Human Sexuality in a world of diversity 5th Canadian Edition By Rathus – Test Bank

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1) Sexual differentiation means

  1. A) the process by which males and females develop distinct reproductive anatomy.
  2. B) the complex behaviour patterns deemed masculine or feminine in a particular culture.
  3. C) differences in the preconceptions held regarding men and women.
  4. D) the process by which children distinguish between expectations of girls and of boys.

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 126   Skill: Recall

 

2) A fertilized ovum is called a

  1. A) formation.
  2. B) zygote.
  3. C) embryo.
  4. D) fetus.

Answer: b

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 127   Skill: Recall

 

3) In the fertilization process, chromosomes from each parent combine to form

  1. A) 23 chromosomes.
  2. B) 23 pairs of chromosomes.
  3. C) 46 pairs of chromosomes.
  4. D) 92 chromosomes.

Answer: b

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 127   Skill: Recall

 

4) During the first six weeks of development, embryonic structures of both genders resemble

  1. A) primitive male structures.
  2. B) primitive female structures.
  3. C) both male and female structures.
  4. D) neither male nor female structures.

Answer: b

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 127   Skill: Recall

 

5) Sexual differentiation of gonads, genital ducts, and external genitals begins about

  1. A) seven weeks after conception.
  2. B) nine weeks after conception.
  3. C) twelve weeks after conception.
  4. D) fifteen weeks after conception.

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 127   Skill: Recall

 

6) The twenty-third pair of chromosomes determines

  1. A) sex.
  2. B) eye colour.
  3. C) height.
  4. D) weight.

Answer: a

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 127   Skill: Recall

 

7) An embryo at five to six weeks is, on average,

  1. A) 1/2 to 1 cm long.
  2. B) 1 to 2 cm long.
  3. C) 1/8 cm long.
  4. D) 2 to 3 cm long.

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 127   Skill: Recall

 

8) The basic blueprint of the human embryo is

  1. A) male.
  2. B) neither male nor female.
  3. C) female.
  4. D) both male and female.

Answer: c

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 127   Skill: Recall

 

9) Which of the following statements is true?

  1. A) The “natural course” of embryonic development is male.
  2. B) The absence of a Y chromosome alters the developmental course from male to female.
  3. C) The presence of only one X chromosome, instead of two, will result in a male fetus.
  4. D) The presence of a Y chromosome alters the developmental course from female to male.

Answer: d

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 127   Skill: Applied

 

10) If it weren’t for ________, we would all develop__________.

  1. A) androgens; female external organs
  2. B) estrogen; male external organs
  3. C) progesterone; female external organs
  4. D) FSH; male external organs

Answer: a

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 128   Skill: Recall

 

11) In male sexual differentiation, each Wolffian duct differentiates into

  1. A) the penis.
  2. B) an epididymis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicle.
  3. C) each of the two testes.
  4. D) the scrotum.

Answer: b

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 128   Skill: Recall

 

12) Differentiation of fetal tissues into external male genitals occurs under the influence of

  1. A) testosterone.
  2. B) Müllerian-inhibiting substance (MIS).
  3. C) H-Y antigen.
  4. D) dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Answer: d

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 128   Skill: Recall

 

13) In female sexual differentiation, which statement is correct?

  1. A) The Müllerian ducts develop into the fallopian tubes, the uterus, and the upper two-thirds of the vagina.
  2. B) The Müllerian ducts develop into the fallopian tubes and the Wolffian ducts develop into the uterus.
  3. C) The Müllerian ducts degenerate and the Wolffian ducts develop into the labia majora, labia minora, and the vaginal opening.
  4. D) The Wolffian ducts develop into the fallopian tubes, the ovaries, and the vagina.

Answer: a

Diff: 3                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 129   Skill: Applied

 

14) Which one of the following examples demonstrates Turner’s syndrome?

