Discovering the Lifespan 2nd Canadian Edition By Feldman – Test Bank

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Chapter 05: Middle Childhood

 

 

Chapter 05 Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Elementary school children in Canada grow, on average, ________ a year.

5 centimetres

7 centimetres

11 centimetres

14 centimetres

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-1

Page-Reference: 195

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L01

 

Answer: 7 centimetres

 

  1. Throughout the lifespan, which of the following is the only time when girls are, on average, taller than boys?

by age 10

by age 11

by age 12

by age 13

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-2

Page-Reference: 195

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L01

 

Answer: by age 11

 

  1. In Canada, which of the following factors are most likely to account for variations in the height and weight of children?

inadequate nutrition

unique genetic inheritance

the use of multivitamins

a diet high in dairy products

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-3

Page-Reference: 195

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L01

 

Answer: unique genetic inheritance

 

  1. Which of the following children is most likely to have difficulties with obesity?

A boy of Aboriginal heritage, whose parents carefully control his portions and diet

A boy from Alberta, whose parents are thin

A girl from Quebec whose parents model healthy eating habits

A girl of Asian heritage, whose diet is high in fruits and vegetables

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-4

Page-Reference: 197

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L01

 

Answer: A boy of Aboriginal heritage, whose parents carefully control his portions and diet

 

  1. Which of the following is a likely cause of Canadian children’s inadequate fitness levels?

There is inadequate labelling of the nutritional contents of food products.

There is an increased rate of digestive disorders.

There is no national effort to increase the level of children’s fitness.

Children live a more sedentary lifestyle that includes sitting in front of televisions and computer screens.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-5

Page-Reference: 197

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L01

 

Answer: Children live a more sedentary lifestyle that includes sitting in front of televisions and computer screens.

 

  1. Which of the following activities is considered a gross motor activity?

colouring

tying a shoelace

zipping up a jacket

throwing a baseball

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-6

Page-Reference: 198

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L02

 

Answer: throwing a baseball

 

  1. The Canadian Paediatric Society suggests that boys and girls should engage in sports and games, and

boys should play with boys.

girls should play with girls.

boys and girls should have access to the same sporting opportunities.

boys and girls should engage in sports and games in mixed-gender groups despite the onset of puberty.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-7

Page-Reference: 198

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L02

 

Answer: boys and girls should have access to the same sporting opportunities.

 

  1. At what age can both boys and girls judge and intercept directions of small balls thrown from a distance and run 5.2 metres per second?

7 years old

8 years old

10 years old

12 years old

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-8

Page-Reference: 198

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L02

 

Answer: 10 years old

 

  1. Which of the following is a fine motor skill?

ice skating

hopping on one foot

jumping rope

tying shoes

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-9

Page-Reference: 198

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L02

 

Answer: tying shoes

 

  1. Which of the following is a fine motor skill?

typing on a keyboard

throwing a football

jumping rope

running and skipping

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-10

Page-Reference: 198

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L02

 

Answer: typing on a keyboard

 

  1. At approximately what age should a child be able to tie his/her shoes?

3 years old

5 years old

7 years old

9 years old

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-11

Page-Reference: 198

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L02

 

Answer: 7 years old

 

  1. At approximately what age should a child be able to use each hand independently?

2 years old

4 years old

6 years old

8 years old

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-12

Page-Reference: 198

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L02

 

Answer: 8 years old

 

  1. At approximately what age should a child be able to manipulate objects with almost as much capability as an adult?

5 to 6 years old

8 to 9 years old

11 to 12 years old

15 to 16 years old

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-13

Page-Reference: 198

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L02

 

Answer: 11 to 12 years old

 

  1. What is one significant reason for the advances in fine motor skills in children 6 to 8 years old?

Children live long enough to get more practice with fine motor skills.

Children’s cognitive development is increasing.

Children have more opportunity to model fine motor skill behaviour(s) from others and practice on a consistent basis.

The amount of myelin in the brain increases to protect, insulate, and surround the nerve cells, raising the speed at which electrical impulses travel between neurons.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-14

Page-Reference: 198

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L02

 

Answer: The amount of myelin in the brain increases to protect, insulate, and surround the nerve cells, raising the speed at which electrical impulses travel between neurons.

 

  1. Bobby, age 5, Amanda, age 12, Allan, age 3, and Suzy, age 8, are all children at risk for injuries. Which of these children is more apt to be injured than the others?

Bobby

Amanda

Allan

Suzy

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-15

Page-Reference: 199-200

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L02

 

Answer: Bobby

 

  1. Children ages 5 to 9 are most likely to be killed

in a house fire.

in a gun-related death.

in an automobile accident.

by drowning.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-16

Page-Reference: 200

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L02

 

Answer: in an automobile accident.

 

  1. Which of the following is the most frequent cause of accidental childhood death?

fires and suffocation

motor vehicle accidents

drowning

falls

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-17

Page-Reference: 200

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L02

 

Answer: falls

 

  1. Approximately how many children and adolescents have a psychological disorder that produces some impairment?

8%

12%

14%

20%

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-18

Page-Reference: 200-201

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L02

 

Answer: 14%

 

  1. What percentage of preteens suffers with depression?

5%

10%

15%

20%

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-19

Page-Reference: 201

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: 5%

 

  1. What percentage of children ages 9 and 17 suffer with an anxiety disorder?

13%

23%

33%

43%

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-20

Page-Reference: 201

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L02

 

Answer: 13%

 

  1. Which of the following is the most likely reason why children’s psychological disorders are neglected?

Parents and family members are embarrassed.

Most children do not exhibit symptoms entirely consistent with those of adults.

