Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology 11th Edition by Frederic H. Martini- Test Bank

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Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, 11e (Martini)

Chapter 5   The Integumentary System

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) Accumulations of fluid within the epidermis or between the epidermis and the dermis is/are called

  1. A) keloids.
  2. B) scabs.
  3. C) blisters.
  4. D) scars.
  5. E) pus.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

2) Rapid water loss from burned skin is an extreme form of ________ perspiration.

  1. A) imprudent
  2. B) non-sense
  3. C) impractical
  4. D) vacuous
  5. E) insensible

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

3) Each of the following is a function of the integumentary system except

  1. A) protection of underlying tissue.
  2. B) excretion of salts and wastes.
  3. C) maintenance of body temperature.
  4. D) synthesis of vitamin C.
  5. E) detection of sensations.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

4) The two components of the integumentary system are the

  1. A) epidermis and dermis.
  2. B) cutaneous membrane and hypodermis.
  3. C) cutaneous membrane and accessory structures.
  4. D) integument and hypodermis.
  5. E) epidermis and superficial fascia.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

5) The type of cells that form the strata in the epidermis are

  1. A) adipocytes.
  2. B) keratinocytes.
  3. C) fibroblasts.
  4. D) melanocytes.
  5. E) dendritic cells.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

6) The tough superficial layer of the epidermis is known as the stratum

  1. A) corneum.
  2. B) lucidum.
  3. C) basale.
  4. D) granulosum.
  5. E) spinosum.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

7) The largest quantities of keratin are found in the epidermal layer called the stratum

  1. A) corneum.
  2. B) lucidum.
  3. C) basale.
  4. D) granulosum.
  5. E) spinosum.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

8) Water loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrated through the skin is called ________ perspiration.

  1. A) sensible
  2. B) insensible
  3. C) latent
  4. D) active
  5. E) inactive

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

9) The layer of the epidermis that contains several layers of living cells connected by abundant desmosomes is the stratum

  1. A) corneum.
  2. B) lucidum.
  3. C) basale.
  4. D) granulosum.
  5. E) spinosum.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

10) The layer of the skin that provides a barrier against bacteria as well as chemical and mechanical injuries is the

  1. A) dermis.
  2. B) subcutaneous layer.
  3. C) epidermis.
  4. D) stratum basale.
  5. E) sebaceous layer.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

11) Characteristics of the epidermis include

  1. A) multilayered.
  2. B) flexible.
  3. C) contains desmosomes.
  4. D) serves as UV radiation protection.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

12) All of the following are true of epidermal ridges except that they

  1. A) extend into the hypodermis.
  2. B) increase surface area and friction on fingertips.
  3. C) cause ridge patterns on the surface of the skin.
  4. D) produce patterns that are determined partially genetically.
  5. E) interconnect with the dermal papillae.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

13) ________ are cells in the epidermis that are part of the immune system.

  1. A) Dendritic cells
  2. B) Basal cells
  3. C) Merkel cells
  4. D) Squamous cells
  5. E) Melanocytes

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

14) Water loss from insensible perspiration

  1. A) is unaffected by damage to the epidermis.
  2. B) is too small to be measured reliably.
  3. C) is approximately 0.5 liters a day.
  4. D) always exceeds sensible perspiration.
  5. E) depends on apocrine sweat glands.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

15) The epidermis of the skin is composed of what type of tissue?

  1. A) keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  2. B) simple squamous epithelium
  3. C) transitional epithelium
  4. D) areolar connective tissue
  5. E) nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

16) The layer of stem cells that constantly divide to renew the epidermis is the

  1. A) stratum corneum.
  2. B) stratum basale.
  3. C) papillary layer.
  4. D) basal lamina.
  5. E) stratum granulosum.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

17) The protein that reduces water loss at the skin surface is

  1. A) eleidin.
  2. B) collagen.
  3. C) mucin.
  4. D) keratin.
  5. E) melanin.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

18) Thin skin contains ________ epidermal layer(s) and thick skin contains ________ layers.

  1. A) 1; 2
  2. B) 2; 3
  3. C) 3; 4
  4. D) 4; 5
  5. E) 5; 6

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

19) While walking barefoot on the beach, Joe stepped on a thorn that penetrated through the sole of his foot to the dermis. How many layers of epidermis did the thorn penetrate?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

20) Which of following is not an accessory structure of the integumentary system?