  1. A) Rick is sterile and was born with XXY-patterned chromosomes.
  2. B) Beth was born with XX chromosomes and identifies as male.
  3. C) Shane possesses both testicular and ovarian tissues.
  4. D) Pat has one X chromosome and has never developed breasts.

Answer: d

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 129   Skill: Applied

 

15) In males, the testes develop in the

  1. A) scrotal sac.
  2. B) inguinal canal.
  3. C) abdominal cavity.
  4. D) vas deferens.

Answer: c

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 129   Skill: Recall

 

16) Testosterone is a type of

  1. A) gonad.
  2. B) androgen.
  3. C) gene.
  4. D) chromosome.

Answer: b

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 128   Skill: Recall

 

17) Males that are born with an extra X chromosome are said to have

  1. A) Turner’s syndrome.
  2. B) Down’s syndrome.
  3. C) cryptorchidism.
  4. D) Klinefelter’s syndrome.

Answer: d

Diff: 3                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 128–129       Skill: Recall

 

18) Failure of the testes to descend is called

  1. A) Klinefelter’s syndrome.
  2. B) Turner’s syndrome.
  3. C) pseudo hermaphroditism.
  4. D) cryptorchidism.

Answer: d

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 129   Skill: Recall

 

19) Enrico has a genetic condition that has rendered him infertile because he cannot produce any sperm. In addition, he exhibits mild mental retardation and poor motor coordination. Enrico most likely suffers from

  1. A) Turner’s syndrome.
  2. B) Klinefelter’s syndrome.
  3. C) androgen insensitivity syndrome.
  4. D) androgenital syndrome.

Answer: b

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 129   Skill: Applied

 

20) Turner’s syndrome

  1. A) occurs when a male has an extra X chromosome.
  2. B) occurs when a genetic (XX) female possesses masculinized external genitals.
  3. C) occurs when a female has one rather than two X chromosomes.
  4. D) occurs when a male possesses an extra Y chromosome.

Answer: c

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 129   Skill: Recall

 

21) In the absence of testosterone, the hypothalamus of a female fetus develops sensitivity to

  1. A) androgens.
  2. B) Müllerian-inhibiting substance.
  3. C) FSH.
  4. D) estrogen.

Answer: d

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 129   Skill: Recall

 

22) The psychological awareness of being male or female is referred to as

  1. A) sex assignment.
  2. B) sex-role adoption.
  3. C) gender differentiation.
  4. D) gender identity.

Answer: b

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 129   Skill: Recall

 

23) Gwen was born with XX chromosomes and identifies as female. This exemplifies the experience of someone who is

  1. A) intersexed.
  2. B) transgendered.
  3. C) cisgender.
  4. D) androgynous.

Answer: c

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 129   Skill: Applied

 

24) Imagine a child who is born with XY chromosomes, and has one external testicle and one testicle within the abdomen. This condition is known as

  1. A) cryptorchidism.
  2. B) cisgenderism.
  3. C) vulvo-androgyny.
  4. D) transgenderism.

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 129   Skill: Applied

 

25) Cryptorchidism is

  1. A) a condition characterized by a lack of testosterone in males.
  2. B) a condition characterized by undescended testes
  3. C) a condition wherein an individual possesses both ovarian and testicular tissue.
  4. D) a condition characterized by an enlarged clitoris.

Answer: b

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 129   Skill: Recall

 

26) Most children acquire a firm sense of gender identity by the age of

  1. A) one.
  2. B) two.
  3. C) three.
  4. D) four.

Answer: c

Diff: 3                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 130   Skill: Recall

 

27) Hermaphroditism describes an individual who

  1. A) has a genetic pattern of either XXY or XYY.
  2. B) is a genetic (XX) female with masculinized external genitals.
  3. C) has both ovarian and testicular tissue.
  4. D) is a genetic male (XY) with feminized external genitals.

Answer: c

Diff: 3                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 130   Skill: Recall

 

28) Erica was born with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. She has female internal organs but a clitoris so enlarged it resembles a small penis. What is the cause of her masculinized external genitals?