There are no treatments available for children with psychological problems.

Most children grow out of their symptoms.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-21

Page-Reference: 201

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L02

 

Answer: Most children do not exhibit symptoms entirely consistent with those of adults.

 

  1. What is the term for a difficulty in seeing that may include blindness or partial sightedness?

visual acuity

partial vision

colour blindness

visual impairment

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-22

Page-Reference: 202

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: visual impairment

 

  1. Which of the following is the most prevalent disorder that affects children with normal intelligence?

visual impairment

auditory impairment

attention-deficit disorders

learning disabilities

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-23

Page-Reference: 202

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: learning disabilities

 

  1. If a person has the inability to see even at 20 feet what a typical person can see at 200 feet (20/200) after correction (corrective lenses, etc.), this is known as

blindness.

partial sightedness.

legally blind.

impairment.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-24

Page-Reference: 202

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: blindness.

 

  1. Which of the following is a symptom that a boy/girl with a vision impairment may exhibit while doing schoolwork?

Holding the book at arm’s-length from their face

Moving their mouth and lips while reading

Glancing away for long periods of time, apparently “daydreaming”

Making facial contortions while reading and/or writing

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-25

Page-Reference: 202

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L03

 

Answer: Making facial contortions while reading and/or writing

 

  1. Auditory impairment, which is a special need that involves the loss of hearing or some aspect of hearing, affects ________ percent of the school-age population.

1–2

2–4

4–6

6–8

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-26

Page-Reference: 202

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: 1–2

 

  1. Severe and early loss of hearing is associated with which of the following?

abstract thinking

social skills development

cognitive development

physical coordination

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-27

Page-Reference: 202

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: abstract thinking

 

  1. What is the term for speech that deviates so much from the speech of others that it calls attention to itself, interferes with communication, or produces maladjustment in the speaker?

stuttering

auditory language processing disorder

auditory impairment

speech impairment

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-28

Page-Reference: 202

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: speech impairment

 

  1. What percentage of school-age children demonstrates a speech/language impairment?

1 to 3 percent

3 to 5 percent

5 to 7 percent

7 to 9 percent

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-29

Page-Reference: 202

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: 3 to 5 percent

 

  1. What is the term for a substantial disruption in the rhythm and fluency of speech and is the most common speech impairment?

echolalia

auditory language processing delays

stuttering

dyspraxia

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-30

Page-Reference: 202

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: stuttering

 

  1. If a child is demonstrating difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities, the child is exhibiting

mental retardation.

psychological disabilities.

learning disabilities.

developmental delays.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-31

Page-Reference: 203

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L03

 

Answer: learning disabilities.

 

  1. How many school-age children are labelled with a learning disability?

1 in 10

1 in 5

1 in 4

1 in 3

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-32

Page-Reference: 203

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: 1 in 10

 

  1. What is the definition of a learning disability?

A speech/language impairment

A significant discrepancy between the child’s actual academic performance and his/her apparent potential to learn

A vision impairment in which the child cannot see at 20 feet what most people can see at 200 feet

A hearing impairment

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-33

Page-Reference: 203

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: A significant discrepancy between the child’s actual academic performance and his/her apparent potential to learn

 

  1. The causes of learning disabilities, while not well understood, are generally attributed to

low birth weight in infancy.

brain dysfunction due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

inadequate access to learning.

speech/language problems in early childhood.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-34

Page-Reference: 203

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: brain dysfunction due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

 

  1. Frank was tested by the school psychologist and diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD). The test results have been explained to his parents. His parents are curious about brain involvement and ADD/ADHD. The school psychologist informs them that

hyperactive behaviour is thought to be caused by inefficient brain signals, which can be helped with the use of a stimulant.

there is little research to link ADD/ADHD with specific brain involvement.

if there is a lag in neural functioning, it will go away with age.

ADD/ADHD would be considered a developmental delay.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-35

Page-Reference: 204

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L03

 

Answer: hyperactive behaviour is thought to be caused by inefficient brain signals, which can be helped with the use of a stimulant.

 

  1. What is the term for a learning disability marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and generally a great deal of inappropriate activity?

bipolar disorder

childhood schizophrenia

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

generalized anxiety disorder

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-36

Page-Reference: 204

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

 

  1. Which of the following include factors that help differentiate normal active behaviour in children from those children with ADHD?

Persistent difficulty in finishing tasks, following instructions, and organizing work

Aggressive behaviour that harms and victimizes others

Shy, quiet and disengaged behaviour

Interest in very active, fast-paced games

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-37

Page-Reference: 204

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: Persistent difficulty in finishing tasks, following instructions, and organizing work

 

  1. Most estimates put the number of children that have ADHD at ________ percent of children under 18 years of age.

1 to 3

3 to 7

7 to 10

10 to 15

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-38

Page-Reference: 204

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: 3 to 7

 

  1. Which one of the following is a side effect of medication treatment for ADHD (e.g., Ritalin)?

loss of hearing sensitivity

loss of appetite

excessive sleeping

dependency

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-39

Page-Reference: 204

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: loss of appetite

 

  1. Which of the following is considered an additional and/or alternative method of ADHD treatment?

hormone replacement therapy

behaviour therapy that includes use of rewards

increasing the number of hours spent on schoolwork

increased use of punishment

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-40

Page-Reference: 204

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: behaviour therapy that includes use of rewards

 

  1. If a preschool child thinks largely in an egocentric manner, then from Piaget’s perspective we would say that the child is in the ________ stage.

concrete operational

decentring

abstract operational

preoperational

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-41

Page-Reference: 206

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L04

 

Answer: preoperational

 

