ECOLOGY CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 4TH Ed CANADIAN By MANUEL MOLLES – TEST BANK

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ExamName___________________________________MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.1)Metabolic heat (Hm) is the heat1)A)energy needed in order to undergo cellular respiration.B)energy intake an organism must have for movement.C)energy needed for growthD)released during cellular respiration.E)energy loss due to evaporation.2)It is a very hot day and you jump into a lake to cool off. What is the method of heatexchange between you and the water?2)A)evaporationB)conduction and evaporationC)conductionD)conduction and convectionE)convection3)Getting up from your chair, you realize that the chair is warm. What is the method ofheat exchange between you and the chair?3)A)convectionB)sublimationC)conductionD)evaporationE)radiation4)What is the main reason that evaporative cooling is highly effective?4)A)Sweating allows for heat loss by conduction and convectionB)Water has a high capacity to absorb heat before it evaporatesC)Water exchange leads to cooling via convectionD)Organisms sweat a great dealE)Water is a universal solvent and is therefore found in all organisms5)Ectotherms:5)A)do not have a high survival rateB)control their body temperature via external sources of energyC)are also known as reptilesD)are also known as homeothermsE)control their body temperature via external and internal sources of energy1
6)Which of the following factors does NOT influence microclimate?6)A)burrows.B)vegetation.C)proximity to geothermal vents.D)topography.E)ground colour.7)In the Northern Hemisphere, shaded slopes are ________, while in the SouthernHemisphere they are ________.7)A)east-facing; south-facingB)north-facing; west-facingC)north-facing; south-facingD)south-facing; north-facingE)east-facing; west-facing8)How are the studies performed on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the desertshrub (A triplex lentiformis) similar?8)A)Both studies support the concept that species operate within a narrow optimumtemperature range and both studies are coupled to enzymatic activity.B)Both studies examine the effects of microclimates and support the concept thatspecies operate within a narrow optimum temperature range.C)Both studies examine the effects of microclimates.D)Both studies support the concept that species operate within a narrow optimumtemperature range.E)Both studies are coupled to enzymatic activity.9)When an organism becomes acclimated to a new environmental situation; it willgenerally involve9)A)genetic changes.B)sociological changes.C)both genetic changes and sociological changes.D)both physiological changes and genetic changes.E)Short-term physiological changes.10)________ environments generally show less temperature variation than ________environments.10)A)Terrestrial; aquaticB)Terrestrial; marineC)Tundra; tropicalD)Benthic; riffleE)Aquatic; terrestrial2
11)The Law of Toleration suggests that:11)A)species abundances will tend to be largest in areas with environmental conditions atthe extremes for performance for a speciesB)organisms can acclimate to build tolerance to extreme conditionsC)organisms will reproduce at the limits of their tolerance thresholds forenvironmental conditionsD)organisms will tolerate each other when in their optimal environmentsE)species abundances will tend to be largest in areas with environmental conditionsmost similar to the performance optima for a species12)The arctic and alpine cushion plants and theCamnulagrasshopper both use ________ toaid in thermoregulation.12)A)endothermic methodsB)increased water retentionC)dark pigmentationD)countercurrent heat exchange mechanismsE)torpor13)Which of the following characteristics do the processes of torpor and hibernation have incommon?13)A)duration.B)increased energy demandC)increased body temperature.D)increased metabolic rate.E)decreased energy demand.14)Mammalian and avian aquatic endotherms use all of the following mechanisms tothermoregulate,except:14)A)fatB)countercurrent heat exchangeC)internal respiratory systemsD)fur or feathersE)concurrent heat exchange15)Most insects use external sources of heat to achieve their operative temperature range.Heinrich’s research on the sphinx moth (Manduca sexta) indicates that some insects canthermoregulate by using their flight muscles and15)A)using a countercurrent heat exchange mechanism.B)using their blood as a coolant.C)decreasing their metabolic rate.D)using a concurrent heat exchange mechanism.E)possessing an internal respiratory system.3