  1. A) sweat glands
  2. B) hair follicles
  3. C) exocrine glands
  4. D) nails
  5. E) dermis

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

21) All of the following contain blood vessels except the

  1. A) epidermis.
  2. B) papillary layer.
  3. C) reticular layer.
  4. D) subcutaneous layer.
  5. E) hypodermis.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

22) The sensory cells associated with the deep layers of the epidermis are

  1. A) Pacinian corpuscles.
  2. B) Merkel cells.
  3. C) melanocytes.
  4. D) Meissner’s corpuscles.
  5. E) keratinocytes.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

23) The layer of epidermis where most cells have stopped dividing and started making large amounts of keratin is the

  1. A) stratum spinosum.
  2. B) stratum corneum.
  3. C) stratum granulosum.
  4. D) stratum lucidum.
  5. E) stratum basale.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

24) The layer of epidermis where keratohyalin crosslinks keratin fibers is the

  1. A) stratum spinosum.
  2. B) stratum corneum.
  3. C) stratum granulosum.
  4. D) stratum lucidum.
  5. E) stratum basale.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

25) The amount of time it takes for a cell to progress from stratum basale to stratum corneum is

  1. A) 7-10 days.
  2. B) 14 days.
  3. C) 5 days.
  4. D) 1 day.
  5. E) 1 minute.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

 

 

Figure 5-1  The Components of the Integumentary System

 

Use Figure 5-1 to answer the following questions:

 

26) From what structure does sensible perspiration occur?

  1. A) 6
  2. B) 7
  3. C) 8
  4. D) 9
  5. E) 10

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

 

27) Which layer is the primary barrier against environmental hazards?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

28) Which layer contains most of the accessory structures?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

29) Adipose tissue is a major component of the region labeled

  1. A) 1.
  2. B) 2.
  3. C) 3.
  4. D) 4.
  5. E) 5.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

30) Which tissue is located in the region labeled “2”?

  1. A) stratified squamous epithelium
  2. B) areolar connective tissue
  3. C) adipose tissue
  4. D) cartilage and blood
  5. E) reticular connective tissues

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

31) The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the ________ layer.

  1. A) papillary
  2. B) reticular
  3. C) epidermal
  4. D) subcutaneous
  5. E) hypodermal

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

32) The drug tretinoin (Retin-A)

  1. A) reduces the appearance of fine wrinkles.
  2. B) minimizes scarring after surgery.
  3. C) stimulates hair growth.
  4. D) improves night vision.
  5. E) is used to treat dandruff.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

33) Skin inflammation that primarily involves the papillary layer is termed

  1. A) papillitis.
  2. B) dermatitis.
  3. C) epidermatitis.
  4. D) superficialis.
  5. E) melanocytis.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

34) A surgical incision parallel to the lines of cleavage

  1. A) closes and heals with relatively little scarring.
  2. B) has a tendency to reopen.
  3. C) heals slower than incisions made perpendicular to the lines of cleavage.
  4. D) does not affect the healing process.
  5. E) requires no sutures.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

35) While assessing a patient, you discover that after pinching the skin on the back of the hand, it remains peaked. This is a sign of

  1. A) hydration intoxication.
  2. B) water intoxication.
  3. C) dehydration.
  4. D) advanced skin cancer.
  5. E) malfunctioning elastin.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analyzing

36) Stretch marks occur when

  1. A) the skin is stretched in normal movements.
  2. B) surgical incisions are made perpendicular to the skin’s lines of cleavage.
  3. C) the skin is so extensively stretched that its elastic limits are exceeded.
  4. D) athletes overextend a muscle.
  5. E) individual epidermal layers separate.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

37) The cutaneous plexus is

  1. A) a network of nerves in the cutaneous membrane.
  2. B) a superficial network of dermal arteries.
  3. C) a deep network of dermal arteries along the boundary of the reticular layer.
  4. D) a neural plexus responsible for deep pressure.
  5. E) a network of arteries in the epidermis.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

38) The subpapillary plexus is

  1. A) a network of nerves in the cutaneous membrane.
  2. B) a superficial network of dermal arteries.
  3. C) a deep network of dermal arteries along the boundary of the reticular layer.
  4. D) a neural plexus responsible for deep pressure.
  5. E) a network of arteries in the epidermis.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

39) What are the dermal sensory structures that sense deep pressure?