  1. What is the term that refers to the period of cognitive development between 7 and 12 years of age, which is characterized by the active and appropriate use of logic?

concrete operational

decentring

abstract operational

preoperational

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-42

Page-Reference: 206

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L04

 

Answer: concrete operational

 

  1. Concrete operational thought involves applying _____ to solve problems.

reasoning

intuition or hunches

logical operations

acquired knowledge

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-43

Page-Reference: 206

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L04

 

Answer: logical operations

 

  1. What is the term for the ability to take multiple aspects of a situation into account?

concrete operational

abstract operational

preoperational

decentring

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-44

Page-Reference: 206

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L04

 

Answer: decentring

 

  1. Seven-year-old Marvin and his four-year-old brother are sitting at the table as their mother pours milk into their glasses. Both glasses are the same size and shape. However, Marvin’s mother notices a scratch/nick on the lip of his glass and decides that it is safer if she pours that milk into another glass so that Marvin doesn’t cut his lip. The new glass is shorter and much wider, and when she pours the milk into in, Marvin’s younger brother laughs and says that now he has more milk than Marvin. However, Marvin is not upset because he knows that he still gets the same amount of milk. Marvin is exhibiting which kind of thought?

concrete operations

decentring

preoperational

abstract operational

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-45

Page-Reference: 206

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L04

 

Answer: decentring

 

  1. Seven-year-old Alice is working with clay in art class, and she rolls a round ball of clay between her hands until it becomes a long rope. However, she decides that she does not want the rope of clay, but would prefer that the clay is in the shape of a ball again. Alice knows that this is possible. Piaget would say that Alice is demonstrating the knowledge of

formation.

decentring.

reversibility.

conservation.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-46

Page-Reference: 206

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L04

 

Answer: reversibility.

 

  1. In the information-processing approach, what is the term for the ability to record, store, and retrieve information?

encoding

metamemory

memory

information processing

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-47

Page-Reference: 207

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L04

 

Answer: memory

 

  1. For a child to remember a piece of information, _______ processes must function properly.

3

4

5

6

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-48

Page-Reference: 207

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L04

 

Answer: 3

 

  1. When a child initially records information in a form usable to memory, this is called

rehearsal.

listening.

visualization.

encoding.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-49

Page-Reference: 207

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L04

 

Answer: encoding.

 

  1. Larry was daydreaming on the day that his Grade 1 teacher reviewed the math lesson that 5 + 5 = 10. Later, Larry was not able to recall this information, probably because

he never heard it.

he never encoded it.

he never rehearsed it.

he never visualized it.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-50

Page-Reference: 207

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L04

 

Answer: he never encoded it.

 

  1. When a middle-school student is able to demonstrate that he/she is able to hear a string of digits (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) and then repeat the string in reverse order, the child is indicating that he/she is developing

long-term memory.

working memory.

rehearsal strategies.

recall.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-51

Page-Reference: 208

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L04

 

Answer: working memory.

 

  1. What is the term for an understanding about the processes that underlie memory, which emerges and improves during middle childhood?

recall

rehearsal

metamemory

working memory

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-52

Page-Reference: 208

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L04

 

Answer: metamemory

 

  1. If a middle-school-age child employs conscious, intentionally used tactics to improve cognitive processing, this is called use of

reasoning.

control strategies.

rehearsal.

working memory.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-53

Page-Reference: 208

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L04

 

Answer: control strategies.

 

  1. What is Vygotsky’s term for the level at which a child can almost, but not quite, understand or perform a task?

metamemory

transference

zone of proximal development

theory of mind

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-54

Page-Reference: 208

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L04

 

Answer: zone of proximal development

 

  1. Which of the following is a noteworthy educational innovation, based upon Vygotsky’s work, where children work together in groups to achieve a common goal?

reciprocal teaching

metamemory

zone of proximal development

cooperative learning

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-55

Page-Reference: 209

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L04

 

Answer: cooperative learning

 

  1. Which of the following is a noteworthy educational innovation, based upon Vygotsky’s work, where reading comprehension strategies are taught, allowing the student to take on the role of the teacher?

reciprocal teaching

metamemory

zone of proximal development

cooperative learning

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-56

Page-Reference: 209

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L04

 

Answer: reciprocal teaching

 

  1. The vocabulary of a 6-year-old child is from 8000 to 14 000 words, whereas the vocabulary grows by another _____ words between the ages of 9 and 11.

1,000

2,000

5,000

10,000

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-57

Page-Reference: 209

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L05

 

Answer: 5,000

 

  1. Alexander is 6 years old, and although he pronounces most words clearly, he has difficulty pronouncing “j,” “v,” “th,” and “zh” sounds, which are examples of

metalinguistics.

phonemes.

word blends.

enunciation.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-58

Page-Reference: 209

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L05

 

Answer: phonemes.

 

  1. When middle-school-age children understand the rules of language that indicate how words and phrases can be combined to form sentences, this is called

metalinguistic skills.

metacognition.

syntax.

phonemes.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-59

Page-Reference: 209

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L05

 

Answer: syntax.

 

  1. What is the term for an understanding of one’s own use of language?

metamemory

comprehension

metalinguistic awareness

expressive/receptive communication

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-60

Page-Reference: 210

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L05

 

Answer: metalinguistic awareness

 

  1. When middle-school-age children become more competent with the rules governing the use of language to communicate in a given social setting, they are demonstrating knowledge of

pragmatics.

syntax.

phonemes.

metalinguistic awareness.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-61

Page-Reference: 210

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L05

 

Answer: pragmatics.

