Health and Health Care Delivery in Canada 2nd Edition by Valerie D. Thompson – Test Bank

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Chapter 5: Ethics and Health Care

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following describes the concept of morality?
a. A person’s obligations in response to another’s claims on him or her
b. The freedom to make one’s own decisions
c. The beliefs that guide a person’s decisions
d. A code of conduct put forward by a group to guide behaviour

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A A person’s obligations in response to another’s claims on him or her is a description of sense of duty.
B The freedom to make one’s own decisions is a description of self-determination.
C The beliefs that guide a person’s decisions are a description of values.
D Morality is a code of conduct defined by a group of people, culture, society, or religion. Individuals may have a moral code that governs the way they live, behave, and interact with others.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 151

 

  1. Ethics is the study of:
a. standards of right and wrong in human behaviour.
b. moral obligations of health professionals.
c. philosophy.
d. laws related to health care.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Ethics is the study of standards of right and wrong in human behaviour.
B The study of moral obligations of health professionals is not a definition of ethics.
C The study of philosophy is not a definition of ethics.
D The study of laws related to health care is not a definition of ethics.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 151

 

  1. What is the definition of the ethical principle of nonmaleficence?
a. It encompasses the duty to promote good.
b. It is related to preserving a person’s right to self-determination.
c. It encompasses the duty to refrain from harming another person.
d. It is related to establishing a trusting relationship between health professional and client.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A An ethical principle encompassing the duty to promote good is a definition of beneficence.
B An ethical principle related to preserving a person’s right to self-determination is a definition of autonomy.
C Nonmaleficence is an ethical principle encompassing the duty to refrain from harming another person.
D An ethical principle related to a trusting relationship between health professional and client is a definition of a fiduciary relationship.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 158

 

  1. Which of the following situations represents a violation of a professional boundary?
a. A physician going on vacation with one of her patients
b. A nursing unit receiving a gift after the patient has left
c. A physiotherapist becoming running partners with a former client
d. A physician referring care of his sister-in-law to a colleague

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Entering into a personal relationship with a client that a health professional has an ongoing professional relationship with is considered a violation of a professional boundary.
B Generally, receiving a gift after the professional relationship has ended is not considered a violation of a professional boundary.
C Having a friendship with a former client is generally not seen to be a violation of a professional boundary.
D Referring a family member to a colleague instead of treating him or her personally is an example of respecting professional boundaries.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis                REF:   p. 170

 

  1. Why is beneficence an important ethical theory in health care?
a. It forms the basis for charters of human rights.
b. It allows decisions to be guided by rules set out by a higher power.
c. It encompasses the act of doing good.
d. It prevents a client from having self-determination.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Forming the basis for charters of human rights is not the reason that beneficence is important in health care.
B Allowing decisions to be guided by a higher power is not the reason that beneficence is important in health care.
C Beneficence encompasses the act of doing good or being kind and is one of the foundations of health care ethics.
D Preventing a client from having self-determination is not the reason that beneficence is important in health care.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis              REF:   p. 158

 

  1. Which of the following end-of-life issues raises an ethical dilemma?
a. Maintaining quality of life
b. Adopting a palliative model of care
c. Following an advance directive
d. Withdrawal of nutritional support

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A Maintaining quality of life is one of the principles of palliative care.
B Adopting a palliative care model allows professionals and families to attend solely to the comfort needs of the client.
C An advance directive often solves ethical dilemmas because it clearly states the client’s wishes.
D Withdrawal of nutritional support is withdrawing life-sustaining treatment and raises an ethical dilemma because it is an action that will actively cause death.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis              REF:   p. 176

 

  1. What is considered the most rigid ethical theory?
a. Deontological theory
b. Divine command ethics
c. Virtue ethics
d. Teleological theory

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Deontological theory is not considered the most rigid ethical theory.
B Divine command ethics is considered the most rigid ethical theory because it follows philosophies and rules set out by a higher power.
C Virtue ethics is not considered the most rigid ethical theory.
D Teleological theory is not considered the most rigid ethical theory.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 157

 

  1. Why does organ transplantation raise ethical concerns?
a. Donor organs are a limited resource.
b. It is a recognized medical intervention.
c. It is only considered when all other options have been exhausted.
d. There are more donor organs available than recipients.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Donor organs are in very short supply compared to the number of people that require them. This means that decisions have to be made about who will receive an organ and who will not.
B Being a recognized medical intervention is not the reason that transplantation raises ethical concerns.
C Considering donor organs after all other options have been exhausted is not the reason that transplantation raises ethical concerns.
D Having more donor organs available than recipients is not the reason that transplantation raises ethical concerns. In fact, there are fewer donor organs available than recipients.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis              REF:   p. 179

 

  1. Which of the following is an ethical issue brought about by genetic testing?
a. It allows an individual to make informed decisions about his or her health.
b. An individual may be discriminated against based on the result.
c. It allows potential parents to make informed decisions about having children.
d. It allows for scheduling of a suitable hospital for birth if a child is likely to need support.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Allowing an individual to make informed decisions about his or her health is not an ethical issue in genetic testing.
B Based on the result of a genetic test, an individual may be refused employment or life insurance.
C Allowing potential parents to make informed decisions about having children is a benefit of genetic testing.
D Allowing for the scheduling of a suitable hospital for birth if a child is likely to need support is an advantage of genetic testing.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   p. 184

 

  1. What is compassionate interference?
a. Consulting with family members about treatment
b. Administering analgesia even if the client has not asked for it
c. Withdrawal of life-prolonging treatment
d. Imposing treatment deemed to be in the client’s best interest against his or her will

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A Consulting with family members about treatment is not considered compassionate interference.
B Administering analgesia even if the client has not asked for it is not considered compassionate interference.
C Withdrawal of life-prolonging treatment is not considered compassionate interference.
D Compassionate interference is the imposition of treatment against a client’s will when deemed to be in the client’s best interest.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 169

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