  1. A) Meissner’s corpuscles
  2. B) lamellar corpuscle
  3. C) tactile corpuscles
  4. D) tactile dics
  5. E) Merkel cells

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

40) All of the following are true of the subcutaneous layer except it

  1. A) contains many blood vessels.
  2. B) permits independent movement of deeper structures.
  3. C) contains large amounts of adipose tissue.
  4. D) is attached to the dermis by a basement membrane.
  5. E) is well supplied with nerves that pass into the skin.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

41) The layer of loose connective tissue deep to the dermis is the

  1. A) epidermis.
  2. B) subcutaneous layer.
  3. C) hyperdermis.
  4. D) deep fascia.
  5. E) reticular layer.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

42) The primary pigments contained in the epidermis are

  1. A) carotene, hemoglobin, and xanthophyll.
  2. B) carotene, eumelanin, and pheomelanin.
  3. C) melanin, chromatin, and chlorophyll.
  4. D) xanthophyll, hemoglobin, and melanin.
  5. E) melanin, carotene, and chromatin.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

43) An albino individual lacks the ability to produce

  1. A) melanin.
  2. B) keratin.
  3. C) carotene.
  4. D) perspiration.
  5. E) eleidin.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

44) Cyanosis signifies that a patient has

  1. A) had too much sun.
  2. B) been kept out of the sun.
  3. C) an allergic reaction.
  4. D) oxygen-starved skin.
  5. E) been exposed to cyanide.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

45) Jaundice is indicated by a(n) ________ skin coloration.

  1. A) reddish
  2. B) yellowish
  3. C) orange
  4. D) bluish
  5. E) brown

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

46) Exposure to ultraviolet light (sunlight) causes the skin to darken by increasing the production of

  1. A) hemoglobin.
  2. B) carotene.
  3. C) collagen.
  4. D) keratin.
  5. E) melanin.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

47) The ________ in keratinocytes protects the epidermis and dermis from the harmful effects of sunlight.

  1. A) sebum
  2. B) hemoglobin
  3. C) melanin
  4. D) carotene
  5. E) keratin

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

48) The pigment found in vegetables that can make the skin appear orange or yellow is called

  1. A) cadmium.
  2. B) carotene.
  3. C) hemoglobin.
  4. D) keratin.
  5. E) melanin.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

49) Melanin is produced by melanocytes within the stratum

  1. A) corneum.
  2. B) lucidum.
  3. C) granulosum.
  4. D) spinosum.
  5. E) basale.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

50) Which one of the following is the red-yellow form of melanin?

  1. A) eumelanin
  2. B) phycomelanin
  3. C) anthomelanin
  4. D) pheomelanin
  5. E) promelanin

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

51) Which of the following is the brown-black form of melanin?

  1. A) eumelanin
  2. B) phycomelanin
  3. C) anthomelanin
  4. D) pheomelanin
  5. E) promelanin

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

52) Which of the following is not true of melanin?

  1. A) There is more than 1 type of melanin.
  2. B) Melanin is released by exocytosis.
  3. C) It is manufactured from tyrosine.
  4. D) It is packaged in vesicles called melanosomes.
  5. E) It absorbs UV radiation.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

53) Which of the following causes yellowing of the skin?

  1. A) vitiligo
  2. B) pituitary tumor affecting melanocyte stimulating hormone
  3. C) Addison’s disease
  4. D) cyanosis
  5. E) faulty bile excretion in the liver

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

54) Which pigment is responsible for blushing?

  1. A) eumelanin
  2. B) pheomelanin
  3. C) carotene
  4. D) hemoglobin
  5. E) melanocyte stimulating hormone

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

 

55) Which of the following is not an effect of ultraviolet radiation?

  1. A) increased activity by melanocytes
  2. B) production of cholecalciferol within epidermal cells
  3. C) reduced amounts of elastic fibers in the dermis
  4. D) chromosomal damage in germinative cells or melanocytes
  5. E) loss in skin pigmentation as seen in vitiligo

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

56) Which of the following is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight?

  1. A) vitamin A
  2. B) vitamin B
  3. C) vitamin C
  4. D) vitamin D
  5. E) vitamin E

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

57) Which of the following statements about rickets is not true?

