  1. The basic concepts of American law enforcement and criminal justice originated in
    A.New England.
    B. Spain.
    C. France.
    D. England.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: English Roots

  1. Under the tithing system, groups of 10 families (or a tithing) would follow three of the following principles. Which one does NOT belong?
    A.agree to follow the law
    B. keep the peace in their areas
    C. select one man from each parish as chief peacekeeper
    D. bring law violators to justice

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: English Roots

 

  1. The Statute of Winchester formalized the ________ system of protection.
    A.shire reeve
    B. constable-watch
    C. tithing
    D. hue and cry

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: English Roots

  1. Which of the following cities had the first modern police force?
    A.New York
    B. Paris
    C. London
    D. Rome

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: English Roots

  1. According to Peel, the main function of the police was to ________ by ________ of the community.
    A.solve crime; active investigation
    B. prevent crime; preventive patrol
    C. solve crime; preventive patrol
    D. prevent crime; active investigation

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: English Roots

 

  1. Earlier in American history, two forms of police protection began to evolve—the ________ in the villages, towns, and cities; and the ________ in the rural areas, unincorporated areas, and counties.
    A.sheriff; tithing system
    B. sheriff; constable-watch system
    C. constable-watch system; sheriff
    D. constable-watch system; tithing system

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

  1. Early American citizens ________ the formation of the first police departments.
    A.resisted
    B. encouraged
    C. controlled
    D. privately funded

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

  1. Which was the first American city to create a paid and unified municipal police force?
    A.Boston
    B. Chicago
    C. Philadelphia
    D. New York

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

 

  1. After the Civil War, municipal police officers began to take on the characteristics of today’s police. Which of the following does NOT belong?
    A.They began to carry nightsticks.
    B. They began to carry firearms.
    C. They began to wear uniforms.
    D. They began to form posses.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT true of the first black police officers?
    A.They were “free men of color.”
    B. They were slaves.
    C. They were hired around 1805 to serve as members of the New Orleans city watch system.
    D. They were hired primarily because other people did not want the job.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

  1. Following the backlash to Reconstruction and the loss of jobs of black police officers, during which of the following periods were black police officers hired again in most southern cities?
    A.1890s and 1900s
    B. 1920s and 1930s
    C. 1940s and 1950s
    D. 1960s and 1970s

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

 

  1. In the South, the earliest form of policing was the
    A.slave patrols.
    B. hue and cry.
    C. sheriff and posse.
    D. constable-watch system.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

  1. Which of the following forms of policing has been called “the first distinctively American police system”?
    A.hue and cry
    B. slave patrols
    C. sheriff and posse
    D. constable-watch system

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

  1. The slave codes held slaves responsible for their crimes and other acts that were not crimes if committed by free persons. Which of the following was NOT among these restrictions?
    A.Enslaved people could not hold meetings.
    B. Enslaved people could not learn to read and write.
    C. Enslaved people could not learn skilled trades.
    D. Enslaved people could not carry a firearm.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

 

  1. One similarity between the slave patrols and the constable-watch system was that
    A.people could hire others to perform their duties for them.
    B. citizens resented their use of firearms.
    C. they had many of the trappings of today’s police.
    D. they developed into today’s sheriffs’ departments.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

  1. The idea of ________ remains very popular in the South and the West.
    A.federal police protection
    B. police commissioners
    C. self-protection
    D. mounted militia units

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

  1. August Vollmer advocated three principles to professionalize American policing. Which of the following does NOT belong?
    A.He advocated training as a key ingredient in professionalizing policing.
    B. He believed that citizens needed training in methods of self-policing.
    C. He believed strongly that the police should stay out of politics and that politics should stay out of policing.
    D. He advocated education as a key ingredient in professionalizing policing.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

 

  1. At various times in American history, local police have acted in several different roles. Which of the following is NOT one of those roles?
    A.social worker
    B. firefighter
    C. public servant
    D. peacekeeper

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

  1. By the 1970s, research began to show three of the following findings. Which does NOT belong?
    A.Unattended disorderly behavior in neighborhoods is a signal to more serious criminals that residents do not care what goes on in their community and that the criminals can move in and operate with impunity.
    B. A rapid response to crime does not necessarily lead to more arrests.
    C. Having more police officers using methods made popular under the professional or reform model does not significantly reduce crime.
    D. Neighborhood-based policing projects had high success rates because of low costs, administrative efficiency, and high citizen interest.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Moderate
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

