Health Psychology A Biopsychosocial Approach 5th Edition By Straub – Test Bank


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1. Describe some of the factors that have been advanced to help explain the individual differences in the way people cope with stress. As a part of your answer, be sure to specify how coping is best defined.



2. Differentiate problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. Give a specific example demonstrating under what circumstances each type of coping might be seen as most appropriately adaptive.



3. The impact of low socioeconomic status on stress management, health, and illness has been empirically studied and examined for some time. Discuss how this impact has the potential to be mediated by effective coping mechanisms, stress management training, or other interventions.



4. Explain the concept of racial microaggressions. Discuss how the minority stress model, personal identity, and socioeconomic factors influence the coping responses of individuals who are targeted by microaggressions. Provide at least one empirically supported intervention that can be used to enhance the coping mechanisms of targeted individuals.



5. Describe the specific characteristics of the resilient personality that are demonstrated by healthy individuals. What empirical evidence links this type of personality to positive physical and mental health outcomes?



6. Define two types of explanatory style and their connection to the concept of self-efficacy, and discuss the relationship of each explanatory style to coping, health, and illness.



7. Explain the importance of self-regulation and personal control in coping with stressful events.



8. Imagine that you have been given the task of designing a stress-management program to help students cope with the demands of college. What would your program consist of? Why?




Answer Key






1. Coping is best defined as:
  A) the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional ways in which people manage stressful situations.
  B) a one-time reaction to a potentially stressful event.
  C) any attempt to control one’s emotional response to a stressor.
  D) any attempt to increase one’s resources for meeting the demands of a stressor.



2. The consideration of coping as a dynamic process implies that coping:
  A) involves a wide range of actions and reactions to stress.
  B) efforts are moderated by personal resources.
  C) involves an ongoing set of responses by which the person continues to act on the environment.
  D) involves an ongoing set of responses by which the person and the environment are involved in a reciprocal interaction.



3. Which of these is NOT true of coping?
  A) It may be adaptive or maladaptive.
  B) It is closely related to how a given stressor is appraised.
  C) It is a one-time reaction.
  D) It is a goal-directed response aimed at managing stressful situations.



4. Crystal uses ______ coping methods—she confronts her stressors head-on and takes direct action.
  A) emotion-based
  B) minimizing
  C) avoidance
  D) emotional-approach



5. Hunter uses a(n) ______ coping method because he typically feels most comfortable trying to actively and consciously evade the problem he is facing.
  A) emotional-approach
  B) avoidant
  C) minimizing
  D) problem-focused



6. Emotion-focused efforts would theoretically be most effective in coping with the worry and stress caused by:
  A) having two final exams scheduled for the same day.
  B) waiting to hear if your application to graduate school has been accepted.
  C) receiving a notice that your taxes will be audited by the IRS next week.
  D) being laid off from work.



7. Which example does NOT demonstrate emotion-focused coping?
  A) speaking to a close friend about your feelings
  B) using alcohol to avoid thinking about a problem
  C) keeping busy to avoid thinking about a problem
  D) joining an anger-management support group



8. Psychologically distancing oneself from a stressor is an example of which type of coping?
  A) emotion-focused coping
  B) problem-focused coping
  C) proactive coping
  D) reactive coping



9. Coping strategies that are ______ are more often linked with better health outcomes, particularly when used for chronic stressors.
  A) problem-focused
  B) emotion-focused
  C) rumination-based
  D) avoidant



10. After getting a bad grade on an exam, Brandon can’t stop continually thinking about his failure as a student. Brandon’s thought process is an example of:
  A) problem-focused coping.
  B) rumination.
  C) emotion-focused coping.
  D) avoidant coping.



11. James, who can’t stop thinking about his poor exam score, sometimes gets so worked up in a vicious cycle of rumination that he resorts to “self-medicating” with alcohol. This destructive pattern is called a(n):
  A) rumination-compulsion cycle.
  B) emotional rollercoaster.
  C) lose-lose scenario.
  D) emotional cascade.



12. Karen, who is working through her emotional reactions to losing her job by seeking out others who have been through the same experience, is using:
  A) avoidance coping.
  B) emotional-approach coping.
  C) problem-focused coping.
  D) rumination.



