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Chapter 05

The Mosaic of Eighteenth-Century America 1689-1768



Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 107)________ was the Spanish Empire’s last major colonial project in North America.
    A. New Mexico
    B. California
    C. The Texas mission project
    D. The Pueblos


  1. (p. 111)Why were the French less likely than the British to use military force when dealing with the native peoples of North America?
    A. The French population was relatively low.
    B. French soldiers were much less effective fighters than their British counterparts.
    C. As Catholics they naturally were more benevolent when dealing with the native peoples.
    D. They had superior diplomatic skills.


  1. (p. 114)The three largest groups of non-English immigrants coming to the American colonies in the 1700s were
    A. Africans, Scots-Irish, and Germans.
    B. Africans, Germans, and Dutch.
    C. Scots-Irish, Dutch, and Africans.
    D. Scots-Irish, Germans, and Dutch.


  1. (p. 114)Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons the American population grew dramatically in the 1700s?
    A. high birth rate
    B. importation of slaves
    C. absorption of French and Spanish colonials as the British Empire expanded
    D. large numbers of non-English immigrants




  1. (p. 117)Which of the following was among the highest-paying occupations for women in the port cities of the colonies?
    A. dressmaker
    B. nurse
    C. seamstress
    D. maid


  1. (p. 114)By the beginning of the eighteenth century land scarcity pushed both native-born and newly arrived families to look westward. Why did new immigrants from Europe have better luck obtaining land south of New York?
    A. Yankee westward expansion
    B. German land grants
    C. the Great Wagon Road
    D. the Homestead Act


  1. (p. 119)Where in the South did most black Americans live and work?
    A. inland plantations
    B. along the seaboard
    C. in the backcountry
    D. the piedmont


  1. (p. 120)In what time frame was the greatest number of African slaves imported into the Chesapeake and Carolina regions?
    A. the first half of the seventeenth century
    B. the second half of the seventeenth century
    C. the first half of the eighteenth century
    D. the second half of the eighteenth century




  1. (p. 114)Which of the following characterized the society of the eighteenth-century backcountry?
    A. influx of English manufactured goods
    B. political equality
    C. isolation
    D. stability


  1. (p. 116)What was the primary reason so many families migrated into the backcountry?
    A. to escape governmental authority
    B. to worship in freedom
    C. to find a healthier environment
    D. to obtain cheap land


  1. (p. 116)Which group dominated the political and economic life of the seaport towns?
    A. descendants of the original founding families
    B. the numerous middle-class artisans
    C. merchants
    D. aristocratic crown officials


  1. (p. 116)The colonial seaports were not only the centers for overseas trade; they were also the places where
    A. enterprising merchants worked to organize and control the commerce of the surrounding region.
    B. religious revivals had their greatest effect.
    C. British imperial authority remained visible and strong.
    D. slavery was first outlawed.


  1. (p. 119)Conflicts in the seaport towns of the early- to mid-1700s included
    A. strikes by the working class.
    B. clashes between citizens and British redcoats.
    C. gender clashes among groups of men and groups of women.
    D. impressment.




  1. (p. 117)In the mid-1700s, slaves in the seaport cities
    A. often gained their freedom.
    B. were practically nonexistent.
    C. were likely to be recent arrivals from Africa.
    D. frequently fought for their freedom.


  1. (p. 121)In the mid-1700s, slaves on southern plantations
    A. were about as likely to have been born in America as in Africa.
    B. found little opportunity to create an African American culture.
    C. had mostly all gained their freedom.
    D. were more likely to be recent arrivals from Africa.


  1. (p. 120)Unlike slaves on Carolina plantations, those in the Chesapeake
    A. had less contact with whites.
    B. enjoyed greater autonomy because of the “task system.”
    C. lived on smaller plantations with fewer slaves.
    D. were mostly African-born.


  1. (p. 121)Which of the following statements is true about slave communities on southern plantations?
    A. With few slaves imported directly from Africa, African folkways soon disappeared.
    B. Slave marriages were legally recognized.
    C. Resistance to slavery led to a drop in the slave trade.
    D. Black family life was sustained despite the high possibility that a family member would have to be sold due to a master’s death or indebtedness.