  1. Which of the following is NOT am emphasis area of community policing?
    A.fighting crime
    B. delivering social services
    C. eradicating the causes of crime in a community
    D. keeping peace

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

 

  1. Approximately how many local, state, and federal public law enforcement agencies operate in the United States?
    A.3,000
    B. 9,000
    C. 18,000
    D. 36,500

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Limited Authority of American Law Enforcement
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. Who were the first federal law enforcement agents in the United States?
    A.DEA agents
    B. FBI agents
    C. Secret Service agents
    D. U.S. Marshals

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  1. Which of the following is NOT a service provided by the U.S. Marshals?
    A.judicial security
    B. fugitive investigations
    C. protect national leaders
    D. witness security

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Moderate
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

 

  1. Why was the U.S. Secret Service created?
    A.to combat counterfeiting
    B. to conduct fugitive investigations
    C. to protect national leaders
    D. to provide witness security

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  1. When the FBI was created, it was limited to investigating only a few types of crimes. Which of the following crimes was NOT one that the FBI investigated?
    A.national banking crimes
    B. naturalization crimes
    C. drug crimes
    D. peonage crimes

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Moderate
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  1. Who is the longest-serving director of the FBI?
    A.Harry Anslinger
    B. John Hoover
    C. William Burns
    D. William Sessions

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

 

  1. Which of the following events likely made the FBI a major factor in policing?
    A.passage of the Mann Act
    B. passage of the National Motor Vehicle Theft Act
    C. the killing of John Dillinger
    D. the Lindbergh baby kidnapping

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Moderate
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  1. Which of the following events did NOT contribute to the FBI’s increasing influence over local policing?
    A.being given responsibility for the Witness Security Program
    B. being given responsibility for the uniform crime reports system
    C. establishing its own crime lab
    D. founding the National Police Academy

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Moderate
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  1. The long-serving director of the FBI kept extensive investigative files on thousands of individuals who had been involved in controversial causes and dissident organizations. Who of the following was NOT among those individuals?
    A.Helen Keller
    B. Charles Bonaparte
    C. Joe Namath
    D. Marlon Brando

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application
Level: Moderate
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

 

  1. Which of the following men has NOT been an FBI director?
    A.Louis Freeh
    B. William Sessions
    C. Felix Frankfurter
    D. Robert Mueller

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  1. Currently, the FBI has several priorities. Which of the following is NOT among the FBI’s current priorities?
    A.protect the United States from terrorist attack
    B. protect the United States from cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes
    C. protect civil rights
    D. protect the United States from major violators of controlled substance laws operating at interstate and international levels

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application
Level: Moderate
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  1. Which of the following presidents created the DEA?
    A.Theodore Roosevelt
    B. John Kennedy
    C. Richard Nixon
    D. Bill Clinton

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

 

  1. Which of the following federal laws inaugurated America’s War on Drugs?
    A.the Mann Act of 1910
    B. the Harrison Narcotics Act of 1914
    C. the National Prohibition Act of 1919
    D. the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  1. Which of the following men is considered the United States’ first “drug czar”?
    A.Harry Anslinger
    B. John Hoover
    C. John Ingersoll
    D. Robert Mueller

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  1. In 2008, the United States had about one city, county, or state law enforcement officer for every ________ residents.
    A.40
    B. 400
    C. 4,000
    D. 40,000

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

 

  1. Approximately how many municipal police departments operated in the United States in 2008?
    A.125
    B. 1,250
    C. 12,500
    D. 125,000

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. State-level law enforcement officers include three of the following groups. Which does NOT belong?
    A.highway patrols
    B. watercraft officers
    C. park rangers
    D. sheriffs

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. One general grouping in your textbook lists four categories of local police duties. Which of the following is NOT one of the duties discussed in your text?
    A.public education
    B. service
    C. information gathering
    D. peacekeeping

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

 

  1. Breaking up a fight, holding back a crowd at a sporting event, or intervening in a domestic dispute before it gets violent are examples of which of the following local police duties?
    A.law enforcement
    B. order maintenance or peacekeeping
    C. service
    D. information gathering

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. Taking people to the hospital, escorting funeral processions, delivering mail for city officials, or chasing bats out of a caller’s house are examples of which of the following local police duties?
    A.law enforcement
    B. order maintenance or peacekeeping
    C. service
    D. information gathering