  1. A) It is usually genetic.
  2. B) It leads to weak bones.
  3. C) It leads to skeletal deformity.
  4. D) It is prevented by vitamin D.
  5. E) It is prevented by sunlight.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

58) A deficiency disease that illustrates the effect of integumentary system function on the structure of the skeletal system is

  1. A) osteoporosis.
  2. B) seborrheic dermatitis.
  3. C) decubitus ulcers.
  4. D) rickets.
  5. E) beriberi.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

59) The most dangerous type of skin cancer is called

  1. A) keratosis.
  2. B) psoriasis.
  3. C) squamous cell carcinoma.
  4. D) melanoma.
  5. E) basal cell carcinoma.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

60) Vitamin D3 is important for proper ________ development.

  1. A) skin
  2. B) bone
  3. C) muscle
  4. D) vision
  5. E) neural

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

61) Skin cancer that starts in the mitotically most active epidermal layer is called

  1. A) keratosis.
  2. B) psoriasis.
  3. C) squamous cell carcinoma.
  4. D) melanoma.
  5. E) basal cell carcinoma.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

62) Children in northern regions experience months of inadequate sunlight exposure on the skin. To prevent possible abnormal bone development, what essential organic nutrient is necessary in the diet?

  1. A) vitamin C
  2. B) calcium
  3. C) cholecalciferol
  4. D) protein
  5. E) retinol-A

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

 

63) The layer of hard keratin that acts as the surface of the hair is termed the

  1. A) medulla.
  2. B) cuticle.
  3. C) hair bulb.
  4. D) root.
  5. E) shaft.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

64) Variations in hair color reflect differences in the pigment produced by

  1. A) keratinocytes.
  2. B) melanocytes.
  3. C) dermal papillae.
  4. D) soft keratin.
  5. E) carotene cells.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

65) Which of the following is correct about Lanugo hairs?

  1. A) also known as “peach fuzz”
  2. B) persists throughout the entire life
  3. C) deeply pigmented and somewhat coarse
  4. D) exists primarily in fetuses
  5. E) never found on the feet

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

66) If the papilla of a hair follicle is destroyed,

  1. A) the hair produced by the follicle will change from terminal to vellus.
  2. B) the color of the hair will become lighter.
  3. C) the texture of the hair will become coarser.
  4. D) the hair matrix will lose its blood supply.
  5. E) hair production will not be affected.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

67) When the arrector pili muscles contract,

  1. A) “goose bumps” are formed.
  2. B) hairs are shed.
  3. C) sweat is released from sweat glands.
  4. D) shivering occurs.
  5. E) the skin changes color.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

68) Which of the following statements concerning hair is false?

  1. A) The medulla is the soft core of the hair.
  2. B) The cortex of the hair is composed of hard keratin.
  3. C) Terminal hairs are heavy and more darkly pigmented than other types of hair.
  4. D) Club hair is hair that has ceased growing.
  5. E) Scalp hairs grow constantly throughout life.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

69) Fine hairs (like “velvet”) that lack pigment and cover much of the body surface are called ________ hairs.

  1. A) veneer
  2. B) gossamer
  3. C) lanugo
  4. D) vellus
  5. E) terminal

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

70) Coarse pigmented hairs are called ________ hairs.

  1. A) veneer
  2. B) gossamer
  3. C) lanugo
  4. D) vellus
  5. E) terminal

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

71) The network of sensory nerves that surrounds the base of each hair follicle is the

  1. A) root hair plexus.
  2. B) hair papilla.
  3. C) hair matrix.
  4. D) cutaneous plexus.
  5. E) subpapillary plexus.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

72) Arrange the layers of the hair follicle from outermost to innermost layers.

  1. cuticle
  2. glassy membrane
  3. medulla
  4. connective tissue sheath
  5. external root sheath
  6. internal root sheath
  7. cortex
  8. A) 1,5,7,6,2,3,4
  9. B) 4,2,5,6,1,7,3
  10. C) 4,2,6,5,1,7,3
  11. D) 4,6,2,5,7,1,3
  12. E) 4,2,5,6,3,7,1

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analyzing

 

73) A common cause of dandruff is

  1. A) inflammation around sebaceous glands.
  2. B) lack of sebaceous glands.
  3. C) too many sebaceous glands.
  4. D) inactive apocrine glands.
  5. E) inactive eccrine glands.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

74) Glands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are ________ glands.

  1. A) ceruminous
  2. B) apocrine sweat
  3. C) merocrine sweat
  4. D) sebaceous
  5. E) mammary

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

75) The ________ glands in the axilla become active at the time of puberty.