  1. A) Excessive levels of androgens
  2. B) A higher-than-normal sensitivity to androgens
  3. C) A lower-than-normal sensitivity to estrogens
  4. D) Excessive production of estrogen and progesterone

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 130–131       Skill: Applied

 

29) Which of the following is a genetic enzyme disorder preventing masculinization of the external genitals?

  1. A) Dominican Republic syndrome
  2. B) Klinefelter’s syndrome
  3. C) Turner’s syndrome
  4. D) Androgen insensitivity syndrome

Answer: a

Diff: 3                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 131   Skill: Recall

 

30) Which one of the following exemplifies Dominican Republic syndrome?

  1. A) An infant initially resembled a female at birth, but developed physical male characteristics after puberty.
  2. B) A genetic male is born with feminine external genitals but lacks developed internal reproductive organs.
  3. C) An XX child is born with feminine internal reproductive organs but masculinized external genitalia.
  4. D) An individual is born with both male and female internal reproductive organs but without any external genitals.

Answer: a

Diff: 3                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 131   Skill: Applied

 

31) An infant is born with the following characteristics: XX chromosomes, ovaries, and a large clitoris that resembles a penis. This condition is known as

  1. A) androgen insensitivity syndrome.
  2. B) Dominican Republic syndrome.
  3. C) acquired gender dysphoria.
  4. D) congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Answer: d

Diff: 3                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 130–131       Skill: Applied

 

32) Consider a child that is born with XY chromosomes. This child has undescended testicles and a small vagina but no uterus or vas deferens. At puberty, the child does not develop pubic hair. This condition is known as

  1. A) androgen insensitivity syndrome.
  2. B) Dominican Republic syndrome.
  3. C) acquired gender dysphoria.
  4. D) congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Answer: a

Diff: 3                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 130–131       Skill: Applied

 

33) Mathus was born a male, but insists on wearing dresses and wants to be referred to as Martha. He is very distressed when his parents ask him to wear pants and act like a boy. Mathus’s experience is characteristic of

  1. A) gender dysphoria.
  2. B) cisgenderism.
  3. C) cryptorchidism.
  4. D) hermaphroditism.

Answer: a

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 131   Skill: Applied

 

34) The concept of “third gender” or “third sex” refers to

  1. A) individuals who are considered neither male nor female.
  2. B) individuals who undergo gender reassignment surgery.
  3. C) cross-dressers.
  4. D) transgendered people.

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 133   Skill: Recall

 

35) Margot was born with XY chromosomes and male genitals, but assumes a feminine gender role and identifies as neither male nor female. In Samoan culture, Margot would be known as

  1. A) homosexual.
  2. B) a ladyboy.
  3. C) fa’afafine.
  4. D) berdache.

Answer: c

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 133   Skill: Applied

 

36) Jaime is sexually aroused by fantasies that he has a woman’s body. Jaime would be categorized as

  1. A) autogynephilic.
  2. B) gender dysphoric.
  3. C) transgender.
  4. D) phallophobic.

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 134   Skill: Applied

 

37) According to the text, transgender people usually

  1. A) show cross-gender preferences in play and dress early in childhood.
  2. B) have very rigid notions of gender and the behaviours associated with gender.
  3. C) are aware of their transgender feelings very early in childhood.
  4. D) do not show cross-gender preferences in play or dress until adolescence.

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 134   Skill: Conceptual, Applied

 

38) Which is true regarding gender reassignment surgery for female to male reassignment?

  1. A) Many FTM individuals do not bother to have phalloplasty.
  2. B) The ovaries are removed but the uterus and vagina are kept intact.
  3. C) An artificial penis is constructed that can become naturally erect.
  4. D) The uterus and breasts are removed but the ovaries are kept intact.

Answer: a

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 135   Skill: Applied

 

39) According to research by Smith et al. (2005), most reports of postoperative adjustment of transgender people

  1. A) indicate that many regret their decisions.
  2. B) indicate that individuals are no happier than they were prior to surgery.
  3. C) indicate that most were content with the results of their surgeries.
  4. D) indicate that many experience psychological problems.

