Essentials of Oceanography 7th Edition by Tom S. Garrison – Test Bank


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Sample Questions Posted Below






Indicate whether the statement is true or false.


1. The only way in which calcium carbonate sediment can form is by evaporation.

  a. True
  b. False


2. The white cliffs of Dover are chalk-like deposits of coccolithophores and are around 100 million years old.

  a. True
  b. False


3. Scientists use ocean sediments to obtain information about ocean processes throughout the history of the ocean.

  a. True
  b. False


4. Some sediment originates from the remnants of organisms.

  a. True
  b. False


5. Sediment refers to the inorganic materials that accumulate on the ocean floor.

  a. True
  b. False


6. An example of a terrigenous sediment is the manganese nodule.

  a. True
  b. False


7. Manganese nodules were discovered during the Challenger expedition and are hydrogenous sediments.

  a. True
  b. False


8. An example of a siliceous ooze are those formed from radiolarian shells.

  a. True
  b. False


9. Stratigraphy is the study of the deposition and layering of sediments over time.

  a. True
  b. False


10. Clays are the coarsest and most easily transported of the terrigenous sediments.

  a. True
  b. False


Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.


11. Aside from manganese, what is the other primary component of manganese nodules?

  a. iron oxide
  b. uranium
  c. silver
  d. gold


12. In the process of lithification, sediments ____.

  a. are subducted into the mantle at a deep trench
  b. are converted into solid rock
  c. slip into the center of the mid-ocean ridges and become new seafloor
  d. are uplifted to form the edges of continents


13. Which method would be valid for classifying sediments?

  a. Studying the size and settling rate of sediment grains
  b. Studying the thickness of sediment layers
  c. Studying the color of the sediment
  d. Determining the age of the bedrock underlying the sediments


14. Over millions of years, natural gas and oil can be formed from ____.

  a. erosion
  b. volcanic ash
  c. biogenous sediments
  d. terrigenous sediments


15. Large volumes of bottom sediments may be transported long distances by ____.

  a. storm waves
  b. icebergs
  c. tidal action.
  d. turbidity currents


16. Which type of sediment is generated in place, on the spot where we find them?

  a. terrigenous sediments
  b. biogenous sediments
  c. hydrogenous (or authigenic) sediments
  d. cosmogenous sediments


17. Which sediments cover the greatest area of seabed?

  a. terrigenous sediments
  b. biogenous sediments
  c. hydrogenous (or authigenic) sediments
  d. cosmogenous sediments


18. More than 75% of the total ocean floor is considered ____.

  a. continental shelf
  b. deep ocean floor
  c. continental slope
  d. continental rise


19. Which sediments arrive in the ocean from continents via wind and water?

  a. terrigenous sediments
  b. biogenous sediments
  c. hydrogenous (or authigenic) sediments
  d. cosmogenous sediments


20. The oozes on the seafloor mostly consist of ____.

  a. boulders and cobbles from glaciers oozing off the land
  b. bones and teeth of bottom-dwelling fishes
  c. fine muds washed down the continental slope to the seafloor
  d. microscopic hard parts of single-celled living organisms


21. Radiolarians and diatoms are both examples of ____.

  a. organisms that are only found in tropical parts of the ocean
  b. single-celled animals
  c. creatures whose shells form siliceous oozes
  d. calcareous oozes in the deepest parts of the ocean


22. The depth in the ocean where the rate at which calcareous sediments are supplied to the seabed equals the rate at which those sediments dissolve. What is this depth called?

  a. calcium carbonate compensation depth
  b. calcium dissolution depth
  c. calcium carbonate pressure point
  d. carbonate equalization depth


23. Sand is classified as sediment that has a maximum diameter of ____.

  a. 4 mm
  b. 0.2 mm
  c. 2 mm
  d. 0.004 mm


24. Neritic sediments are found on the ____.

  a. deep ocean floor, mostly in the Atlantic Ocean
  b. continental shelf
  c. continental rise
  d. abyssal plains


25. Sediments that are found on the continental slope and rise and on the deep ocean floor are called ____.

  a. pelagic sediments
  b. abyssal sediments
  c. evaporites
  d. neritic sediments


26. Which of the following is a major source of terrigenous sediments?

  a. erosion
  b. dissolved organic material
  c. dissolved nutrients
  d. precipitation over the open ocean


27. The analysis of layered sedimentary deposits in the ocean is known as ____.

  a. stratigraphy
  b. oceanography
  c. marine biology
  d. ecology


28. What type of information can scientists derive from observing deep ocean cores?

  a. How much light penetrates the ocean
  b. Information about historical changes in Earth’s climate
  c. Historical changes in tidal cycles
  d. Direct measurements of salinity over time


29. Which of the following are hydrogenous sediments?

  a. quartz sand
  b. phosphorite deposits
  c. siliceous oozes
  d. tektites


30. One area in the ocean that has an extreme abundance of sediment deposition is the ____.

  a. shallow waters around Alaska
  b. waters around the tip of Africa
  c. deep ocean floor in the middle of the Pacific Ocean
  d. waters near the Gulf Coast of North America


31. Most of the floor of the North Pacific Ocean is covered with ____.

  a. manganese nodules
  b. glacial-marine sediments
  c. pelagic clay
  d. evaporites


32. Which type of sediment is most abundant in neritic deposits?

  a. terrigenous sediments
  b. biogenous sediments
  c. hydrogenous (or authigenic) sediments
  d. cosmogenous sediments