 

  1. Middle-school-age children utilize _____________ when information is fuzzy or incomplete, such as asking for clarifications of information.

metacognitive skills

metalinguistic awareness

pragmatics

syntax

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-62

Page-Reference: 210

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L05

 

Answer: metalinguistic awareness

 

  1. What is the term for the use of more than one language?

pragmatics

bilingualism

syntax

metalinguistics

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-63

Page-Reference: 210

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L05

 

Answer: bilingualism

 

  1. Which of the following is an observed consequence of bilingualism?

impaired cognitive flexibility

superior results on both verbal and non-verbal tests of intelligence

lower self-esteem

lower metalinguistic awareness

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-64

Page-Reference: 211

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: superior results on both verbal and non-verbal tests of intelligence

 

  1. Which of the following best fits the stage of reading which lasts from birth to the start of Grade 1, where children learn the essential prerequisites for reading, such as identifying letters?

Stage 0

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-65

Page-Reference: 212

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L06

 

Answer: Stage 0

 

  1. Children begin to use reading as a source for learning around

Kindergarten.

Grade 1.

Grade 4.

Grade 6.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-66

Page-Reference: 212

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L06

 

Answer: Grade 4.

 

  1. At which stage does a child learn phonological recoding skills and start to read?

Stage 0

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-67

Page-Reference: 212

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L06

 

Answer: Stage 1

 

  1. Which of the following stages best reflects when a child reads, using phonological recoding skills, and what grade(s) is the child most likely attending?

Stage 0 – Kindergarten

Stage 1 – Grades 1 and 2

Stage 2 – Grades 2 and 3

Stage 3 – Grades 3 and 4

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-68

Page-Reference: 212-213

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L06

 

Answer: Stage 1 – Grades 1 and 2

 

  1. At which stage does a child learn to read aloud with fluency? What grade(s) is the child likely to be attending?

Stage 0 – Kindergarten

Stage 1 – Grades 1 and 2

Stage 2 – Grades 2 and 3

Stage 3 – Grades 4 to 8

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-69

Page-Reference: 212-213

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L06

 

Answer: Stage 2 – Grades 2 and 3

 

  1. At which stage does reading become a means to an end and a way for a child to learn? What grade(s) is the child most likely attending?

Stage 1 – Grades 1 and 2

Stage 2 – Grades 2 and 3

Stage 3 – Grades 4 to 8

Stage 4 – Grade 8 and beyond

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-70

Page-Reference: 212-213

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L06

 

Answer: Stage 3 – Grades 4 to 8

 

  1. At which stage is a child able to read and process information that reflects multiple points of view? What grade(s) is the child likely to be attending?

Stage 1 – Grades 1 and 2

Stage 2 – Grades 2 and 3

Stage 3 – Grades 4 to 8

Stage 4 – Grade 8 and beyond

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-71

Page-Reference: 212-213

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L06

 

Answer: Stage 4 – Grade 8 and beyond

 

  1. The curriculum director for a school district is making arrangements to bring the works of Shakespeare into the school district. What is the earliest grade for which he/she should plan to introduce these great works of literature?

Grade 1

Grade 3

Grade 6

The transition to high school

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-72

Page-Reference: 213

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L06

 

Answer: The transition to high school

 

  1. If a reading educator is in favour of teaching reading by presenting the basic skills that underlie reading, such as phonics, this teacher is a proponent of

whole-language approach.

sound-symbol approach.

code-based approach.

phonetic-fluency approach.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-73

Page-Reference: 213

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L06

 

Answer: code-based approach.

 

  1. If a reading educator is in favour of teaching reading by presenting it as a natural process, similar to acquisition of oral language, where the child is encouraged to guess at words and learns to read through exposure to actual uses of language, this teacher is a proponent of

whole-language approach.

sound-symbol approach.

code-based approach.

phonetic-fluency approach.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-74

Page-Reference: 213

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L06

 

Answer: whole-language approach.

 

  1. What is the term for a set of behaviours, beliefs, values, and expectations shared by members of a particular society?

diversity

culture

cultural assimilation model

multicultural education

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-75

Page-Reference: 214

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L06

 

Answer: culture

 

  1. What is the term for a form of education in which the goal is to help minority students develop competence in the culture of the majority group while maintaining positive group identities that build on their original cultures?

diversity

equal opportunity

cultural assimilation model

multicultural education

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-76

Page-Reference: 214

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L06

 

Answer: multicultural education

 

  1. What is the term for the concept that Canadian society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual cultural features?

diversity

pluralistic society model

cultural assimilation model

multicultural education

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-77

Page-Reference: 214

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L06

 

Answer: pluralistic society model

 

  1. Over the past decade or so, educators began to argue that the presence of students from diverse cultures enriched and broadened the education experience for all students. This would be an example of

diversity.

a pluralistic society model.

a cultural assimilation model.

multicultural education.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-78

Page-Reference: 214

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L06

 

Answer: a pluralistic society model.

 

  1. What is the term for maintaining one’s original cultural identity while integrating oneself into the dominant culture?

bicultural identity

pluralistic society model

cultural assimilation model

multicultural education

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-79

Page-Reference: 214

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L06

 

Answer: bicultural identity

 

  1. According to Wechsler, what is the term for the capacity to understand the world, think with rationality, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges?

education

assertiveness

achievement

intelligence

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-80

Page-Reference: 215

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: intelligence

 

  1. Who is the psychologist that used a pragmatic, trial-and-error approach to psychological measurement that continues to serve as the predominant approach to test construction today?

Freud

Binet

Skinner

Watson

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-81

Page-Reference: 215

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: Binet

 

  1. Who is the psychologist that linked intelligence and school success in constructing an intelligence test that continues to provide reasonable indicators of a student’s ability to be successful in school?