Answer: c

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 135   Skill: Recall

 

40) In a study of 326 Dutch candidates for gender reassignment surgery, of 222 receiving hormone treatment, ______ dropped out before surgery.

  1. A) about 90%
  2. B) 64%
  3. C) 15%
  4. D) none

Answer: c

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 135   Skill: Recall

 

41) Which statement is true regarding postoperative adjustment for transgender individuals?

  1. A) Postoperative adjustment is more favourable for male-to-female transgender individuals.
  2. B) Postoperative adjustment is more favourable for female-to-male transgender individuals.
  3. C) Postoperative adjustment does not differ between male-to-female and female-to-male transgender individuals.
  4. D) Postoperative adjustment is more favourable for younger transgender individuals.

Answer: b

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 135   Skill: Recall

 

42) Gender roles can be described as

  1. A) developmentally appropriate male and female behaviour.
  2. B) culturally determined expectations for male and female behaviour.
  3. C) biologically determined male and female behaviour.
  4. D) male and female sexual roles.

Answer: b

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 137   Skill: Applied

 

43) The prejudgment that a person will possess certain traits because of their gender is called

  1. A) gender typing.
  2. B) sexism.
  3. C) gender role assignment.
  4. D) gender misconception.

Answer: b

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 137   Skill: Recall

 

44) Mario sees women as incapable of making intellectual decisions and believes that their emotions will always cause them to buckle under pressure. Mario’s ideas regarding women exemplify

  1. A) gender identity.
  2. B) gender roles.
  3. C) sexism.
  4. D) machismo.

Answer: c

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 137   Skill: Applied

 

45) Gender typing is

  1. A) education and legislation on gender.
  2. B) how children interact with others.
  3. C) the process by which children acquire behaviour that is deemed appropriate to their gender.
  4. D) all of the above.

Answer: c

Diff: 3                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 138   Skill: Recall

 

46) Which of the following statements is true with regard to gender differences when considering higher education?

  1. A) More men than women attend university.
  2. B) There is a general decline in enrolment to universities for both genders.
  3. C) Over half of students enrolled in university are women.
  4. D) The number of women enrolled in university has remained steady since 1990.

Answer: c

Diff: 3                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 138   Skill: Applied

 

47) According to the ________ perspective, the story of the survival of our ancient ancestors is etched in our genes.

  1. A) biological
  2. B) evolutionary
  3. C) psychological
  4. D) social-learning

Answer: b

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 139   Skill: Applied

 

48) Dr. Jameson believes that males are better suited to hunting because of physical attributes such as greater upper-body strength. He further believes that this attribute was selected to increase survival. What perspective is Dr. Jameson advocating?

  1. A) Biological
  2. B) Evolutionary
  3. C) Cross-cultural
  4. D) Psychological

Answer: b

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 139   Skill: Applied

 

49) Prenatal sexual differentiation of the brain may explain why

  1. A) females have a larger right hemisphere and are more verbal.
  2. B) males have a larger left hemisphere and are superior at visual–spatial tasks.
  3. C) females have a larger hypothalamic region than males.
  4. D) males have more growth in the right hemisphere than in the left.

Answer: d

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 139   Skill: Applied

 

50) The view that stereotypical gender roles reflect a natural order to things is central to

  1. A) the psychoanalytic theory.
  2. B) the evolutionary perspective.
  3. C) the social-cognitive theory.
  4. D) the gender-schema theory.

Answer: b

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 139   Skill: Recall

 

51) Which statement would be disputed by critics of the evolutionary theory?

  1. A) Men are better suited for hunting because of upper-body strength.
  2. B) Women are better suited for childcare since they are more nurturing and empathetic than men.
  3. C) Prenatal sex hormones may predispose men to be more aggressive than women.
  4. D) Girls are encouraged to imitate caretaking behaviour at an early age

Answer: b

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 139   Skill: Applied

 

52) Mykos is a one-year-old boy. Given this information, we might expect him to

  1. A) have acquired and internalized a male gender identity.
  2. B) have preferences for stereotypically male toys.
  3. C) believe that girls should only play with dolls.
  4. D) be able to solve the psychosexual conflict of the phallic stage.