13. Physiologically, men and women differ in how they cope with stress in each of these ways EXCEPT:
  A) Men display greater stress-induced secretions of catecholamines.
  B) Men exhibit higher blood pressure reactivity immediately after stress.
  C) Women exhibit larger increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) during stressful laboratory tasks.
  D) Women exhibit a stronger glucocorticoid response to stress than men.



14. In explaining gender differences in coping, the text suggests that:
  A) men are more likely to use problem-focused coping strategies in dealing with stress.
  B) women are more likely to use emotion-focused strategies in dealing with stress.
  C) gender differences in coping styles disappear when women and men of similar socioeconomic status are compared.
  D) men are more likely to ruminate in dealing with stress.



15. Emotional-approach coping may be less effective for men who:
  A) display high levels of masculinity and experience gender role conflict.
  B) have been socialized into a flexible norm of masculinity.
  C) are unsure of their gender identity.
  D) tend to engage in passive behaviors in dealing with stress.



16. Which statement about gender differences in coping with stress is true?
  A) Women and men do not differ in their physical reactions to stressful events.
  B) Men are better than women at reading people’s emotional cues.
  C) Men and women of similar socioeconomic status tend to be similar in their coping strategies.
  D) Women are more likely to “act out” their reactions to potential stressors.



17. People who are higher in socioeconomic status (SES) have each of these EXCEPT:
  A) lower morbidity for chronic disease.
  B) lower mortality from all causes of death.
  C) reduced rates of disability.
  D) a stronger inflammatory response to environmental stressors.



18. An increased risk for hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes is associated with:
  A) high levels of psychological control.
  B) having an underreactive emotional style.
  C) chronic inflammation.
  D) high SES.



19. Children from low-socioeconomic homes are more likely to experience each of these EXCEPT:
  A) divorce.
  B) frequent school transfers.
  C) punitive parenting.
  D) a stronger cellular immune response to potential stressors.



20. A strong sense of psychological control has NOT been related to:
  A) a stronger immune response to allergens.
  B) successful coping.
  C) rumination and emotional cascades.
  D) a lower overall risk of death.



21. People of low socioeconomic status tend to rely less on ______ coping than do people with more education and higher incomes.
  A) emotion-focused
  B) problem-focused
  C) avoidant
  D) emotion-focused and avoidant



22. People who engage in fantasizing, antisocial behaviors, and passive behaviors to cope with stress are using which type of approach?
  A) emotional-approach coping
  B) minimizingcoping
  C) avoidant coping
  D) problem-focused coping



23. Which statement was NOT offered as an explanation for the interactions among socioeconomic status, gender, and ethnicity among African-Americans in relation to their ability to cope with stress?
  A) Among African-Americans, middle-class men report higher levels of discrimination than women.
  B) The attainment of middle-class status is often marginal for African-Americans.
  C) At every level of education, African-American men have lower incomes than European-American men.
  D) The pay gap between African-Americans and European-Americans is larger for women than for men.



24. People of color often receive marginalizing messages and insults from people who seem unaware of what they are doing. These messages are examples of:
  A) microaggressions.
  B) John Henryism.
  C) emotional cascades.
  D) rumination.



25. A key factor in promoting the ability of some children to bounce back from environmental stressors that might otherwise disrupt their development is:
  A) having well-developed elements of social cognition.
  B) perceiving strong social support from at least one other person.
  C) being able to resist the destructive forces of their peer group.
  D) having well-developed elements of social cognition and perceiving strong social support from at least one other person.



26. Among adults, resilience has been associated with each of these EXCEPT:
  A) forgiveness.
  B) low self-efficacy.
  C) a sense of purpose in life.
  D) lower incidence of anxiety and depression.



27. Depression is more common in:
  A) non-Western cultures.
  B) cultures in which individualism is subordinate to cooperation and a sense of community.
  C) Western, individualistic cultures.
  D) countries in which the per capita income is very low.



28. An individual with a pessimistic explanatory style is more likely to interpret negative events in terms of ______ factors.
  A) external, unstable, specific
  B) external, stable, global
  C) internal, unstable, global
  D) internal, stable, global



29. Martin Seligman has found that humans who are exposed to events they cannot control may develop:
  A) vagal tone.
  B) bipolar disorder.
  C) epidemic hopelessness.
  D) a repressive coping style.