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. In which of the following years was the first woman elected to the position of sheriff in the United States?
    A.1868
    B. 1916
    C. 1972
    D. 1992

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

 

  1. Which of the following is usually NOT a county law enforcement function?
    A.protecting the governor and the capitol grounds and buildings
    B. serving summonses, warrants, and various writs
    C. providing courtroom security and confining and transporting prisoners
    D. investigating crimes and enforcing the criminal and traffic laws of the state

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. Three of the following statements describe how politics affects the role of sheriff in most counties. Which one does NOT belong?
    A.The authority to appoint special deputies and to award patronage jobs contribute to the sheriff’s power and influence in a county.
    B. The sheriff must receive approval from neighboring county commissions.
    C. Local politics governs the operation of the sheriff’s department.
    D. The sheriff must operate as a partisan politician to remain in office.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Moderate
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. Which of the 50 United States does not have a state policing agency?
    A.Hawaii
    B. Alaska
    C. Montana
    D. Idaho

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

 

  1. There are three major differences between federal law enforcement agencies and local and state police agencies. Which of the following is NOT among those differences?
    A.Federal agencies such as the FBI operate across the entire nation and even have agents serving abroad.
    B. Some federal law enforcement agencies have extremely narrow jurisdictions.
    C. A significant function performed by a special category of federal law enforcement officers is university or campus policing.
    D. Federal police agencies do not, as a rule, have the peacekeeping or order maintenance duties typical in local policing.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Moderate
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. Which of the following federal law enforcement agencies employs the largest number of personnel?
    A.U.S. Customs and Border Protection
    B. Federal Bureau of Prisons
    C. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
    D. Federal Bureau of Investigation

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. Where is the current headquarters of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center located?
    A.Quantico, Virginia
    B. Glenn County, Georgia
    C. Washington, DC
    D. Charleston, South Carolina

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

 

  1. According to the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which of the following agencies or organizations has “primary responsibility for investigating and prosecuting acts of terrorism”?
    A.the Department of Homeland Security
    B. the U.S. military
    C. federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies
    D. the CIA

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: The Department of Homeland Security

  1. With which of the following agencies are permanent legal attaches or “legats” associated?
    A.the CIA
    B. the FBI
    C. the U.S. Secret Service
    D. the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: The Department of Homeland Security

  1. What is currently the top priority of the FBI?
    A.being a federal police agency
    B. protecting the president and other government leaders
    C. being an intelligence and counterterrorism agency
    D. enforcement of the country’s immigration laws

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: The Department of Homeland Security

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a new development in the FBI under the Obama administration?
    A.nearly tripling the number of special agents investigating mortgage fraud
    B. increasing the number of agents and analysts using intelligence to identify emerging health care fraud schemes
    C. establishing the Financial Intelligence Center to strengthen the Bureau’s financial intelligence collection and analysis
    D. increasing the number of agents working on counterterrorism

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Moderate
Topic: The Department of Homeland Security

  1. A number of factors have triggered the growth of private security in the United States. Which of the following is NOT among those factors?
    A.fewer constitutional limitations
    B. lowered citizen contact
    C. better control and attention to the problem
    D. declining revenues for public policing

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: American Private Security

  1. ________ refers to protective services that a private security firm provides to people, agencies, and companies that do not employ their own security personnel or that need extra protection, while ________ refers to in-house protective services that a security staff provides for the entity that employs it.
    A.Proprietary security; contract security
    B. External security; internal security
    C. Contract security; proprietary security
    D. Internal security; external security

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: American Private Security

 

  1. Your textbook lists four unresolved problems and issues relating to private security. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
    A.public policing in a private capacity
    B. diminished public responsibility
    C. qualifications and training
    D. political corruption from patronage jobs

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis
Level: Basic
Topic: American Private Security

  1. ________ is a model of state law enforcement services in which the agency and its officers have the same law enforcement powers as local police, anywhere within the state.
    A.The state police model
    B. The highway patrol model
    C. The constable-watch system
    D. Slave patrolling

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. ________ is a technological and management system that aims to make the police better organized and more effective crime fighters.
    A.CompStat
    B. Community policing
    C. Tithing
    D. Constable-watch

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

 