Answer: b

Diff: 3                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 139–141       Skill: Applied

 

53) According to psychoanalytic theory, appropriate gender typing occurs when

  1. A) the Oedipus complex is resolved.
  2. B) a child enters the Electra stage.
  3. C) the psychosexual stage is completed.
  4. D) a child enters adolescence.

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 140   Skill: Recall

 

54) According to Freud, gender typing is best explained in terms of

  1. A) the oral stage of psychosexual development.
  2. B) identification with the same-gender parent.
  3. C) the modelling of sex-role behaviours children witness from parents.
  4. D) socialization.

Answer: b

Diff: 3                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 140   Skill: Applied

 

55) According to research, infants as young as three to eight months

  1. A) indicate a preference for female faces.
  2. B) indicate a preference for female voices.
  3. C) show gender-typed visual preferences.
  4. D) are aware of gender roles.

Answer: c

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 140   Skill: Applied

 

56) Five-year-old Tyler plays dress-up in his sister’s clothes. His father is furious, orders his son to immediately wash off the makeup, and will not allow Tyler to play dress-up again. What process is Tyler’s father using to teach gender typing?

  1. A) Modelling
  2. B) Identification
  3. C) Observational learning
  4. D) Socialization

Answer: d

Diff: 3                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 140   Skill: Applied

 

57) Tom is a six-year-old boy who believes that his father turns into a woman when he shaves his beard. This is because Tim has not yet developed the concept of gender

  1. A) identity.
  2. B) stability.
  3. C) schemata.
  4. D) constancy.

Answer: d

Diff: 3                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 141–142       Skill: Applied

 

58) Cognitive-developmental theory entails a concept of

  1. A) gender availability, gender stability, and gender identity.
  2. B) gender constancy, gender stability, and gender identity.
  3. C) gender constancy, gender flexibility, and gender identity.
  4. D) gender constancy, gender comprehension, and gender identity.

Answer: b

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 141   Skill: Recall

 

59) In Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental theory, gender constancy

  1. A) develops in most children by age seven or eight.
  2. B) develops in most children by age three or four.
  3. C) does not fully develop until adolescence.
  4. D) does not develop until sexual maturity.

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 141   Skill: Recall

 

60) Julia is two years old. She knows that she is a girl, but she talks about growing up and being a daddy. She does not yet have an understanding of

  1. A) gender identity.
  2. B) gender stability.
  3. C) gender constancy.
  4. D) gender permanence.

Answer: b

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 141   Skill: Conceptual, Applied

 

61) The complex cognitive network of ideas through which a child interprets and organizes information about gender is called a

  1. A) sex role.
  2. B) gender stereotype.
  3. C) gender pattern.
  4. D) gender schema.

Answer: d

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 141   Skill: Recall

 

62) Five-year-old Anika believes that girls do not play football, climb trees, or hit each other. Instead, girls play dress-up, draw, and like to dance. According to Sandra Bem, Anika

  1. A) is sexually differentiated.
  2. B) has a self-concept that is inconsistent with cultural views of femaleness.
  3. C) has acquired a gender schema.
  4. D) has low self-esteem.

Answer: c

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 142   Skill: Applied

 

63) Research on heterosexual behaviours indicates that

  1. A) men are much more likely to have engaged in oral sex.
  2. B) differences in the numbers of men and women who have engaged in oral sex are small.
  3. C) men are much more sexually permissive than women.
  4. D) men report many more lifetime sexual partners than women.

Answer: b

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 143   Skill: Applied

 

64) Which of the following exemplifies the sexual double standard?