  1. A) ceruminous
  2. B) apocrine sweat
  3. C) merocrine sweat
  4. D) sebaceous
  5. E) axillary

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

76) Sensible perspiration is produced by ________ glands.

  1. A) ceruminous
  2. B) apocrine sweat
  3. C) merocrine sweat
  4. D) sebaceous
  5. E) mammary

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

77) Earwax is produced by ________ glands.

  1. A) sebaceous
  2. B) apocrine sweat
  3. C) merocrine sweat
  4. D) ceruminous
  5. E) eccrine sweat

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

78) The highest concentration of merocrine sweat glands is found

  1. A) in the axillae.
  2. B) on the chest.
  3. C) on the palms of the hands.
  4. D) on the upper back.
  5. E) surrounding the genitals.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

79) ________ sweat glands are widely distributed across the body surface, ________ glands are located wherever hair follicles exist, and ________ sweat glands are found only in a few areas.

  1. A) Sebaceous; merocrine; apocrine
  2. B) Apocrine; merocrine; sebaceous
  3. C) Merocrine; sebaceous; apocrine
  4. D) Merocrine; apocrine; sebaceous
  5. E) Apocrine; sebaceous; merocrine

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

80) Which of the following happens if body temperature rises above normal?

  1. A) Circulation in the skin decreases.
  2. B) Sweat gland activity decreases.
  3. C) Evaporative cooling stops.
  4. D) Blood flow to the skin increases.
  5. E) The activity of melanocytes increases.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

81) Merocrine sweat glands

  1. A) are compound alveolar glands.
  2. B) produce organic secretions that are metabolized by bacteria to produce body odor.
  3. C) secrete a watery fluid directly onto the surface of the skin.
  4. D) increase in number and activity with aging.
  5. E) primarily function in lubricating the hairs.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

82) All of the following are true of perspiration produced by merocrine sweat glands except that it

  1. A) is more than 99 percent water.
  2. B) contains electrolytes and waste products.
  3. C) helps cool the body when it evaporates.
  4. D) helps to prevent bacteria from colonizing the skin.
  5. E) produces the body odor characteristic of “sweating.”

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

83) Which of the following is not a function of the sebum?

  1. A) It inhibits growth of bacteria.
  2. B) It lubricates the hair shaft.
  3. C) It conditions the surrounding skin.
  4. D) It helps the skin shed excess heat.
  5. E) It protects the hair shaft.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

84) Which of the following is not a function of the exocrine sweat gland?

  1. A) It cools the surface of the skin.
  2. B) It conditions the surrounding skin with its lipid secretion.
  3. C) It excretes electrolytes.
  4. D) It interferes with adhesion of microorganisms.
  5. E) It uses dermicidin as antibiotic protection.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

85) The nail body covers the

  1. A) nail root.
  2. B) nail bed.
  3. C) lunula.
  4. D) free edge.
  5. E) hyponychium.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

86) Nail production occurs at the nail

  1. A) body.
  2. B) bed.
  3. C) root.
  4. D) cuticle.
  5. E) hyponychium.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

87) The cuticle around a nail is the

  1. A) eponychium.
  2. B) hyponychium.
  3. C) free edge.
  4. D) perinychium.
  5. E) lunula.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

88) The stratum corneum just under the free edge of a nail is the

  1. A) hyponychium.
  2. B) lunula.
  3. C) eponychium.
  4. D) nail root.
  5. E) cuticle.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

89) A child who skins his knee in a fall has a(n)

  1. A) abrasion.
  2. B) laceration.
  3. C) puncture.
  4. D) incision.
  5. E) contusion.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

90) In a penetrating wound, ________ divide to produce mobile cells that repair the dermis.

  1. A) granulation cells
  2. B) dendritic cells
  3. C) macrophages
  4. D) fibroblasts
  5. E) muscle cells

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

91) The type of burn that may require a skin graft is a ________ burn.

  1. A) first-degree
  2. B) second-degree
  3. C) third-degree
  4. D) partial-thickness
  5. E) epidermal

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

92) If a fair-skinned person is outside on a hot sunny day, why does his or her skin turn red?