True / False Questions
 

  1. Jurisdiction is defined as a specific geographical area but does not include the right or authority of a justice agency to act in regard to a particular subject matter, territory, or person.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Limited Authority of American Law Enforcement

  1. The constable-watch system was England’s earliest form of group protection.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Limited Authority of American Law Enforcement

  1. Henry Fielding established the Bow Street Runners, who were England’s first professional detective force.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: English Roots

  1. The United States has more police departments than any other nation in the world.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

 

  1. Until the 1920s, political corruption prevented the development of professional police departments in most American cities.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

  1. During the mid-nineteenth century, it was estimated that one-third to one-half of all currency in circulation in the United States was counterfeit. By comparison, the counterfeit rate today is a fraction of a percent.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  1. It has been reported that more than half the counterfeit money in circulation is made with ink-jet printers.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  1. FBI Director Hoover insisted that organized crime in the United States (at least an Italian-dominated national syndicate) did not exist.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

 

  1. The FBI’s covert domestic counterintelligence programs (“COINTELPROS”) were used against dissidents and their organizations from 1956 through 1971.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  1. The Marijuana Tax Act of 1937, on its face, was not intended to prohibit the popular and therapeutic use of marijuana but rather to levy a token tax on anyone who imported, manufactured, produced, compounded, sold, dealt, dispensed, prescribed, administered, or gave away marijuana or any of its derivatives.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: History of Four Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  1. More than one-half of all local police departments in the United States employ fewer than ten officers, and fewer than one percent employ more than 1,000 sworn personnel.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Moderate
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. The responsibilities of the eighteenth-century Paris police were much more restricted than their modern counterparts. The police of Paris provided far fewer municipal services than today’s police.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

 

  1. Among the models for state law enforcement services is the department of public safety model.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. In community policing, the community and police jointly approach the problems of maintaining order and providing services.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

  1. At the federal level, there are more than 100 law enforcement agencies.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. Many other nations have only one police department.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. Most police agencies in the United States require complex organizational structures.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

 

  1. In the highway patrol model, the agency and its officers have essentially the same enforcement powers as local police in the state and can work cases and enforce the law anywhere within the state’s boundaries.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. States that employ the highway patrol model often have other state law enforcement agencies with narrow service mandates.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Basic
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. “Rewards for Justice,” a federal program that provides rewards for information that prevents or favorably resolves acts of international terrorism against U.S. citizens or property anywhere in the world, has paid more than $100 billion to more than 700 people as of October 2012.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

  1. Private security complements public law enforcement in the United States.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: American Private Security

 

  1. There are more private security companies in the United States than there are public law enforcement agencies.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Moderate
Topic: American Private Security

  1. More people work in public law enforcement in the United States than work in private security.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: American Private Security

  1. The majority of private security personnel receive no training before starting their jobs.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: American Private Security

  1. The fatality rate for security guards and gaming surveillance officers is at least twice as high as the rate for all workers.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Moderate
Topic: American Private Security

 

  1. Because of relatively low wages, private security officers frequently work part time or have another primary job and use their security job wages to supplement their incomes.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Level: Basic
Topic: American Private Security

 

Short Answer Questions

  1. Your textbook lists Peel’s Principles of Policing. Name 5 of these 12 principles.

Answers may include any of the following:

The police must be stable, efficient, and organized along military lines.
The police must be under government control.
The absence of crime will best prove the efficiency of police.
The distribution of crime news is essential.
The deployment of police strength both by time and area is essential.
No quality is more indispensable to a policeman than a perfect command of temper; a quiet, determined manner has more effect than violent action.
Good appearance commands respect.
The securing and training of proper persons is at the root of efficiency.
Public security demands that every police officer be given a number.
Police headquarters should be centrally located and easily accessible to the police.
Policemen should be hired on a probationary basis.
Police records are necessary to the correct distribution of police strength.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: English Roots

 

  1. The professional model, or reform model, of policing inspired by August Vollmer brought several positive results to American policing. Name five of the nine results discussed in your textbook.

Answers can include any of the following:

Narrowing of the police function from social service and the maintenance of order to law enforcement only
Centralization of authority, with the power of precinct captains and commanders checked
Creation of specialized, centrally based crime-fighting units, as for burglary
A shift from neighborhood foot patrol to motorized patrol
Implementation of patrol allocation systems based on such variables as crime rates, calls for service, and response times
Reliance on technology, such as police radios, to both control and aid the policing function
Recruitment of police officers through psychological screening and civil service testing
Specific training in law enforcement techniques

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

  1. Name the findings of the four blue-ribbon reports conducted in the 1960s and 1970s to improve American policing standards. How did this affect police selection?