  1. A) Terry prefers to pay for her date’s dinner, but will occasionally let her date pay.
  2. B) Marna thinks that everyone should wait until marriage before having sex.
  3. C) Gord dates four women at once, but will not date a woman with multiple boyfriends.
  4. D) Nolan feels that it is unfair that women expect men to approach them for a date.

Answer: c

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 143   Skill: Applied

 

65) Evolutionary theory would predict that men are more likely than women to

  1. A) wait until marriage to have sex.
  2. B) desire same-sex sexual encounters.
  3. C) have multiple concurrent sex partners.
  4. D) be sexually faithful to their spouse.

Answer: c

Diff: 3                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 144   Skill: Applied

 

66) Which region of the world has the highest percentage of men wanting more than one sexual partner?

  1. A) South America
  2. B) North America
  3. C) Western Europe
  4. D) Africa

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 145   Skill: Recall

 

67) The belief that “it is natural for men to sow their wild oats,” but that women who choose to do so are “nymphomaniacs,” is evidence of

  1. A) a double standard.
  2. B) a sexual schema.
  3. C) gender differentiation.
  4. D) a reverse double standard.

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 146   Skill: Recall

 

68) A 2001 study of Canadian men and women regarding sexual freedom and gender found that

  1. A) more men believe that women have greater sexual freedom.
  2. B) more men believe that men have greater sexual freedom.
  3. C) more men believe that sexual freedom is equal between men and women.
  4. D) more women believe that women have greater sexual freedom.

Answer: a

Diff: 3                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 146   Skill: Recall

 

69) Research on the differences in sexual attitudes and behaviours between men and women has found that

  1. A) men are more accepting of masturbation than women.
  2. B) women enjoy casual sex more than men.
  3. C) men are more likely to view sexually explicit material on the Internet than women.
  4. D) men are much more likely to have masturbated than women.

Answer: c

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 146   Skill: Recall

 

70) Imagine you are a researcher who wants to examine the perceptions of women with multiple sexual partners. You hypothesize that participants will rate these women negatively because of societal expectations. What could you do to compensate for potential social desirability bias?

  1. A) Recruit psychologically androgynous participants.
  2. B) Assess attitudes with an implicit association task.
  3. C) Measure stereotype endorsement with a questionnaire.
  4. D) Require participants to think deeply about the question.

Answer: b

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 148   Skill: Applied

 

71) Psychological androgyny is a term used to describe

  1. A) males who display more feminine than masculine traits.
  2. B) males and females who display high assertion and instrumental skills.
  3. C) females who display more masculine than feminine traits.
  4. D) males and females who display both masculine and feminine traits.

Answer: d

Diff: 2                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 148–149       Skill: Recall

 

72) Sandeep is an assertive leader in his workplace, but is a nurturing and sensitive father at home. Sandeep is demonstrating

  1. A) psychological androgyny.
  2. B) the sexual double standard.
  3. C) sexually divided labour.
  4. D) a traditional family role.

Answer: a

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 148–149       Skill: Applied

 

73) The model of psychological androgyny has been criticized by some feminist writers because it

  1. A) stereotypes masculine and feminine sex roles.
  2. B) perpetuates masculine and feminine gender roles.
  3. C) excludes the concept of bisexuality.
  4. D) does not address gender inequity issues.

Answer: b

Diff: 1                     Type: MC        Page Reference: 149   Skill: Applied

 

74) Match the disorder with the correct description of its symptoms and/or cause.