  1. A) The blood flow to the skin increases.
  2. B) The number of red melanocytes in the skin increases.
  3. C) Melanocytes increase production of red pigments.
  4. D) Carotene production greatly increases.
  5. E) Decreased heat causes the skin to turn red.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

93) Skin can regenerate effectively even after considerable damage has occurred because

  1. A) the epidermis of the skin has a rich supply of small blood vessels.
  2. B) stem cells persist in the skin even after injury.
  3. C) fibroblasts in the dermis can give rise to new germinal cells in the epidermis.
  4. D) contraction in the area of the injury brings cells of adjacent strata together.
  5. E) cells of the stratum basale cannot migrate to other positions in the skin.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

94) The following are stages in the regeneration of skin following an injury. What is the correct order for these events?

  1. inflammation
  2. cellular migration
  3. epidermis covers granulation tissue
  4. epidermis covers scar tissue
  5. A) 1, 2, 3, 4
  6. B) 4, 3, 2, 1
  7. C) 4, 3, 1, 2
  8. D) 3, 4, 1, 2
  9. E) 2, 4, 1, 3

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

95) Scar tissue is the result of

  1. A) large numbers of inflexible fibers and relatively few blood vessels in the injured area.
  2. B) increased numbers of keratinocytes in the epidermal layers in the area of the injury.
  3. C) a thickened stratum basale in the area of the injury.
  4. D) increased numbers of fibroblasts in the reticular layer of the injured area.
  5. E) a lack of sebaceous glands in the injured area.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

96) During repair of the integument, fibroblasts follow areas of new capillary growth and produce ________ tissue.

  1. A) scar
  2. B) epithelial
  3. C) granulation
  4. D) pus
  5. E) keloid

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

97) Charlie is badly burned in an accident. When he reaches the emergency room, the examining physician finds that he can remove entire hair follicles from Charlie’s arm when he gently pulls on a hair with his forceps. Charlie is suffering from a(n) ________ burn.

  1. A) first-degree
  2. B) second-degree
  3. C) third-degree
  4. D) partial-thickness
  5. E) epidermal

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

98) A thickened area of scar tissue that is covered by a shiny, smooth epidermal surface is called a

  1. A) keloid.
  2. B) contusion.
  3. C) hematoma.
  4. D) psoriasis.
  5. E) sclerotome.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

99) A fibrin clot that is formed over a skin wound is called a

  1. A) scar.
  2. B) keloid.
  3. C) graft.
  4. D) scab.
  5. E) plug.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

100) The combination of blood clot, fibroblasts, and extensive capillary network that is formed in injured skin is called ________ tissue.

  1. A) germinative
  2. B) spinous
  3. C) fibrocytic
  4. D) granulation
  5. E) abscess

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

101) A bacterial infection that is often fatal in burn patients is called

  1. A) sepsis.
  2. B) necrosis.
  3. C) toxis.
  4. D) pernicious.
  5. E) noxious.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

102) The effects of aging on the skin include

  1. A) a decline in the activity of sebaceous glands.
  2. B) increased production of vitamin D.
  3. C) thickening of the epidermis.
  4. D) an increased blood supply to the dermis.
  5. E) a decreased number of sweat glands.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

103) Wrinkles in individuals are the result of

  1. A) increased production of epidermal layers.
  2. B) loss of elastic fibers in the reticular layer of the dermis.
  3. C) increased keratinization of the epidermis.
  4. D) the loss of glands and hair follicles from the skin.
  5. E) decreased thickness of the dermis.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

104) Why would an elderly person be more prone to skin infections than a younger person?

  1. A) Skin repairs take longer in the elderly.
  2. B) The epidermis is thinner in the elderly.
  3. C) There are fewer dendritic cells in the skin of the elderly.
  4. D) Basal cell activity is reduced in the elderly.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

In-Text Figure Based Questions

 

1) What types of glands are found in the skin? (Figure 5-1)

  1. A) salivary glands and submucosal glands
  2. B) endocrine glands and salivary glands
  3. C) mucus glands and submucosal glands
  4. D) sebaceous glands and sweat glands
  5. E) cerumen glands and endocrine glands

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

2) Which plexus supplies blood to the capillary loops that follow the epidermis-dermis boundary? (Figure 5-6)

  1. A) submucosal plexus
  2. B) mucosal plexus
  3. C) subcapillary plexus
  4. D) cutaneous plexus
  5. E) epidermal plexus

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

3) In which layer of the skin are melanocytes found? (Figure 5-8)