All four reports noted the critical role police officers play in American society, called for careful selection of law enforcement officers, and recommended extensive and continuous training. They also recommended better police management and supervision, as well as internal and external methods of maintaining integrity in police departments. In response to these recommendations, police selection has become an expensive and elaborate process.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Synthesis
Level: Moderate
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

 

  1. Your textbook names four generalizations about American law enforcement. Identify those four generalizations.

These are the four generalizations: The quality of police services varies greatly among states and localities across the nation. There is no consensus on professional standards for police personnel, equipment, and practices. Expenditures for police services vary greatly among communities. Obtaining police services from the appropriate agency is often confusing for crime victims and other clients.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: The Development of American Law Enforcement

  1. Briefly explain what the acronym PEPPAS stands for.

PEPPAS stands for:

P—Protect life and property
E—Enforce the law
P—Prevent crime
P—Preserve the peace
A—Arrest violators
S—Serve the public

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

 

  1. Your textbook lists 18 core elements of the security field. Name 10 of these 18 elements.

Answers may include any of the following: physical security; personnel security; information systems security; investigations; loss prevention; risk management; legal aspects; emergency and contingency planning; fire protection; crisis management; disaster management; counterterrorism; competitive intelligence; executive protection; violence in the workplace; crime prevention; crime prevention through environmental design; security architecture and engineering

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: American Private Security

 

  1. The Department of Homeland Security is comprised of many components: directorates, offices, advisory panels, and committees. Name and describe six of these components.

Answers may include any of the following:

The Directorate for Management is responsible for Department budgets and appropriations, expenditure of funds, accounting and finance, procurement, human resources, information technology systems, facilities and equipment, and the identification and tracking of performance measurements.
The Directorate for Science and Technology is the primary research and development arm of the Department. It provides federal, state, and local officials with the technology and capabilities to protect the homeland.
The Directorate for National Protection and Programs works to advance the Department’s risk-reduction mission. Reducing risk requires an integrated approach that encompasses both physical and virtual threats and their associated human elements.
The Office of Policy is the primary policy formulation and coordination component for the DHS. It provides a centralized, coordinated focus to the development of Department-wide, long-range planning to protect the United States.
The Office of Health Affairs coordinates all medical activities of the DHS to ensure appropriate preparation for and response to incidents having medical significance.
The Office of Intelligence and Analysis is responsible for using information and intelligence from multiple sources to identify and assess current and future threats to the United States.
The Office of Operations Coordination and Planning is responsible for monitoring the security of the United States on a daily basis and coordinating activities within the Department and with governors, homeland security advisors, law enforcement partners, and critical infrastructure operators in all 50 states and more than 50 major urban areas nationwide.
The Federal Law Enforcement Training Center provides career-long training to law enforcement professionals to help them fulfill their responsibilities safely and proficiently.
The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office works to enhance the nuclear detection efforts of federal, state, territorial, tribal, and local governments, and the private sector and to ensure a coordinated response to such threats.
The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) protects the nation’s transportation systems to ensure freedom of movement for people and commerce.
United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is responsible for protecting our nation’s borders in order to prevent terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States, while facilitating the flow of legitimate trade and travel.
United States Citizenship and Immigration Services is responsible for the administration of immigration and naturalization adjudication functions and establishing immigration services policies and priorities.
United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the largest investigative arm of the DHS, is responsible for identifying and shutting down vulnerabilities in the nation’s border, economic, transportation, and infrastructure security.