1. Males possess an extra X chromosome, resulting in enlarged breasts, poor muscular development, and infertility. A) Klinefelter’s syndrome
2. Females are missing an X chromosome and do not develop ovaries, or have ovaries that fail to function normally. B) Turner’s syndrome
3. An individual possesses either one ovary and one testicle or gonads that combine testicular and ovarian tissue. C) Hermaphroditism
4. Genetic XY males had a lower-than-normal prenatal sensitivity to androgens. D) Androgen insensitivity syndrome
5. A genetic female has female internal structures but masculinized genitals. E) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
6. This genetic enzyme disorder prevents testosterone from masculinizing the external genitalia. F) Dominican Republic syndrome
7. Male infants born with one external testicle and one testicle within the abdomen. G) Cryptorchidism

Answers: 1-a, 2-b, 3-c, 4-d, 5-e, 6-f, 7-g

Diff: 2         Type: Matching                       Page Reference: 129–131       Skill: Applied

 

75) We would all develop female sexual organs if male sex hormones were not present during critical stages of prenatal development.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: a

Diff: 1                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 128   Skill: Applied

 

76) Klinefelter’s syndrome is a disorder caused by an extra Y sex chromosome.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: b

Diff: 2                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 129   Skill: Applied

 

77) It is impossible for a male to be affected by Turner’s syndrome.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 129   Skill: Applied

 

78) Boys with Dominican Republic syndrome resembled girls at birth and were reared as females.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: a

Diff: 1                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 131   Skill: Applied

 

79) Gender reassignment surgery is the leading recommended treatment for gender non-conforming children.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: b

Diff: 1                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 132   Skill: Applied

 

80) An individual with hermaphroditism would be considered a “third gender” in Thailand.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: b

Diff: 1                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 136   Skill: Applied

 

81) Gender roles are stereotypes because they evoke fixed expectations of men and women.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: a

Diff: 1                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 137   Skill: Applied

 

82) A professor who refuses to hire a female research assistant because he believes women are too emotional is demonstrating sexism.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: a

Diff: 1                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 137–38         Skill: Applied

 

83) There is currently no income gap between men’s and women’s annual wages.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: b

Diff: 2                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 138   Skill: Applied

 

84) Sex differences in visual–spatial skills result from underlying differences in neurological development.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 139   Skill: Applied

 

85) Social-cognitive theorists believe that behaviour is dictated by our genes.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: b

Diff: 2                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 140   Skill: Applied

 

86) In males, testosterone spurs greater growth of the right hemisphere and slows the rate of growth of the left hemisphere.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 139   Skill: Applied

 

87) Freud believed that through identification with the same-gender parent, children adopt gender-typed behaviours typically associated with their gender.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: a

Diff: 1                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 140   Skill: Applied

 

88) Appropriate gender typing, in Freud’s view, requires that boys come to identify with their mothers and girls with their fathers.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: b

Diff: 1                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 140   Skill: Applied

 

89) In interactions with infants, fathers handle boys and girls differently.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: a

Diff: 1                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 140   Skill: Applied

 

90) Children’s preferences for stereotypically gendered toys are due to the child’s acquired knowledge of gender roles.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: b

Diff: 3                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 140   Skill: Applied

 

91) A six-year-old child will understand that their anatomical sex will not change over time.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 141   Skill: Applied

 

92) Lawrence Kohlberg claims that gender typing is the product of environmental influences, and thus children do not play an active role.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: b

Diff: 1                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 141   Skill: Applied

 

93) The concept of gender stability is the recognition that people retain their genders for a lifetime.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: a

Diff: 2                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 141   Skill: Applied

 

94) Children who develop self-concepts that are consistent with the prominent gender schema of their culture have lower self-esteem.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: b

Diff: 2                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 142   Skill: Applied

 

95) Both male and female adolescents indicate that girls are more likely to be negatively labelled by their peers for the same sexual behaviours for which boys are admired.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: a

Diff: 1              Type: TF         Page Reference: 146   Skill: Applied

 

96) Men may report fewer sexual partners than they have actually had, because they want to conform to societal expectations.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer: b

Diff: 2                     Type: TF         Page Reference: 148   Skill: Applied

 

97) Explain the prenatal sexual differentiation of a male. Include in your answer the roles of testosterone, Müllerian and Wolffian ducts, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and Müllerian-inhibiting substance (MIS).