  1. A) stratum basale
  2. B) stratum spinosum
  3. C) stratum granulosum
  4. D) stratum lucidum
  5. E) stratum corneum

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

4) What are the body’s two sources of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)? (Figure 5-10)

  1. A) air and water
  2. B) air and food
  3. C) sunlight and water
  4. D) sunlight and food
  5. E) air and sunlight

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

5) Where do sebaceous glands and sebaceous follicles discharge their secretions? (Figure 5-13)

  1. A) epidermis; hair follicle
  2. B) hair follicle; epidermis
  3. C) hair root; dermis
  4. D) dermis; hair root
  5. E) both into the dermis

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

Essay Questions

 

1) Many lipid-soluble medications can be delivered by diffusion across the skin. This process is called transdermal administration and is commonly done by applying patches that contain the medication to the surface of the skin. These patches can be attached anywhere on the skin except the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. Why?

Answer:  Thick skin slows the rate of diffusion of the medication and thus decreases its effectiveness. In addition, excessive sweat formed on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet would make the patch fall off more readily.

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

2) In a condition known as sunstroke, the victim appears flushed, the skin is warm and dry, and the body temperature rises dramatically. Explain these observations based on what you know concerning the role of the skin in thermoregulation.

Answer:  When the body temperature increases, more blood flow is directed to the vessels of the skin. The red cells in the blood give the skin a redder-than-usual color and account for the victim’s flushed appearance. The skin is dry because the sweat glands are not producing sweat (avoiding further dehydration). Without evaporation cooling, not enough heat is dissipated from the skin, the skin is warm, and the body temperature rises. This situation represents positive feedback operating in a disease state.

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

3) Why is regional infection or inflammation of the skin usually very painful?

Answer:  Inflammation of the skin is painful because sensory receptors are abundant in the skin. Changes associated with swelling stimulate the sensory receptors, resulting in a painful sensation.

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

4) Why is a subcutaneous injection with a hypodermic needle a useful method of administering drugs?

Answer:  The subcutaneous layer has a limited capillary supply and contains no vital organs; thus, the potential for tissue damage is reduced.

Learning Outcome:  5-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

5) A new mother notices that her 6-month-old infant has a yellow-orange complexion. Fearful that the child may have jaundice, she takes him to her pediatrician. After examining the child and learning about the infant’s diet, the pediatrician declares him perfectly healthy and advises the mother to watch the child’s diet. What is likely the cause for the change in skin color?

Answer:  The infant probably has a fondness for vegetables that are high in carotene, such as sweet potatoes, squash, and carrots. It is not uncommon for parents to feed babies what they will eat best. If the child consumes large amounts of carotene, the yellow-orange pigment will be stored in the skin, producing a yellow-orange skin color. This harmless condition is known as carotenosis.

Learning Outcome:  5-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

6) Explain how to use the mnemonic ABCD when checking for signs of skin cancer.

Answer:  When checking for signs of skin cancer one can take a careful look at the appearance of existing moles. The mnemonic ABCD assists with this process because each letter corresponds with a physical characteristic of moles. A stands for asymmetry (healthy moles appear symmetrical); B stands for border (healthy moles have a regular, well defined border); C stands for color (healthy moles have a single color); D stands for diameter (healthy moles have a diameter of less than 5 mm).

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

7) Explain how skin helps to thermally regulate body temperature.

Answer:  When body temperature rises, the blood vessels beneath your epidermis are dilated and filled with blood, your skin reddens, and the surface of your skin is warm and wet due the excess heat in the blood. As the moisture evaporates, the excess heat evaporates with it, and your skin cools. If your body temperature then falls below normal, sensible perspiration stops, blood flow to the skin is reduced, and the skin surfaces cools and dries, releasing little heat into the environment.

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

8) Why is scab formation important in wound healing?

Answer:  Scabs temporarily restore epidermal integrity, restricting further entry of microorganisms. They also prevent the loss of fluids, maintaining internal fluid balance, and protect the delicate granulation tissue during tissue recovery.

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

9) Vanessa’s 80-year-old grandmother sets her thermostat at 26°C (80°F) and wears a sweater on balmy spring days. When asked why, the grandmother says she feels cold. What is a possible cause for her feeling cold?

Answer:  Most elderly people have poor blood flow to the skin. Thus, their skin becomes cold. This triggers thermal receptors in the skin to signal cold skin. The brain interprets this as a cold body temperature.

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

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