  1. (p. 122)Which of the following was most likely true of Americans who were influenced by the Enlightenment?
    A. They would have faith that society could be improved through human slavery.
    B. They would be from the educated upper class.
    C. They would hold to a religion that believed human beings could find salvation in the Catholic Church.
    D. They would understand knowledge as valuable for its own sake, independent of any practical usefulness.


  1. (p. 122)The doctrine known as “rational Christianity” stressed which of the following beliefs?
    A. predestination
    B. conversion
    C. the benevolence of God
    D. the reasons for innate human sinfulness


  1. (p. 123)Regarding the effects of the Great Awakening, all the following are correctly stated, EXCEPT that
    A. Americans became more sharply polarized along religious lines.
    B. many westerners embraced evangelical Protestantism and swelled the denominations of the Baptists and the Presbyterians.
    C. many urban easterners embraced evangelical Protestantism and thus swelled such denominations as Quakers and Anglicans.
    D. though divisive, it also had a unifying effect, since it was the only experience that many people throughout all the colonies had in common.


  1. (p. 123)The Great Awakening can best be described by which of the following statements?
    A. It was a multifaceted, intellectual movement, based primarily on new discoveries in science.
    B. It was a secular, humanitarian movement, which sought to improve the quality of life for the poor.
    C. It was a rationalist religious movement, which had its greatest impact among the well-educated in eastern seaboard cities.
    D. It was an emotional revivalist movement that appealed to a diverse cross section of Americans.




  1. (p. 122)The direct influence of the Enlightenment in America was
    A. widespread, affecting all classes and regions.
    B. widespread, affecting all except the poorest backcountry farmers.
    C. confined mainly to the clergy.
    D. confined mainly to some skilled artisans and elite planters and merchants.


  1. (p. 124)One of the important distinctions between eighteenth-century English and American social structure was that
    A. while England had a large lower class, there were no poor people in America.
    B. while England had a large lower class, their more industrialized economy created more opportunities for upward mobility than did agrarian America.
    C. while England’s aristocrats claimed titles and legal privileges by hereditary right, only a few American elites inherited titles and political power.
    D. while less than one-third of England’s inhabitants belonged to the “middling sort,” three-quarters of white Americans could be described as “middle class.”


  1. (p. 125)Americans harbored some reservations about English society. These included
    A. anxieties about what England’s extreme inequality might do to liberty.
    B. rejection of the concept of social hierarchy that undergirded the English class structure.
    C. the extravagance and manners of England’s upper class.
    D. English promotion and toleration of the corrupt workings of politics.


  1. (p. 125)The theory of the “balanced constitution” refers to
    A. separating government powers into executive, legislative, and judicial functions.
    B. giving every order of society some voice in the workings of government.
    C. the use of “influence” or patronage by the executive officials to win support for its policies among legislators.
    D. restricting the franchise to adult males owning a certain amount of property.




  1. (p. 125)Which of the following was NOT one of the ways that English and American politics differed?
    A. Unlike England, most colonies had unicameral legislatures.
    B. The electorate in America encompassed a much larger proportion of white, adult males than did England’s electorate.
    C. Representation was apportioned more fairly and directly in America.
    D. The royal governor lacked the patronage resources of English monarchs and their ministers.



Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. (p. 106)Nowhere did the French seem more menacing than in ________, one of the most important blank spots on Spanish maps.


  1. (p. 106-107)The Native American people that integrated European horses into their lives and became formidable equestrian warriors were known by their enemies as the ________.


  1. (p. 111)Despite grand colonial claims, most eighteenth-century French Americans lived along the ________ River.
    St. Lawrence


  1. (p. 112)Authorities in Paris hoped to establish a colony on the Gulf Coast that could be more profitable and more ________ than their colonial efforts in Canada.


  1. (p. 122)The ________ was an intellectual movement in both Europe and America that celebrated the power of human reason.




  1. (p. 123)The “boy preacher” from England who stirred revival fires up and down the colonial seaboard was ________.
    George Whitefield


  1. (p. 126)The English Parliament’s unofficial policy of benign ________ allowed economic growth and political autonomy in the American colonies.



Essay Questions

  1. What “forces of division” were operating in the British colonies during the first half of the eighteenth century? Discuss with specific reference to at least two of the following areas: immigration, the backcountry, boundary disputes, and seaport towns.