30. Which statement does NOT identify a possible mechanism by which pessimism might shorten life?
  A) Pessimists experience more unpleasant events.
  B) Pessimists are less likely to comply with medical treatment regimens.
  C) Pessimists have weaker immune systems than optimists.
  D) Pessimists tend to be risk takers and thrill seekers.



31. Researchers have found that optimists may cope more effectively because they are more likely to use ______ as a coping strategy.
  A) denial
  B) distancing
  C) problem-focused coping
  D) accepting personal responsibility



32. Reduced levels of C-reactive protein, a biological marker of ______, is generally associated with ______ affective states.
  A) inflammation; positive
  B) inflammation; negative
  C) immunity; positive
  D) immunity; negative



33. People who are optimistic:
  A) tend to use denial as a means of coping with stress.
  B) may recover more quickly from heart surgery.
  C) tend to have more health problems.
  D) tend to use emotion-focused coping.



34. Segerstrom and colleagues found that optimistic law students:
  A) had higher CD4 cell counts over the semester than did pessimists.
  B) were more likely to appraise their coursework as a challenge rather than as a threat.
  C) exercised more and avoided smoking and alcohol abuse.
  D) had higher CD4 cell counts over the semester than did pessimists and were more likely to appraise their coursework as a challenge rather than as a threat.



35. The belief that one can determine one’s own internal states and behavior, influence one’s environment, and/or bring about desired outcomes is:
  A) optimism.
  B) personal control.
  C) self-efficacy.
  D) hardiness.



36. Self-efficacy refers to:
  A) the belief that one will be able to deal with potentially stressful situations.
  B) a person’s overall sense of self-worth.
  C) the unrealistic belief that everything will always turn out for the best.
  D) strong control over one’s moods and behaviors.



37. A strong sense of personal control has been associated with:
  A) the tendency to use adaptive, problem-focused coping.
  B) impaired immune functioning.
  C) the release of pain-relieving beta-endorphins.
  D) increased secretion of corticosteroids.



38. Our capacity to modulate our thinking, emotions, and behavior is called:
  A) vagal tone.
  B) hardiness.
  C) self-efficacy.
  D) regulatory control.



39. Threat appraisals have been linked with:
  A) increased myocardial reactivity.
  B) enhanced vascular responses.
  C) decreases in diastolic blood pressure.
  D) increases in cardiac output.



40. Challenge appraisals have been linked to:
  A) increased cardiovascular reactivity.
  B) enhanced vascular responses.
  C) increases in diastolic blood pressure.
  D) decreases in cardiac output.



41. Students with high vagal tone or regulatory control:
  A) are less likely to use constructive coping strategies.
  B) are more likely to use constructive coping strategies.
  C) tend to rely on emotion-focused coping.
  D) have weaker immune systems.



42. In their study of nursing home residents, Langer and Rodin found that residents were happier and healthier when:
  A) they were given a plant that would be cared for by staff.
  B) they were encouraged to make decisions for themselves.
  C) they were reassured that all of their needs would be met.
  D) they shared a room with at least one other person.



43. Repressive coping is best defined as:
  A) a problem-focused coping style in which we inhibit emotional responses.
  B) an emotion-focused coping style in which we inhibit emotional responses.
  C) the tendency to obsess and be overwhelmed by persistent thoughts about stressful experiences.
  D) the perception of having no control over stressors.



44. Information from others that one is loved and cared for and is a part of a network of communication is called:
  A) coping.
  B) internal resources.
  C) social support.
  D) external resources.



45. Which of these is NOT a documented health benefit of perceiving strong social support?
  A) faster recovery from a variety of diseases
  B) lower mortality rates
  C) less depression in the face of a terminal illness
  D) having fewer sources of stress in one’s life



46. The Alameda County Study found that:
  A) men with the fewest social contacts had twice the mortality rate of men with the most social contacts.
  B) men at every age had higher mortality rates than women.
  C) low-SES women had higher mortality rates than their more affluent and better-educated counterparts.
  D) women who perceived role overload had higher morbidity rates than women who adopted fewer roles.



47. Researchers have found that people who perceive they have strong social support are less likely to ruminate about their plight when confronting stressors than those who feel more alienated from others. This finding supports the:
  A) buffering hypothesis.
  B) direct effect hypothesis.
  C) helplessness hypothesis.
  D) broaden-and-build theory.