Freud

Binet

Skinner

Watson

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-82

Page-Reference: 215

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: Binet

 

  1. What is the term that Binet developed for the typical intelligence level found for people at a given chronological age?

standard age

chronological/physical age

intelligence quotient

mental age

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-83

Page-Reference: 216

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: mental age

 

  1. What is the term for the actual age of the child taking the intelligence test?

standard age

chronological/physical age

intelligence quotient

mental age

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-84

Page-Reference: 216

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: chronological/physical age

 

  1. What is the term for a measure of intelligence that takes into account a student’s mental and chronological age?

standard age

chronological/physical age

intelligence quotient

mental age

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-85

Page-Reference: 216

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: intelligence quotient

 

  1. What is the name of a test that consists of a series of items that vary according to the age of the person being tested?

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition (WISC IV)

deviation IQ scores

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5)

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II)

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-86

Page-Reference: 216

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5)

 

  1. What is the name of the test for children that provides separate measures of verbal and performance (or nonverbal) skills, as well as a total score?

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition (WISC IV)

deviation IQ scores

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5)

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II)

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-87

Page-Reference: 217

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition (WISC IV)

 

  1. What is the name of an intelligence test that measures children’s ability to integrate different stimuli simultaneously and to demonstrate step-by-step thinking?

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition (WISC IV)

deviation IQ scores

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5)

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II)

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-88

Page-Reference: 218

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II)

 

  1. Intelligence tests most frequently used in schools are based on a common idea that intelligence is a single factor or unitary mental ability called

deviation IQ.

full scale IQ.

g factor.

intelligence quotient.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-89

Page-Reference: 218

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: g factor.

 

  1. Some developmentalists suggest that two kinds of intelligence exist. What is the term for intelligence that reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory?

triarchic theory of intelligence

fluid intelligence

crystallized intelligence

intellectual quotient

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-90

Page-Reference: 218

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: fluid intelligence

 

  1. Some developmentalists suggest that two kinds of intelligence exist. What is the term for the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem-solving situations?

triarchic theory of intelligence

fluid intelligence

crystallized intelligence

intellectual quotient

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-91

Page-Reference: 218

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: crystallized intelligence

 

  1. According to Robert Sternberg, who developed the _____________, intelligence consists of three aspects of information processing.

triarchic theory of intelligence

fluid intelligence theory

crystallized intelligence theory

theory of intellectual quotient

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-92

Page-Reference: 218

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: triarchic theory of intelligence

 

  1. According to Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, the componential aspect of intelligence allows people to

easily compare new material with what they know, and combine and relate facts in novel ways.

easily utilize practical intelligence, including social skills or “street smarts.”

develop insight into complex problems.

infer relationships among different parts of a problem, and then evaluate their solution.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-93

Page-Reference: 219

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: easily compare new material with what they know, and combine and relate facts in novel ways.

 

  1. While James has only average analytical skills and creative skills, his real strength is with people. James has what other’s might call “common sense” and “street smarts” and is quick to read a social situation. According to Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, James strength is

componential intelligence

experiential intelligence

contextual intelligence

crystallized intelligence

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-94

Page-Reference: 220

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L07

 

Answer: contextual intelligence

 

  1. According to Howard Gardiner, there are ____ distinct types of intelligence.

2

3

8

12

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-95

Page-Reference: 218-19

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: 8

 

  1. According to Howard Gardiner, the type of intelligence in which a person displays knowledge of the internal aspects of oneself, such as one’s own feelings and emotions, is known as

interpersonal intelligence

intrapersonal intelligence

naturalist intelligence

body/kinesthetic intelligence

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-96

Page-Reference: 218

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: intrapersonal intelligence

 

  1. Which of the following people demonstrates strong logical/mathematical intelligence?

Michelle, who has an excellent vocabulary and frequently gets high marks on written assignments

Ben, who has tremendous physical co-ordination and excels at several sports

Raymond, who is charismatic and well liked. He effectively reads social situations and always seems to know the right thing to say.

Jennifer, whose thinking is logical and analytical. She excels at chemistry and playing chess.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-97

Page-Reference: 219

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L07

 

Answer: Jennifer, whose thinking is logical and analytical. She excels at chemistry and playing chess.

 

  1. Group differences in IQ test results may be best explained by

genetic variations between ethnic groups.

biases in test content that measures prior experience rather than just intelligence.

prejudicial language in test questions that lower self-esteem, inhibiting test performance.

a natural aptitude for males to excel at linguistic questions, and females to excel at questions regarding spatial relationships.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-98

Page-Reference: 220

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: biases in test content that measures prior experience rather than just intelligence.

 

  1. Which of the following is the term for an educational approach in which children with special needs attend the same school as children without special needs, sharing social activities but learning in a separate class?

regular education

mainstreaming

inclusive education

least restrictive environment

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-99

Page-Reference: 222

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: mainstreaming

 

  1. Which of the following is the term for an educational approach in which exceptional children are integrated to the extent possible into the traditional educational system and are provided with a broad range of educational alternatives?

regular education

mainstreaming

inclusive education

least restrictive environment

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-100

Page-Reference: 222

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: inclusive education

 

  1. If a person has a significantly below-average level of intellectual functioning that occurs with related limitations in two or more skill areas, this person is said to

need mainstreaming.

have an intellectual disability.

need psychoeducational evaluation.

need Special Education.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-101

Page-Reference: 222

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: have an intellectual disability.

 

  1. Children who show evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, leadership, or specific academic fields are referred to as

geniuses.

special.

gifted.

special education students.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-102

Page-Reference: 223

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: gifted.