 

Answer:

– Start as female; then with the Y chromosome and testosterone, they produce and develop epidiymis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicles from the Wolffian ducts

– DHT will cause growth of the external genitals; MIS prevents Müllerian ducts from developing the female duct system

Diff: 2                     Type: ES         Page Reference: 126–129                   Skill: Integrated

 

98) Explain the prenatal sexual differentiation of a female. Include in your answer the roles of androgens, and the Wolffian and Müllerian ducts.

 

Answer:

– Without androgens, the Müllerian ducts turn into the female reproductive system, and the Wolffian ducts do not turn into the male duct system.

Diff: 2                     Type: ES         Page Reference: 126–129                   Skill: Integrated

 

99) Differentiate between Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, androgen insensitivity syndrome, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia in terms of causes and effects.

 

Answer:

– Klinefelter’s: extra X; failure to develop appropriate secondary sex characteristics

-Turner’s: one less X; lack of puberty

– AIS: lower than normal prenatal androgen sensitivity; genitals do not become normally masculinized

– CAH: too much androgen/receptiveness to the androgens; genetic female has masculinized external genitalia

Diff: 2                     Type: ES         Page Reference: 128–130                   Skill: Integrated

 

100) Discuss the causes and effects of Dominican Republic syndrome. Defend your position as to whether you would live as a male or female if you had this condition.

 

Answer:

– Genetic enzyme disorder that prevents testosterone from masculinizing external genitalia

– Poorly formed scrotums, small penises resembling clitorises

– Boys with this syndrome resembled girls at birth and were reared as females

– With the production of testosterone at puberty these problems are corrected with the increased production of androgens

– Of 18 boys reared as girls, 17 assumed male gender identities

Diff: 3                     Type: ES         Page Reference: 129–131       Skill: Integrated/Conceptual

 

101) Explain the psychological and physical processes involved in gender reassignment surgery.

 

Answer:

– Those seeking gender reassignment surgery usually live openly as members of the other sex for extended trial periods of time before surgery.

– Hormone therapy is begun prior to surgical intervention; surgical processes may include phonosurgery, phalloplasty, hysterectomies, mastectomies.

– Trans individuals experience societal and personal pressures, but the majority report positive post-surgery experiences.

– More positive post-surgery adjustments occur for female to male transition; society tends to be more accepting of women who transition to men.

Diff: 2                     Type: ES         Page Reference: 134–135                   Skill: Integrated

 

102) Douglas imagines that he will have at least 15 different sexual partners in his lifetime. In contrast, Maya would like to have 5 different sex partners during her life. How do the evolutionary psychology perspective and the social psychology perspective differ in their explanations for sex differences in desired number of sex partners?

 

Answer:

– Evolutionary: differences stem from sexual strategies where males realize reproductive success through a higher number of matings, whereas women’s fitness cannot be increased this way and is more likely to be focused on long-term committed relationships with fewer men

– Social: reported sex differences stem from social desirability biases where males are expected and encouraged to be more sexually driven but women’s sexual scripts are characterized by passivity (traditional sexual script)

Diff: 3                     Type: ES         Page Reference: 142, 144                   Skill: Applied

 

103) Rashad refuses to date women who have one-night stands, although he himself will have one-night stands. Label and define this phenomenon using research examples.

 

Answer:

– This phenomenon is called the sexual double standard.

– Research indicates that women tend to be more harshly judged for sexual behaviour that is tolerated, or even admired, in men.

– Milhausen and Herold (2001) found that more women than men believed that men had greater sexual freedom than women.

– Most reported that they believed a double standard existed in Canada, but they personally endorsed a single double standard for both men and women.

– A Nova Scotia study found that all participants had observed or experienced a double standard during their adolescence.

 

Diff: 1                     Type: ES         Page Reference: 146               Skill: Applied

 

104) Describe psychological androgyny. Would you prefer to have male, female, or both male and female attributes? Discuss the reasons for your choice.

 

Answer:

– A state characterized by possession of both stereotypical masculine traits and stereotypical feminine traits

 

Diff: 2                     Type: ES         Page Reference: 148–149                   Skill: Conceptual

 

 

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