16)Research suggests that the localized extinction of several species of land snails nearBasel, Switzerland was due to:16)A)loss of habitat.B)toxic water source.C)climatic warming.D)exotic predator.E)genetic mutation.17)The Baurs’ hypothesis to explain why land snails had gone extinct was based on________ and was further confirmed by ________ on snail hatching at varioustemperatures.17)A)experimentation; observationB)experimentation; experimentationC)survey work; experimentationD)observation; experimentationE)mapping; observation18)Research indicates that the broad tailed hummingbird will enter into torpor18)A)during a summer drought.B)if their body fat drops below 15 percent.C)if darkness exceeds daylight hours.D)if insufficient nectar is obtained.E)if a minimum surrounding air temperature is met.19)A strategy used by the wood frog (Rana sylvatica) to avoid extreme temperatures is:19)A)hibernationB)freeze-toleranceC)estivationD)endothermyE)torpor20)You are a student working in the laboratory of a researcher who studies rainbow trout. Apower outage over the weekend results in temperatures of over 25ºC in the large poolswhich house the fish. When you arrive Monday morning you notice the fish areswimming on their sides or swimming in spirals. Which of the following isnotaconclusion you can draw?20)A)the affinity of acetylcholinesterase for acetylcholine is reducedB)the excessive energy has been lost as fecesC)the fish are suffering thermal stressD)the temperature of the water is affecting fish enzyme shape and flexibilityE)the fish are experiencing improper neuronal function4
21)Steve MacDonald and colleagues showed that salmon populations are sensitive to:21)A)reduced reproduction as a result of habitat lossB)reduced reproduction as an indirect effect of loggingC)high overwinter mortalityD)reduced survival as a result of elevated stream temperaturesE)over-fishing during spawning runs22)James Ehleringer showed that leaves of the genusEnceliahad variation in pubescensalong a gradient of:22)A)distance from coastB)temperature but not moistureC)latitudeD)altitudeE)aspect23)The thermal neutral zone of a homeothermic animal is23)A)the temperature range at which the metabolizable energy intake equalsmetabolizable energy output.B)the temperature range at which psychrophilic and thermophilic enzymes are bothoperating.C)the temperature range at which conductive heat gain and convective heat loss areequal.D)the temperature range over which the metabolic rate changes dramatically.E)the temperature range over which the metabolic rate does not change.24)How does the skunk cabbage maintain the temperature of its inflorescence 15º to 35ºCabove air ambient temperature?24)A)metabolizing starch at a very high rateB)orienting the inflorescence perpendicular to the sun’s raysC)maintaining a bowl shape which reflects and concentrates solar energyD)extending its inflorescence along the ground to maximize conductive heat gainE)maintaining a cushion shape25)An annual plant adapts to cold temperatures by:25)A)growth form close to the groundB)dark colourationC)thermo regulationD)small leavesE)completing its life cycle in a single year5
26)Ectotherms often use ________ strategies to maintain an optimum operative temperaturerange.26)A)metabolicB)evolutionaryC)geneticD)behaviouralE)physiological27)Pearcy grew boreal forest moss and a desert shrub in different temperature conditionsand observed:27)A)variation in reproduction at different temperaturesB)variation in growth rate at different temperaturesC)a difference in temperature at which the maximum rate of photosynthesis occurredD)variation in survival at different temperaturesE)difference in the rate of dark reactions at varying temperatures28)Which of the following is true about the thermal neutral zone of mammals?28)A)Tropical mammals have wide zones whereas Arctic species have narrow zones.B)Tropical mammals have narrow zones whereas Arctic species have wide zones.C)Both Tropical and Arctic mammals have narrow zones.D)Both Tropical and Arctic mammals have wide zones.E)It is the temperature range over which extensive change in metabolic rate occurs.29)Which of the following isnota means of heat exchange between organisms and theenvironment?29)A)Transduction.B)Evaporation.C)Convection.D)Conduction.E)Radiation.30)Which of the following is true about the amount of time that ectothermic butterflies willspend basking in sunlight as they move from low to high latitudes?30)A)more time is spent basking at high latitudesB)more time is spent basking at intermediate latitudesC)less time is spent basking at high latitudesD)there is no difference in the amount of time spent basking in high and low latitudesE)more time is spent basking in low latitudes6
31)Desert plants employ all of the following strategies to reduce heating,except:31)A)orient their leaves parallel to sunlightB)have highly reflective leaf surfacesC)have open growth formD)reduce conductive transferE)increase their metabolic rate32)Which of the following is not an adaptive means by which organisms cope with extremetemperatures?32)A)InactivityB)ResistanceC)EndemismD)DeathE)Migration33)Which of the following statements best explains why oceans are more thermally stablethan lakes?33)A)The quantity of water is larger and specific heat of water is high, therefore theamount of energy required for changing the temperature is low.B)The quantity of water is larger and light penetrates deep within the water column,therefore the amount of energy reaching deep in the ocean is high.C)The quantity of water is larger and light penetration is restricted to the surfacelayers, therefore the amount of energy reaching deep in the ocean is limited.D)The quantity of water is larger and specific heat of water is low, therefore theamount of energy required for changing the temperature is low.E)The quantity of water is larger and specific heat of water is high, therefore theamount of energy required for changing the temperature is high.34)Which of the following factors doesnotaffect the albedo of natural landscapes?34)A)salinityB)bouldersC)snowD)vegetationE)plant litter35)Which of the following adaptations will likely be selected for in Alpine plants overevolutionary time?35)A)Open structureB)Leaves parallel to sunlightC)White leaf hairsD)Silver pigmentationE)Cushion growth7