 

  1. Which of the following is the term for an approach to education through which students are kept at grade level but are enrolled in special programs and given individual activities to allow greater depth of study on a given topic?

special education

acceleration

enrichment

gifted and talented

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-103

Page-Reference: 223

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L07

 

Answer: enrichment

 

  1. According to Erikson, from roughly ages 6 to 12 children go through the period characterized by a focus on efforts to meet the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and the other complexities of the modern world. This stage is called

inferiority-versus-superiority.

industry-versus-inferiority.

social comparison.

puberty.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-104

Page-Reference: 225

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L08

 

Answer: industry-versus-inferiority.

 

  1. Which psychologist promoted the theory that addresses middle childhood children’s focus on meeting the challenges presented by the world?

Erikson

Freud

Skinner

Watson

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-105

Page-Reference: 225

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L08

 

Answer: Erikson

 

  1. According to research by Vaillant & Vaillant, which of the following characteristics is most highly associated with adult success?

high level of intelligence

family background

childhood industriousness

genetic predisposition

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-106

Page-Reference: 225

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L08

 

Answer: childhood industriousness

 

  1. Eleven-year-old Tina characterizes herself as a smart, friendly person who is helpful to others. Tina’s views of herself are based on

her physical skills.

psychological characteristics, inner traits that are more abstract.

desire to be popular with her friends.

external activities relying on motor skills.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-107

Page-Reference: 225-226

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L08

 

Answer: psychological characteristics, inner traits that are more abstract.

 

  1. Twelve-year-old Sam believes he is a pretty good soccer player, but not as good in chorus. This is an indication of Sam’s

self-esteem.

self-concept.

social reality.

social comparison.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-108

Page-Reference: 226

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L08

 

Answer: self-concept.

 

  1. ______________ is an individual’s overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation (which is more emotionally oriented); whereas ______________ reflects beliefs and cognitions about the self.

Self-concept; self-esteem

Self-esteem; self-concept

Self-esteem; social comparison

Social comparison; self-concept

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-109

Page-Reference: 225-226

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L09

 

Answer: Self-esteem; self-concept

 

  1. According to ____________, members of a minority group are likely to accept the negative views held by a majority group only if they perceive that there is little realistic possibility of changing the power and status differences between the groups.

social comparison theory

low self-esteem theory

downward social comparison theory

social identity theory

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-110

Page-Reference: 227

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L09

 

Answer: social identity theory

 

  1. Which of the following terms relates to an individual’s overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation?

social comparison

self-concept

self-esteem

downward social comparison

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-111

Page-Reference: 227

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L09

 

Answer: self-esteem

 

  1. Harry is facing an important test and expects to do poorly. He is so anxious that he cannot concentrate or study effectively, but he figures that since he’s going to do badly anyway, he should not bother. This is an indication of Harry’s

self-esteem.

self-concept.

social reality.

social comparison.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-112

Page-Reference: 226-227

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L09

 

Answer: self-esteem.

 

  1. Generally, overall self-esteem is high during middle childhood but begins to decline around the age of ___ due to

15; puberty.

16; sexual activity.

12; school transition.

11; self-concept.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-113

Page-Reference: 226

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L09

 

Answer: 12; school transition.

 

  1. Parents can help break the cycle of low self-esteem in a child by using a(n) _________ child-rearing style.

authoritarian

permissive

authoritative

passive

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-114

Page-Reference: 227

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L09

 

Answer: authoritative

 

  1. During middle childhood years, it appears that children in immigrant families

often have significant learning problems.

often do quite well in Canada.

are less fluent in communication skills.

suffer from depression.

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-115

Page-Reference: 227

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L09

 

Answer: often do quite well in Canada.

 

  1. Recent research indicates that around age 11, black children begin to show higher self-esteem than white children. Which of the following is a likely reason for this?

Black children begin to notice more visibility of black people on television.

Black children begin to identify with the social majority.

Black children begin to develop more complex views of racial identity.

Black children begin to develop improved critical thinking skills, which are applied to negative racial stereotypes.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-116

Page-Reference: 227

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L09

 

Answer: Black children begin to develop more complex views of racial identity.

 

  1. The term that refers to the complex relationship between self-esteem and minority group status comes from

social comparison.

social identity theory.

downward social comparison.

low self-esteem.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-117

Page-Reference: 227

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L09

 

Answer: social identity theory.

 

  1. Sima is a child of recent immigrants to Canada. Sima is likely to demonstrate which of the following?

Poorer grades in school than nonimmigrant children

Lower self-esteem than nonimmigrant children

Relatively high socioeconomic status

A high level of popularity among peers

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-118

Page-Reference: 228

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L09

 

Answer: Relatively high socioeconomic status

 

  1. Which of the following psychologists contends that people pass through a series of stages in the kind of reasoning they use to make moral judgements as their sense of justice evolves?

Freud

Erikson

Kohlberg

Bandura

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-119

Page-Reference: 228

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: Kohlberg

 

  1. According to psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, which of the following stages reflects concrete interests of the individual considered in terms of rewards and punishments?

conventional morality

postconventional morality

moral reasoning

preconventional morality

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-120

Page-Reference: 228

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: preconventional morality

 

  1. A Grade 7 student is tempted to cheat on an exam but talks himself out of it because he is afraid he will get caught and will fail the course. This student is demonstrating

conventional morality.

preconventional morality.

postconventional morality.

a lack of morality.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-121

Page-Reference: 228

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L010

 

Answer: preconventional morality.