Answers will vary


  1. Compare and contrast the character of backcountry settlements with that of older rural communities in eighteenth-century America.

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  1. Compare and contrast the lives of eighteenth-century American women in established rural communities, on the frontier, and in major seaports.

Answers will vary


  1. Discuss male and female black slaves’ experiences in South Carolina, the Chesapeake, and major seaports.

Answers will vary




  1. Compare and contrast the economy, social structure, and politics of England and America in the eighteenth century.

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  1. Describe the basic outlook of the intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment.

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  1. Why did some American visitors to England feel ambivalent about life and society in their “parent country”?

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  1. Comment on the following statement: “That America evolved in ways distinct from that of England was a direct result of British colonial policy.”

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  1. In what ways were major American seaports of the eighteenth century similar to cities today? In what ways were they different? How has urban life changed in the last 300 years?

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  1. Consider the following: “To any person in bondage, the condition of slavery must be fundamentally unacceptable, no matter how benevolent a slave’s master. Yet the realities of power forced enslaved people every day to confront these inequalities.” Discuss the ways in which enslaved African Americans dealt, in different ways, with their situation.

Answers will vary




  1. Why was the Great Awakening disruptive socially as well as religiously? Explain the causes of disruption in both cases.

Answers will vary


  1. What caused the population of North America to increase dramatically during the eighteenth century?

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  1. Colonial religious practices underwent several changes during the Great Awakening. Explain how different groups adjusted to these changes. What was the aftermath of the Great Awakening?

Answers will vary





Chapter 21

The Political System under Strain at Home and Abroad 1877-1900



Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 559-560)The chapter introduction relates the story of the “World’s Columbian Exposition” to make the point that
    A. the 1890s marked a return to a more stable political and social order after the upheavals of the previous two decades.
    B. a political revolution in the 1890s undermined the longstanding power of the Republican Party.
    C. American society and the world had been transformed by the industrial revolution.
    D. by the 1890s politicians from the South and the West were winning national office more regularly than easterners.


  1. (p. 560)The world created at the Columbian Exposition was indeed illusory; in fact, events in America at that time revealed which of the following to be true?
    A. The political system in America was ill-equipped to cope with the economic and social revolutions that were reshaping the country.
    B. Leadership of the country was in the best hands.
    C. England and Germany were, economically, far ahead of the U.S.
    D. American society had become increasingly egalitarian as a result of industrialization


  1. (p. 561)The pattern of late-nineteenth-century politics included
    A. deep similarities between the two major parties.
    B. large swings with large margins of victory in the national contests between the two parties.
    C. low voter participation.
    D. strong party loyalty.




  1. (p. 563)Which party tended to support a program of active federal support for economic growth, including high tariffs?
    A. Democrats
    B. Republicans
    C. Both the Democrats and the Republicans tended to support a program of active federal support.
    D. None of these answers is correct.


  1. (p. 567)Which of the following third-party movements was the first to have a presidential candidate to receive over one million votes?
    A. the People’s Party
    B. the Greenback Party
    C. the Farmers’ Alliance
    D. the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union


  1. (p. 562)What was the “bloody shirt”?
    A. a rhetorical symbol used by Republicans and Democrats to blame each other for the Civil War
    B. a rhetorical symbol of Democrats that linked the Republicans to exploitative big business
    C. a rhetorical symbol of Populists that linked the two major parties to the “crown of thorns” and “cross of gold”
    D. a rhetorical symbol of civil service reformers that linked patronage-mongering politicians to the assassination of James Garfield


  1. (p. 562)The first modern governmental reform law, the Pendleton Act of 1883, enacted in response to the assassination of President Garfield, provided for
    A. a high protective tariff.
    B. voting rights for blacks in the South.
    C. civil service merit standards and procedures for government jobs.
    D. the breakup of monopolistic business.




  1. (p. 562)On the tariff issue, ________ supported high protective tariffs; on the money question, ________ sought the inflationary consequences of printing greenbacks.
    A. Democrats; Republicans
    B. Republicans; farmers and other debtors
    C. southerners; Populists
    D. large corporations and consumers; Democrats


  1. (p. 563)Rutherford B. Hayes
    A. was a Tammany Democrat who became president.
    B. opposed civil service reform.
    C. moved quickly to end Reconstruction.
    D. was indiscreet in his personal habits.