36)One day in early spring, you are taking a walk enjoying the sunshine and warmerweather. Although most of the ground is still covered in snow, you notice that crocusesare starting to bloom in bare patches of ground near the south-facing walls of the darkerhouses you pass. These crocuses are able to bloom earlier than most because36)A)crocuses are thermogenic plants and melt the snow around them.B)the macroclimate in these areas allows snow to melt and the ground to warm upfaster.C)the albedo in these bare patches is higher, melting the snow and creating warmersoil conditions.D)the sun shining on the dark south-facing walls of houses creates a warmermicroclimate, causing the snow to melt.E)squirrels are running low on winter food supplies and are digging up the snowlooking for food.37)An organism cannot be both37)A)Poikilothermic and ectothermicB)Homeothermic and endothermicC)Homeothermic and ectothermicD)Poikilothermic and endothermicE)Poikilothermic and homeothermic38)What is meant by an “evolutionary trade-off?”38)A)Organisms can thrive equally in all environments.B)Organisms can adapt to a wide range of environments as long as there are somefundamental similarities.C)Organisms trade ecological niches in order to make the best use of the adaptationsthey have.D)In order to thrive in a specific environment, organisms must give up some of theirfitness in other environments.E)Organisms can trade energy supplies with other organisms in order to increase theirevolutionary fitness.39)Diel vertical migration (DVM) allows zooplankton to exploit different parts of the watercolumn at different times of the day. This occurs in response to39)A)temperature variations in the water columnB)light penetration into the water columnC)tidal cyclesD)predation pressureE)nutrient availability8
40)A cross country runner begins training on a mountaintop with a high elevation and lowoxygen levels. At first, she experiences difficulty breathing when she exerts herself.After a few weeks, however, she is able to run effortlessly at this elevation with noshortness of breath. This is an example of40)A)toleranceB)evolutionC)adaptationD)acclimationE)long-term physiological changes41)You are sitting in a cold classroom during an ecology lecture and you begin to shiver. Inresponse to the cold, you put on a sweater or coat. Shivering is a(n)________adaptation, while putting on a sweater is a(n)________adaptation.41)A)behavioural, acclimationB)acclimation, behaviouralC)behavioural, physiologicalD)tolerance, behaviouralE)physiological, behavioural42)Which strategy for surviving extreme temperature conditions is used by the monarchbutterfly?42)A)HibernationB)PoikilothermyC)DeathD)EstivationE)MigrationTRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.43)The thermal neutral zone of arctic mammals tends to be broader than for tropicalmammals.43)44)Macroclimate is largely influenced by global patterns of air and water circulation.44)45)Dark coloured surfaces have a high albedo.45)46)Homeothermic organisms use a significant portion of their metabolic energy forendothermy.46)47)Plants, unlike animals, cannot thermoregulate.47)48)Insects, unlike birds, cannot thermoregulate.48)9
49)Microbes living in hot springs have a moderate optimal temperature for populationgrowth.49)50)Hibernation is a survival mechanism that is best suited for intense heat and drought.50)51)The albedo of a landscape containing a large patch of vegetation on white sandy soil islower than one with a fragmented forest on white sandy soil.51)52)Boulders and burrows contribute to the microclimates of a habitat.52)53)Levins’ principle of allocation states that as a population adapts to a particular set ofenvironmental conditions, its fitness in other environments also increases.53)54)Thermophilic bacteria are cold-loving and will thrive at temperatures as low as 2°C.54)55)Microbial populations such asE. colibacteria are useful for testing evolutionary changesbecause they have short generation times.55)10
Answer KeyTestname: UNTITLED51)D2)D3)C4)B5)B6)C7)C8)A9)E10)E11)E12)C13)E14)E15)B16)C17)D18)D19)B20)B21)B22)A23)E24)A25)E26)D27)C28)B29)A30)A31)E32)C33)E34)A35)E36)D37)E38)D39)D40)D41)E42)E43)TRUE44)TRUE45)FALSE46)TRUE47)FALSE48)FALSE49)FALSE50)FALSE11
Answer KeyTestname: UNTITLED551)TRUE52)TRUE53)FALSE54)FALSE55)TRUE12

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