 

  1. According to psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, which of the following stages reflects a person’s approach to moral problems as a member of society, where the person is interested in pleasing others by acting as a good member of society?

conventional morality

postconventional morality

moral reasoning

preconventional morality

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-122

Page-Reference: 228

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: conventional morality

 

  1. According to psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, what stage reflects a person’s use of moral principles, which are seen as broader than those of any particular society?

conventional morality

postconventional morality

moral reasoning

preconventional morality

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-123

Page-Reference: 228

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: postconventional morality

 

  1. According to Kohlberg’s theory, the 4th stage of development is

authority and social-order-maintaining morality.

universal moral principles that are considered broader than the rules of a particular society.

obedience and punishment orientation.

morality of contract, individual rights, and democratically accepted law.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-124

Page-Reference: 228

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: authority and social-order-maintaining morality.

 

  1. Psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg found that ____________ is relatively rare.

preconventional reasoning

a lack of morality

postconventional morality

conventional morality

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-125

Page-Reference: 228

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: postconventional morality

 

  1. Kohlberg proposes that moral development occurs in a fixed order, and that people are unable to reach the highest stage of moral reasoning until __________ due to _____________

middle childhood; lack of cognitive development.

adolescence; lack of experience and peer pressure.

young adulthood; lack of experience.

adolescence; lack of cognitive development.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-126

Page-Reference: 228

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: adolescence; lack of cognitive development.

 

  1. Which of the following psychologists developed the three stages of moral development for women?

Lawrence Kohlberg

  1. F. Skinner

Carol Gilligan

Sigmund Freud

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-127

Page-Reference: 230

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: Carol Gilligan

 

  1. According to Gilligan, girls view morality terms of

broad principles of fairness/justice.

responsibility toward individuals.

justice, rather than caring.

a transition from responsibility within relationships to responsibility towards oneself.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-128

Page-Reference: 230

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: responsibility toward individuals.

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the first of the three-stage process of women’s morality, as theorized by Carol Gilligan?

goodness as self-sacrifice

orientation toward individual survival

morality of nonviolence

moral equivalence established between self and others.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-129

Page-Reference: 230

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: orientation toward individual survival

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the second of the three-stage process of women’s morality, as theorized by Carol Gilligan?

goodness as self-sacrifice

orientation toward individual survival

morality of nonviolence

moral equivalence established between self and others.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-130

Page-Reference: 230

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: goodness as self-sacrifice

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the third of the three-stage process of women’s morality, as theorized by Carol Gilligan?

goodness as self-sacrifice

orientation toward individual survival

morality of nonviolence

moral equivalence established between self and others.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-131

Page-Reference: 230

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: morality of nonviolence

 

  1. According to psychologist William Damon, a child’s view of friendship passes through which of the following stages?

basing friendship on intelligence

basing friendship on common interests

basing friendship on common values

basing friendship on psychological closeness

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-132

Page-Reference: 232

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: basing friendship on psychological closeness

 

  1. According to Damon, the first stage of building friendship for middle-school age children is

basing friendship on intelligence.

basing friendship on others’ behaviour.

basing friendship on trust.

basing friendship on psychological closeness.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-133

Page-Reference: 232

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: basing friendship on others’ behaviour.

 

  1. According to Damon, when Sammy (who is a kindergarten student) is asked, “How do you know that someone is your best friend?” it is highly likely that he will respond

“Because a friend is someone you can count on to help you when you need it.”

“Because a friend is someone you can talk to about things that are bothering you, and they will stick with you no matter what.”

“Because I can play a lot with him/her and stay over his/her house a lot.”

“Because a friend is somebody who is kind and puts my feelings first.”

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-134

Page-Reference: 232

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L011

 

Answer: “Because I can play a lot with him/her and stay over his/her house a lot.”

 

  1. According to Damon, when Marita (who is 8 years old) is asked, “How do you know that someone is your best friend?” it is highly likely that she will respond

“Because a friend is someone you can count on to help you when you need it.”

“Because a friend is someone you can talk to about things that are bothering you, and they will stick with you no matter what.”

“Because I can play a lot with him/her and stay over his/her house a lot.”

“Because a friend is somebody who is kind and puts my feelings first.”

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-135

Page-Reference: 232

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L011

 

Answer: “Because a friend is someone you can count on to help you when you need it.”

 

  1. Which of the following is considered to be the centrepiece of friendship during middle childhood?

similar racial or ethnic background

mutual trust

similar size and weight

living geographically near one another

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-136

Page-Reference: 232

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: mutual trust

 

  1. Friends influence children’s development during the middle childhood years by

providing a child with information about the world, other people, and him/herself.

providing material resources, such as money or gifts.

providing the child with a source of emotional tension, which can help build stress management skills.

providing more security than relationships with parents and other family members.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-137

Page-Reference: 230 [Table 5-2]

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: providing a child with information about the world, other people, and him/herself.

 

  1. According to Damon, the second stage of building friendship for middle-school age children is

basing friendship on intelligence.

basing friendship on others’ behaviour.

basing friendship on trust.

basing friendship on psychological closeness.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-138

Page-Reference: 232

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: basing friendship on trust.

 

  1. According to Damon, the third stage of building friendship for middle-school age children is

basing friendship on intelligence.

basing friendship on others’ behaviour.

basing friendship on trust.

basing friendship on psychological closeness.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-139

Page-Reference: 232

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: basing friendship on psychological closeness.

 

  1. According to Damon, when Steven (who is 15 years old) is asked, “How do you know that someone is your best friend?” it is highly likely that he will respond:

“Because a friend is someone who shares his/her possessions with you.”