  1. (p. 564)Which statement is true of Grover Cleveland?
    A. He won on the strength of his campaign slogan blasting the opposition as the party of “Rum, Romanism and Rebellion.”
    B. Conservative and business-minded, he supported civil service and the Interstate Commerce Commission.
    C. He sought, unsuccessfully, to increase the tariff.
    D. He served one term.


  1. (p. 564)Gradually, reform initiatives at the state and local levels set precedents for future action. Examples of these efforts include
    A. anti-trust laws.
    B. the NAACP.
    C. the Greenback Party.
    D. investigative and regulatory commissions.


  1. (p. 565)Farmer frustrations that fueled the rise of the People’s Party included
    A. inflation.
    B. debt.
    C. the isolation and drudgery of city life.
    D. resentment against immigrants.




  1. (p. 566)The ________ was created in response to the Supreme Court’s ruling in Munn v. Illinois and set an important precedent in establishing a right for government to regulate private corporations.
    A. Interstate Commerce Commission
    B. Sherman Antitrust Act
    C. National Municipal League
    D. Atlanta Compromise


  1. (p. 566)In the years surrounding 1890, an innovative program of self-help spearheaded by the Southern Alliance movement flourished, though on the whole the effort, known as “________,” failed.
    A. granges
    B. bimetallism
    C. itinerant lecturer-organizers
    D. cooperatives


  1. (p. 580)As the result of observing what the British had done with its naval fleet in the quarter-century prior to 1900, the U.S. Navy
    A. was mothballed out of existence.
    B. was transformed into a modern, steam-driven institution.
    C. engaged in several wars with European rivals.
    D. shrank in size to its lowest numbers since the days of Andrew Jackson.


  1. (p. 567)The most innovative proposal coming out of the Alliance movement anticipated twentieth-century federal farm programs that seek to stabilize prices paid for farmers’ crops. This early proposal for federal support for farm prices
    A. called for federal regulation of railroad rates.
    B. demanded lower tariffs to promote competition.
    C. asked the federal government to buy up surpluses for distribution to the unemployed.
    D. suggested a system of government warehouses for crop storage until prices rose.




  1. (p. 567)The Election of 1892 was especially significant because
    A. the Democrats won both houses of Congress.
    B. the Republicans continued their long run of controlling the presidency.
    C. the Republicans won both houses of Congress.
    D. the government was once again divided, Republicans controlling the Senate and Democrats the House.


  1. (p. 570)What is the best explanation of “free silver”?
    A. The U.S. government would promote prosperity by inflating the money supply through minting all the silver offered to it.
    B. The U.S. government would promote prosperity by distributing cash subsidies to the unemployed, paid for by recent mining bonanzas on public lands.
    C. The U.S. government would support farmers by buying up surplus crops with silver coin (“lard money”).
    D. The U.S. government would support investors by allowing the purchase of silver on the open market


  1. (p. 569)Above all, the depression of the 1890s demonstrated the
    A. effectiveness of the Populist protest.
    B. weakness of the American economy in comparison with other parts of the world.
    C. inability of the nation’s political system to smooth out the economic cycle of boom and bust.
    D. usefulness of the various federal programs enacted to help the unemployed.


  1. (p. 569)Coxey’s Army
    A. rallied farmers of the West and South to the Populist cause.
    B. descended on Washington to demand a program to employ the jobless.
    C. broke the Homestead Strike.
    D. volunteered for service overseas.




  1. (p. 569)As a result of the depression of 1893,
    A. new attitudes toward poverty and government responsibility emerged.
    B. the federal government adopted a silver standard of currency.
    C. the Populists expanded their following to the urban working classes.
    D. the Democrats and Republicans unified around strong leaders.


  1. (p. 570)The 1896 election was important because it
    A. showed that the American people would reject radicalism.
    B. brought progressive politicians into power.
    C. initiated a realignment in the power of the two parties, and an era of strong presidents.
    D. discredited the free silver crusade.