33. Which particles are the finest in size?

  a. sand
  b. silt
  c. clay
  d. granules


34. Which sediments would be considered oozes?

  a. terrigenous sediments
  b. biogenous sediments
  c. hydrogenous (or authigenic) sediments
  d. cosmogenous sediments


35. A depression along the boundary of a seamount where sediment has built-up is a(n) ____.

  a. scour moat
  b. guyot
  c. island arc
  d. abyssal plain


36. Carbonate sediments are rare in deep sea sediments because the ____.

  a. organisms providing shells do not live in the deep sea
  b. abundance of muds and clays cover the carbonate shells
  c. carbonate shells are dissolved in deep water
  d. organisms do not live beyond the edge of the continental shelf


37. Manganese nodules ____.

  a. are a type of cosmogenous sediment
  b. are almost exclusively found on continental shelves
  c. “grow” very slowly, at an average rate of 1 to 10 millimeters per million years
  d. are inexpensive to collect, and are therefore, widely exploited


38. Sediment that contains a mixture of various particle sizes is referred to as ____.

  a. homogeneous
  b. poorly sorted
  c. well-sorted
  d. eroding sediments


39. Which type of sediment is of organic origin, i.e., made by organisms?

  a. terrigenous sediments
  b. biogenous sediments
  c. hydrogenous (or authigenic) sediments
  d. cosmogenous sediments


40. The study of the ocean’s past is referred to as ____.

  a. stratigraphy
  b. geology
  c. paleogeochemistry
  d. paleoceanography




41. Describe neritic sediments and explain what you would expect in the composition of a typical neritic sample.


42. What is sediment and what are the four classifications of marine sediments based on their origin?


43. What are the main sources of terrigenous sediments?


44. Paleoceanography is the study of past processes and past events that have occurred in the ocean. What types of questions do paleoceanographers ask and what are the methods they use to obtain information about the ocean’s past?


45. What is the origin of manganese nodules?


Answer Key

1. False


2. True


3. True


4. True


5. False


6. False


7. True


8. True


9. True


10. False


11. a


12. b


13. a


14. c


15. d


16. c


17. b


18. b


19. a


20. d


21. c


22. a


23. c


24. b


25. a


26. a


27. a


28. b


29. b


30. d


31. c


32. a


33. c


34. b


35. a


36. c


37. c


38. b


39. b


40. d


41. Neritic sediments are those that form and are found on the continental shelves that line the Earth’s continents. Because of the proximity to the continents, most neritic sediments are terrigenous in origins; sediments are eroded from the land and carried to the ocean in rivers and streams. Once in the ocean, currents and wave action distribute sand and larger particles along the coast. Smaller particles such as clays and silts are transported off shore and are deposited on the ocean floor in deeper waters. Neritic sediments may also contain biogenous oozes in highly productive regions (i.e., where lots of microorganisms grow). Additionally, in polar regions, icebergs can transport mixtures of rocks, gravel, sand, and silt onto the continental margins.


42. Sediment is a general term referring to particles of organic or inorganic matter that accumulate in a loose, unconsolidated form. The appearance of sediment can vary widely, coming in a range of sizes and types, from the common beach sand to manganese nodules of the deep Pacific seafloor. The sediments that cover the surface of seafloor are classified as 1) terrigenous sediments, that originate on the continents or islands from erosion, volcanic eruptions, and blown dust, 2) biogenous sediments that originate from microorganisms, 3) hydrogenous sediments that formed in-place from chemical reaction in the water, and 4) cosmogenous sediments, which have an extraterrestrial origin. Cosmogenous sediments are very rare in the ocean, though.


43. Terrigenous sediments are those sediments that have their origins on land and are typically the most common and abundant sediment type on the ocean floor, especially in neritic deposits. There are several sources of terrigenous sediments. First, rivers transport huge amounts of sediments into the ocean and river runoff is the primary source of terrigenous sediments. Scientists predict that 15 billion metric tons of terrigenous sediment is transported by rivers to the ocean each year. Secondly, winds blow dust, sand and volcanic ash into the ocean. It is estimated that about 100 million tons of dust, sand and ash blow into the ocean each year.


44. Deep-sea sediments hold about a 180 million year history about the ocean, its chemistry and its inhabitants. Paleoceanographers may ask questions about the history of the ocean and Earth. These questions may range from climate science, to species biology to geological phenomena and more. Scientists use many different sampling techniques such as clamshell samplers, piston corers, and deep-sea drilling to extract sediment samples from different depths. Paleooceanographers can infer several types of information held within these sediments including the age of the sediments, the identification of microfossils trapped in the layer of sediments, the historical temperatures of the ocean and other aspects of past ocean chemistry and behavior. In addition, scientists are currently trying to interpret both oceanic and climate change history. New advances in instrumentation and technologies have enabled scientists to probe deeper into sediments unveiling more information about the ocean of the past.


45. Manganese nodules are hydrogenous sediments that are formed from in-situ chemical reactions as the minerals in the water precipitate to form a solid. Manganese nodules are primarily composed of manganese and iron oxides but have small amounts of cobalt, nickel, chromium, copper, molybdenum and zinc. Although the exact chemical mechanism by which they are formed is not fully understood, scientists do know that they grow at a rate of about 1-10 mm per million years.



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