 

The United States Coast Guard protects the public, the environment, and U.S. economic interests—in the nation’s ports and waterways, along the coast, on international waters, or in any maritime region as required to support national security.
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) prepares the nation for hazards, manages federal response and recovery efforts following any national incident, and administers the National Flood Insurance Program.
The United States Secret Service protects the president and other high-level officials and investigates counterfeiting and other financial crimes, including financial institution fraud, identity theft, computer fraud; and computer-based attacks on our nation’s financial, banking, and telecommunications infrastructure.
The Office of the Secretary of the DHS oversees activities with other federal, state, local, and private entities as part of a collaborative effort to strengthen our borders, provide for intelligence analysis and infrastructure protection, improve the use of science and technology to counter weapons of mass destruction, and create a comprehensive response and recovery system. The Office of the Secretary includes the following multiple offices that contribute to the overall Homeland Security mission.
The Privacy Office works to minimize the impact on the individual’s privacy, particularly the individual’s personal information and dignity, while achieving the mission of the DHS.
The office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties provides legal and policy advice to DHS leadership on civil rights and civil liberties issues, investigates and resolves complaints, and provides leadership to Equal Employment Opportunity Programs.
The Office of Inspector General is responsible for conducting and supervising audits, investigations, and inspections relating to the programs and operations of the DHS, recommending ways for the Department to carry out its responsibilities in the most effective, efficient, and economical manner possible.
The Citizenship and Immigration Services Ombudsman provides recommendations for resolving individual and employer problems with the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services in order to ensure national security and the integrity of the legal immigration system, increase efficiencies in administering citizenship and immigration services, and improve customer service.
The Office of Legislative Affairs serves as primary liaison to members of Congress and their staffs, the White House and Executive Branch, and to other federal agencies and governmental entities that have roles in assuring national security.
Office of the General Counsel integrates approximately 1,700 lawyers from throughout the DHS into an effective, client-oriented, full-service legal team and comprises a headquarters office with subsidiary divisions and the legal programs for eight Department components.
Office of Public Affairs coordinates the public affairs activities of all of the DHS components and offices, and serves as the federal government’s lead public information office during a national emergency or disaster. Led by the assistant secretary for public affairs, it comprises the press office, incident and strategic communications, speechwriting, Web content management, employee communications, and the Department’s Ready Campaign designed to help Americans prepare for and respond to emergencies.

 

The Office of the Executive Secretariat (ESEC) provides all manner of direct support to the secretary and deputy secretary, as well as related support to leadership and management across the DHS. This support takes many forms, the most well-known of which is accurate and timely dissemination of information and written communications from throughout the DHS and our homeland security partners to the secretary and deputy secretary.
Military Advisor’s Office advises on facilitating, coordinating and executing policy, procedures, preparedness activities and operations between the DHS and the Department of Defense.
Office of Intergovernmental Affairs (IGA) has the mission of promoting an integrated national approach to homeland security by ensuring, coordinating, and advancing federal interaction with state, local, tribal, and territorial governments.
Advisory Panels and Committees Include The Following:

Academic Engagement: Engaging the academic community in our homeland security efforts.
DHS Employees Committees & Working Groups: Supporting cooperative and productive labor-management relations.
Preparedness, Response, Recovery Committees & Working Groups: Working across government and the private sector to prepare, respond to, and recover from large-scale emergencies.
Counterterrorism Committees & Working Groups: Providing advice and recommendations on counterterrorism issues.
Immigration Committees & Working Groups: Providing advice and recommendations on immigration issues.
Privacy Committees: Working to protect privacy rights, including the handling of personality identifiable information as well as data integrity and other privacy-related matters.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Level: Moderate
Topic: The Department of Homeland Security

 

 

 

Essay Questions

  1. A local commuter train has a suspicious package on it, found during rush hour. Several passengers said an individual dressed in dark clothes with a full-face mask on entered the train at one of its stations, dropped off the package, and exited immediately. Other passengers immediately left the train and called for security. Security personnel evacuated the train and set up a perimeter of safety and shut down all train service coming into and exiting the station. Twenty minutes later, local police received an anonymous call stating that a bomb was placed on a commuter train and was set to detonate in 24-48 hours unless some prisoners were released from an overseas detention center in a Middle East country. What U.S. agencies would have some jurisdiction over the incident?

Answers will vary but should include a discussion of private security within the train station; local, county, and state police duties to assist with public safety and coordination of information to identify the suspect; proper notification and primary jurisdiction of the Department of Homeland Security (especially TSA, Office of Operations Coordination, Office of Intelligence and Analysis), the FBI (domestic terrorism and intelligence gathering), and ATF (explosive device) as primary federal agencies to investigate a threat of domestic terrorism.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Synthesis
Level: Difficult
Level: Moderate
Topic: American Private Security
Topic: The Department of Homeland Security
Topic: The Structure of American Law Enforcement

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