Earth System History 4th Edition By Stanley – Test Bank

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Earth System History, 4th Edition, by Steven M. Stanley and John A. Luczaj

Test Bank, Chapter 05

1. (A) Sedimentary feature(s) that provide(s) detailed information about ancient streams choked with sediment is/are known as preserved
  A) deposits of halite and gypsum.
  B) petroleum and natural gas.
  C) bar of gravel and sand.
  D) deposits of lakes and lagoons.
  Ans: C

 

 

2. __________ is loose sediment that contains organic matter and accumulates because of contact with the atmosphere instead of under water.
  A) Nodule
  B) Humus
  C) Caliche
  D) Soil
  Ans: D

 

 

3. In soils, humus is destroyed by combining with
  A) topsoil.
  B) caliche.
  C) oxygen.
  D) aluminum.
  Ans: C

 

 

4. In Nebraska, Oligocene and Miocene beavers lived in soil features called
  A) nodules of caliche.
  B) oxisoils.
  C) fossil burrows.
  D) unconformities.
  Ans: C

 

 

5. Evidence of freshwater lake deposits in geologic history does not come from
  A) sediment grain size differences.
  B) close association with marine sediments.
  C) fish and other freshwater fossils.
  D) associated river sediments.
  Ans: B

 

 

6. The lithified, unsorted, heterogeneous material deposited by ancient glaciers is called
  A) till.
  B) tillite.
  C) moraine.
  D) outwash.
  Ans: B

 

 

7. The alternating layers of coarse and fine sediment that typically accumulate in glacial lakes are called
  A) moraines.
  B) outwashes.
  C) dropstones.
  D) varves.
  Ans: D

 

 

8. Among coarse-grained deposits of ancient deserts and arid basins, the sedimentary structure called __________ is characteristic of sand dunes.
  A) debris flows
  B) braided stream deposits
  C) trough cross-stratification
  D) varves
  Ans: C

 

 

9. Most alluvial fans include broad deposits of coarse, cross-stratified sediments laid down in a complex network of channels, which originate in
  A) sand dunes.
  B) debris flows.
  C) playa lakes.
  D) braided streams.
  Ans: D

 

 

10. A key characteristic of meandering streams that is NOT a key characteristic of braided streams is
  A) the development and preservation of multiple channels.
  B) occurrence in gently sloping terrain far from uplands.
  C) that they are overloaded or choked with sediments.
  D) transportation of mostly gravel and sand and very little silt or clay.
  Ans: B

 

 

11. Meandering river sediments that accumulate inside of a river bend form a __________ deposit.
  A) backswamp
  B) flood plain
  C) point-bar
  D) natural levee
  Ans: D

 

 

12. In the coarse-to-fine vertical sequence in meandering stream deposits, the __________ lie above the point-bar deposits.
  A) channel deposits
  B) flood plain sediments
  C) natural levee deposits
  D) channel gravels
  Ans: B

 

 

13. Many preserved sedimentary cycles of meandering stream deposits are actually partial cycles because of
  A) deep cutting by a younger channel.
  B) sinking or subsiding relative to surrounding terrain.
  C) the change from meandering to braiding channels.
  D) the development of natural levees.
  Ans: A

 

 

14. Sedimentary deposits in front of a moraine, which consist of well-stratified layers of gravel, cross-bedded sand, and mud, are called
  A) outwash.
  B) tillite.
  C) dropstones.
  D) varves.
  Ans: A

 

 

15. __________ beds, which consist largely of sand and silt, are nearly horizontal, except where they are locally cross-bedded.
  A) Delta-front
  B) Delta-plain
  C) Prodelta
  D) Distributary channels
  Ans: B

 

 

16. As a delta progrades, deposits of the __________ will lie directly on top of deposits of the prodelta.
  A) delta-plain
  B) prodelta
  C) delta-front
  D) distributary channels
  Ans: C

 

 

17. In a river-dominated delta, the site of functioning distributary channels is called the
  A) active lobe.
  B) abandoned lobe.
  C) bird-foot delta.
  D) river-dominated delta.
  Ans: A

 

 

18. __________ are waves and shallow currents that flow along the coast and sweep sand parallel to the shoreline.
  A) Barrier island-lagoon complexes
  B) Longshore currents
  C) Tidal deltas and tidal flats
  D) Deltaic cycles
  Ans: B

 

 

19. An example of a depositional environment found along the shores of lagoons is a
  A) barrier island-lagoon complex.
  B) tidal delta.
  C) tidal flat.
  D) river-dominated delta.
  Ans: C

 

 

20. When a barrier island-lagoon complex progrades, ___________ deposits are formed on top of sediments of the lagoon.
  A) barrier beach
  B) tidal-flat and marsh
  C) tidal delta
  D) tempestite
  Ans: B

 

 

21. The pile of reef debris that has fallen from the steep, wave-swept reef front is called
  A) a reef flat.
  B) patch reefs.
  C) a talus.
  D) an atoll.
  Ans: C

 

 

22. A typical coral atoll emerges as the
  A) associated volcano rises from the sea floor.
  B) volcano becomes extinct and starts to subside.
  C) volcano violently resumes eruptions.
  D) oceanic plate subsides and with it, the volcanic island.
  Ans: D

 

 

23. Knobby, intertidal structures formed by cyanobacteria are called
  A) stromatolites.
  B) patch reefs.
  C) organic reefs.
  D) carbonate platforms.
  Ans: A

 

 

24. The uppermost layer of a complete, river-dominated deltaic cycle is composed of sediments formed in the __________ environment.
  A) prodelta
  B) delta-front
  C) delta-plain
  D) marsh
  Ans: D

 

 

25. Sandy storm-produced beds in quiet-water shelf deposits are called
  A) tidal deltas.
  B) talus.
  C) tempestites.
  D) turbidites.
  Ans: C

 

 

26. ___________ occur in lagoons behind elongate reefs.
  A) Patch reefs
  B) Barrier reefs
  C) Fringing reefs
  D) Atolls
  Ans: A

 

 

27. Cooling of seawater in contact with the atmosphere increases the concentration of dissolved
  A) carbonic acid.
  B) calcium carbonate.
  C) cyanobacteria.
  D) clay minerals.
  Ans: A

 

 

28. A graded bed formed by the flow of dense sediment-charged water moving down a slope into deeper water is known as a
  A) turbidite.
  B) turbidity current.
  C) calcareous ooze.
  D) pelagic sediment.
  Ans: A

 

 

29. Above depths of 4000 meters, the dominant low-latitude sediment on the sea floor is/are
  A) calcareous ooze.
  B) siliceous ooze.
  C) reef talus.
  D) turbidites.
  Ans: A

 

 

30. The position of the major deep-sea fans of the world is dependent on the
  A) depth of the abyssal plain.
  B) slope of the continental rise.
  C) location of submarine canyons.
  D) proximity to a major desert area.
  Ans: C

 

 

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