  1. (p. 570)Free silver was a monetary scheme; it was also a symbolic protest of ________ against ________.
    A. the agricultural South and West; the commercial Northeast
    B. labor; capital
    C. the American people; the political machines
    D. embattled farmers; conservative, laissez-faire economic policies


  1. (p. 570)All of the following statements about the Election of 1896 are true EXCEPT that
    A. Republican William McKinley decisively defeated William Jennings Bryan.
    B. both candidates employed new techniques in their campaigns.
    C. a major political realignment occurred, as Republicans forged a dominating new coalition of voters.
    D. progressives used the free silver issue to achieve their first success in national politics.


  1. (p. 570)The most important issue in the 1896 presidential campaign was
    A. the tariff.
    B. foreign policy.
    C. civil service reform.
    D. the money question.




  1. (p. 571-572)Disenfranchisement of African Americans
    A. was unsuccessful except in a few southern states.
    B. ensured whites could pass the tests or pay the taxes that excluded blacks.
    C. was opposed, unsuccessfully, by Populists and other reformers.
    D. also targeted poor whites who might break party ranks.


  1. (p. 573)William McKinley is notable as
    A. a relatively passive president.
    B. an active chief executive who re-energized the executive branch of government.
    C. a politician swayed by the influence of party bosses.
    D. a typical Republican, in that he wished to restrain the role and reach of the federal government.


  1. (p. 574-577)Which one of the following was NOT an important reason for American expansion in the 1890s?
    A. a belief in the basic equality of all people and races
    B. the need for coaling stations to supply a modern steel navy
    C. the importance of foreign markets to continued economic growth
    D. the belief in the superiority of Western culture


  1. (p. 581-582)In the 1890s, the U.S. acquired
    A. the Philippine Islands.
    B. Aruba
    C. the Virgin Islands.
    D. the Falklands


  1. (p. 577)Among the elements making up the American ideology of imperialism, which does your text consider most compelling?
    A. cultural superiority
    B. racial paternalism
    C. strategic advantage
    D. commercial opportunity





Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. (p. 562)The Pendleton Act of 1883, the first piece of federal legislation to begin breaking down the spoils system, created a bipartisan ________ commission to supervise the federal job application process.
    civil service


  1. (p. 563)In the South, poor farmers suffered; at the heart of their problem was ________.


  1. (p. 566)After the grange movement lost ground, another wave of farm protest organizations arose in the later 1880s, collectively known in the press as the ________ movement.


  1. (p. 570)First elected in the year ________, William McKinley became the first president since Ulysses Grant to win a majority of the popular vote.


  1. (p. 582)After a series of conventional battles ended in their defeat, Filipino ________ quickly learned to take advantage of the mountainous, jungle terrain of the Philippine archipelago.


  1. (p. 584)A(n) ________ is a geographic region beyond a nation’s border over which that nation exerts political or economic control.
    sphere of influence





Essay Questions

  1. Compare and contrast the Democratic and Republican parties in the last third of the nineteenth century.

Answers will vary


  1. What were the major issues that consumed congressional politics?

Answers will vary


  1. What was “free silver”? Discuss the two most important ways it would benefit indebted farmers and other debtor classes.

Answers will vary


  1. What were “Granger laws,” and how did they work?

Answers will vary


  1. What was the Alliance movement? Populism? The People’s Party?

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  1. What was the “battle of the standards” and why was it important?

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  1. List and defend three ways in which the election of 1896 foreshadowed modern presidential campaigns.

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  1. Explain two ways William McKinley affected the presidency

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  1. Identify the five major groups of Americans who supported overseas expansion.

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  1. Discuss the major motives Americans had for expanding overseas. Describe the methods they had available for expanding.

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  1. Explain several reasons why anti-imperialists opposed the acquisition of the Philippines.

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  1. Why was politics grinding into a dangerous paralysis in the last third of the nineteenth century?

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  1. Why was it so difficult to resolve such issues as the spoils system, the tariff, and bimetallism, which consumed congressional energies in the late nineteenth century?

Answers will vary


  1. Explain the absence of strong presidential leadership in the late nineteenth century.

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  1. Discuss the three most important reasons for the rise and fall of Populism. What role did the election of 1896 play in its demise?

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  1. Why did the Republicans emerge as the dominant political party in 1896?

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  1. Explain the rise of “Jim Crow” politics.

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  1. Discuss the role of popular opinion in America’s emergence as a great power.

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  1. Explain and defend the position you would have taken in the debate over annexation of the Philippines.

Answers will vary


  1. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of John Hay’s policy toward China.

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