48. According to the ______ hypothesis, social support enhances the body’s physical responses to challenging situations.
  A) buffering
  B) direct effect
  C) indirect effect
  D) stereotype threat



49. The type of social support that is most helpful in dealing with uncontrollable stressors is:
  A) informational support.
  B) instrumental support.
  C) social companionship.
  D) emotional support.



50. Research studies have found that a sense of humor and pet ownership are NOT linked with:
  A) lower blood pressure responses to stress.
  B) reduced epinephrine secretion.
  C) increased natural killer cell activity.
  D) reduced oxytocin secretion.



51. Which of these has been demonstrated to bolster the immune system, reduce the secretion of epinephrine and cortisol, and protect against coronary disease?
  A) hypnosis
  B) progressive muscle relaxation
  C) laughter
  D) meditation



52. The association between religious involvement and life expectancy best illustrates the value of:
  A) biofeedback.
  B) the faith factor.
  C) emotion-focused coping.
  D) social support.



53. One possible explanation for the longer life expectancy of religiously active people is that:
  A) they respond to stress with lower vagal tone.
  B) they receive more social support.
  C) their sympathetic nervous system responds to challenges with greater arousal.
  D) women tend to be more religiously active than men.



54. The technique of teaching a person to relax by successively tensing and relaxing different muscle groups is known as:
  A) biofeedback.
  B) autogenic training.
  C) the relaxation response.
  D) progressive muscle relaxation.



55. Doug, a 50-year-old corporate executive and Type A personality, was recently diagnosed with chronic hypertension. Doug would probably benefit most from:
  A) pain control medication.
  B) acupuncture.
  C) dietary therapy.
  D) relaxation therapy.



56. The relaxation response associated with meditation is most likely to:
  A) decrease oxygen consumption and decrease blood pressure.
  B) increase oxygen consumption and increase blood pressure.
  C) increase oxygen consumption and decrease blood pressure.
  D) decrease oxygen consumption and increase blood pressure.



57. A form of therapy that focuses on using structured meditation to promote a moment-to-moment, nonjudgmental awareness is called:
  A) self-affirmation therapy.
  B) progressive muscle relaxation.
  C) mindfulness-based stress reduction.
  D) Tai Chi.



58. Neuroimaging studies have shown that mindfulness training seems to increase activity in the:
  A) prefrontal cortex.
  B) amygdala.
  C) hypothalamus.
  D) medulla.



59. Using fMRI, one study found that volunteers who completed an eight-week course of mindfulness-based stress reduction training exhibited ______ density in their ______.
  A) increased; hippocampus
  B) decreased; hippocampus
  C) increased; amygdala
  D) decreased; amygdala



60. Cognitive behavioral therapists teach people to manage stress by changing their:
  A) personality traits.
  B) behaviors.
  C) thought patterns.
  D) philosophy of life.



61. Darren’s psychologist is trying to replace his client’s vicious cycle of maladaptive, self-defeating thoughts with healthier, adaptive ones, by, most likely, using:
  A) mindfulness-based stress reduction.
  B) relaxation therapy.
  C) stress-inoculation training.
  D) cognitive restructuring.



62. The form of therapy in which people learn to confront stressful events before they occur is called:
  A) rational emotive therapy.
  B) cognitive therapy.
  C) stress inoculation training.
  D) noncontingent therapy.



63. Which of the following is NOT a stage in stress inoculation training?
  A) evaluation
  B) conceptualization
  C) skills acquisition
  D) follow-through



64. Researchers investigating disclosure through expressive writing have found that people who freely express their feelings about traumatic events:
  A) show increased levels of physiological arousal.
  B) have difficulty maintaining adequate levels of social support.
  C) are no longer upset about the events after they have expressed themselves.
  D) are less likely to have subsequent health problems.




Answer Key


1. A
2. D
3. C
4. D
5. B
6. B
7. D
8. A
9. A
10. B
11. D
12. B
13. C
14. C
15. A
16. C
17. D
18. C
19. D
20. C
21. B
22. C
23. D
24. A
25. D
26. B
27. C
28. D
29. C
30. D
31. C
32. A
33. B
34. A
35. B
36. A
37. A
38. D
39. B
40. A
41. B
42. B
43. B
44. C
45. D
46. A
47. A
48. B
49. D
50. D
51. C
52. B
53. B
54. D
55. D
56. A
57. C
58. A
59. A
60. C
61. D
62. C
63. A
64. D


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