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**Complete Test Bank With Answers**

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**Sample Questions Posted Below**

**CHAPTER 5: Participants and Sampling**

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**Self-Assessment Items**

- Which of the following represents the largest group?

- Target population
- Sampling frame
- Sample
- Participants

- A researcher randomly selected 100 junior high students from a large school district to take part in a study of the effects of television violence on the social behavior of children aged 11–13 years. The students selected to be in the study are considered which of the following?

- The population
- The sampling frame
- The sample
- The target population

- A researcher is doing a study involving college freshmen at a large state university. Which of the following sampling techniques could she use in order to select a sample of freshman that adequately represents the entire population?

- Convenience sampling
- Random sampling
- Nonprobability sampling
- Purposeful sampling

- Why is it important to have a complete description of the sample when publishing results?

- It allows the sample to be stratified using a nonrandom sampling technique.
- It describes the participants so they can be identified.
- It informs the reader to whom the results can be generalized.
- It allows the researcher to select informative participants.

- A researcher is conducting a study on students at his university. Which sampling procedure should he use to ensure every member of the sampling frame has an equal and independent chance of being selected?

- Cluster sampling
- Simple random sampling
- Stratified sampling
- Nonrandom sampling

- A research team from a local university conducted a study involving five high schools. The total population was about six thousand students, so the principal investigator decided to use the systematic sampling procedure to select the sample for the study. Which of the following is
**NOT**a step in this procedure?

- Determine the sample size
- Determine the sampling interval
- Stratify the group according to ability
- Randomly select a name from the list then every n
^{th}name

- Which sampling procedure was used in the study described below?

*The participants in this study were twelve special education students in the school whose fall reading level was at least three years below the expected level. Of the twelve students, 5 were boys, and 7 were girls. Their chronological ages ranged from 13.7–15.9 years.*

- Cluster sampling
- Simple random sampling
- Systematic random sampling
- Purposeful sampling

- What is the major concern with the use of nonrandom sampling procedures rather than a random sampling procedure?

- The sample size will not be large enough.
- The participants will lack motivation.
- The results will not be as generalizable.
- The participants will not have the knowledge they need.

- What is likely to be true about participants in a study who were selected using the purposive sampling procedure?

- They were selected because they were accessible and readily available to the researcher.
- They were selected on a random basis so they adequately represent the population.
- They were selected because they were knowledgeable about the topic being investigated.
- They were selected because they know little about the area of investigation.

- Which type of sampling is being used when a qualitative researcher interviews three students who are national merit finalists?

- Typical case sampling
- Maximum variation sampling
- Stratified random sampling
- Extreme case sampling

- Which of the following is the qualitative sampling procedure that provides a wide range of perspectives on an issue?

- Critical Case sampling
- Snowball sampling
- Opportunistic sampling
- Maximum Variation sampling

- A qualitative researcher wanted to interview parents in the community who attended the Welcome Back coffee on the first day of school. There was no list of names to indicate who attended the event. Which of the following sampling procedures should she have used?

- Cluster sampling
- Snowball sampling
- Proportional sampling
- Probability sampling

- Based on data from questionnaires that were returned by one-fourth of the teachers in the county, a researcher concluded that 90% of teachers did not favor incorporating computers into the classroom curriculum. Is the conclusion valid?

- Yes, because the questionnaires were sent to all teachers.
- No, because the questionnaire is unreliable as a method of data collection.
- Yes, because 90% of the teachers is a large percentage of the teachers in the county.
- No, because the results were drawn from a potentially biased sample.

**CHAPTER 5: Participants and Sampling**

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**Instructor’s Exam Items**

- Manley did a small experiment with first graders in her school. She wanted to be able to generalize her results to all first graders at the school, so she randomly selected 30 students. Which of the following terms is used to refer to the 30 students selected for the study?

- The sampling frame
- The target population
- The sample
- The population

- A researcher divided the target population into homogenous subgroups then randomly selected 25 students from each group. Which sampling procedure did the researcher use?

- Simple random sampling
- Stratified random sampling
- Cluster random sampling
- Maximum variation sampling

- Which type of sampling would likely result in the most representative sample?

- Simple random sampling
- Cluster sampling
- Purposeful sampling
- Maximum variation sampling

- A researcher for the local newspaper conducted a survey in her town. She decided to use the systematic sampling procedure to select a sample of the adult population to participate in her survey. She selected the first name on the list and then every 250
^{th}Did she use the procedure correctly and why?

- No, because she did not begin with a randomly selected number.
- Yes, because she selected from a list of adults in her town.
- No, because she excluded people who were unemployed.
- Yes, because she selected every n
^{th}person in the population.

- A political scientist wanted to compare the voting patterns of minority groups in large cities. Which sampling procedure selects the number of people from each minority group based on the percentage of people of that group in the population?

- Cluster sampling
- Proportional stratified sampling
- Extreme case sampling
- Simple random sampling

- There are fewer teachers certified in content areas like art, foreign languages, and health when compared to content areas like math, science, or social studies. Which sampling method will ensure the two groups are equally represented in a state-wide survey of teachers’ opinions?

- Random sampling
- Disproportional stratified sampling
- Cluster sampling
- Purposeful sampling

- Which of the following is true of cluster sampling?

- It is the most representative of a population.
- It allows subgroups to be equally represented.
- It allows the researcher to randomly assign intact groups.
- It is the type of random sampling procedure most commonly used.

- The principal of a school wanted to measure the level of parent satisfaction regarding a new policy. She created a survey to hand out to parents attending Back-to-School Night. Which of the following sampling procedures did she use to select the parents to complete her survey?

- Purposeful sampling
- Convenience sampling
- Cluster sampling
- Typical case sampling

- Forty high school seniors were selected to participate in a study. All had been rated by their art teachers as having exceptional artistic ability and all had won Art Awards. Of the total, 25 were girls and 15 were boys. Which sampling procedure was used in this study?

- Convenience sampling
- Extreme case sampling
- Stratified sampling
- Snowball sampling

- Which of the following is the type of purposeful sampling that uses networking?

- Critical case sampling
- Maximum variation sampling
- Snowball sampling
- Typical case sampling

- A qualitative researcher selected three primary grade teachers based on researcher-specified characteristics from each elementary school in a medium-sized city. Which type of sampling procedure did she likely use?

- Critical case sampling
- Criterion sampling
- Opportunistic sampling
- Cluster sampling

- A researcher mailed surveys to the first-, second- and third-grade teachers in a large school district, of which 15% were returned. Based on the results, the researcher concluded that 80% of primary teachers were opposed to requiring statewide achievement tests at their grade level. Is the researcher’s conclusion correct?

- No, because the questionnaires are an unreliable and invalid method of measurement.
- Yes, because the questionnaire was sent to all of the teachers in the district from all three primary grades,
- No, because the results were drawn from a potentially biased sample.
- Yes, because all teachers had an equal probability of responding to the questionnaire.

**Short Answer Questions:**

Why should a researcher be wary of results of an analysis using a convenience sample?

What are two disadvantages to using simple random sampling to select participants for a study?

**Essay Question**:

Describe each of the following types of bias and for each type, explain how the bias might affect the results of a study:

- Participant motivation
- Sample size
- Sampling bias
- Volunteer sample

Category: Research

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