“Because a friend is someone you can talk to about things that are bothering you, and they will stick with you no matter what.”

“Because I can play a lot with him/her and stay over his/her house a lot.”

“Because a friend is somebody who is kind and puts my feelings first.”

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-140

Page-Reference: 232

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L011

 

Answer: “Because a friend is someone you can talk to about things that are bothering you, and they will stick with you no matter what.”

 

  1. Status is

the amount of money a person or his/her family has.

the collection of social skills that permits individuals to perform successfully in social settings.

the geographical location of a person’s home.

the evaluation of a role or person by other relevant members of a group.

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-141

Page-Reference: 232

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: the evaluation of a role or person by other relevant members of a group.

 

  1. High-status children tend to do which of the following?

form friendships with other high-status children.

form friendships with low-status children.

form friendships indiscriminately, without regard for status.

form exclusive cliques and therefore interact with a lower number of children.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-142

Page-Reference: 232

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: form friendships with other high-status children.

 

  1. What is the term for the collection of social skills that permits individuals to perform successfully in social settings?

status

morals

social competence

social problem-solving

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-143

Page-Reference: 233

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: social competence

 

  1. Research indicates that popular children share which of the following personality characteristics?

They have a good sense of humour.

They are domineering.

They are not able to read non-verbal behaviour.

They are uncooperative.

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-144

Page-Reference: 233

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: They have a good sense of humour.

 

  1. While most popular children are _________________, a subset of popular boys displays ___________________.

aggressive and disruptive; open and friendly behaviour

good at reading non-verbal behaviour; poor social competence

open and friendly; aggressive and disruptive behaviour

poor at reading non-verbal behaviour; above average social competence

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-145

Page-Reference: 233

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: good at reading non-verbal behaviour; poor social competence

 

  1. What is the term that means the use of strategies for solving social conflicts in ways that are satisfactory both to oneself and to others?

social problem solving

status

social competence

conflict resolution

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-146

Page-Reference: 233

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: social problem solving

 

  1. According to psychologist Kenneth Dodge, successful ___________ proceeds through a series of steps that correspond to the child’s information processing strategies.

status management

conflict resolution

social competence

social problem solving

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-147

Page-Reference: 233

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: social problem solving

 

  1. ___ percent of students report being bullied at some point in their school years.

10–15

33

75

90

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-148

Page-Reference: 234

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: 90

 

  1. What is one of the newest forms of bullying?

physical torture

lying or blaming others for their misdeeds

Internet or cyber-bullying

theft of the person’s personal items or school work

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-149

Page-Reference: 234

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L011

 

Answer: Internet or cyber-bullying

 

  1. What does the term “border work” mean?

Same-sex groupings that dominate in middle childhood

Middle school boys and girls who occasionally enter each other’s territories with romantic overtones

Making friendships within one’s own race

Making friendships within one’s own school or chronological age

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-150

Page-Reference: 235

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L012

 

Answer: Middle school boys and girls who occasionally enter each other’s territories with romantic overtones

 

  1. The segregation of friendships according to gender occurs

in Canada only.

only among separate racial groups.

in almost all societies, including nonindustrialized societies.

when boys are assigned one type of chore, and girls are assigned another type of chore.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-151

Page-Reference: 235

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L012

 

Answer: in almost all societies, including nonindustrialized societies.

 

  1. The lack of cross-gender interaction in the middle childhood years means that

girls and boys may not learn to like each other and have difficulty making cross-gender friendships.

boys’ and girls’ friendships are restricted to members of their own sex.

girls and boys do not have enough time or opportunity to learn about each other’s differences and/or similarities.

it is more difficult for boys and girls to build social competence.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-152

Page-Reference: 235

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L012

 

Answer: boys’ and girls’ friendships are restricted to members of their own sex.

 

  1. Middle-school-age boys typically display which of the following social characteristics?

Smaller networks of friends than girls

The tendency to play in groups rather than pairing off

The tendency towards nonconfrontational conflict resolution

One or two “best friends” who are of relatively equal status

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-153

Page-Reference: 235

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L012

 

Answer: The tendency to play in groups rather than pairing off

 

  1. Which of the following terms means rankings that represent the relative social power of those in a group?

social competence

status

dominance hierarchy

social problem-solving

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-154

Page-Reference: 235

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L012

 

Answer: dominance hierarchy

 

  1. Boys’ play tends to come in bursts rather than in more extended, tranquil episodes, due in part to

lack of social competence skills.

boys’ concern over dominance hierarchy, known as restrictive play.

lack of dominance hierarchy, leading to equal status of different members.

lack of social problem-solving skills.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-155

Page-Reference: 235

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L012

 

Answer: boys’ concern over dominance hierarchy, known as restrictive play.

 

  1. Middle-school-age girls tend to __________; while middle-school-age boys tend to _____________

play in pairs; develop a dominance hierarchy.

have a smaller network of friends; ignore differences in status.

avoid differences in status; have a smaller network of friends.

focus on one or two “best friends”; smooth over disagreements.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-156

Page-Reference: 235

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L012

 

Answer: play in pairs; develop a dominance hierarchy.

 

  1. According to psychologist Carol Beal, the motivation of middle-school-age girls to solve conflict among friends is due to

lack of self-confidence.

lack of social competence.

apprehension over the use of more direct approaches.

the desire to make social interaction nonconfrontational.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-157

Page-Reference: 235

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L012

 

Answer: the desire to make social interaction nonconfrontational.

 

  1. Salina, who is a middle-school-age girl, wants her friend, Beth, to go to the movies with her. Which of the following statements is Salina likely to use to get her friend to go?

“I want you to go the movies with me.”

“You have to go to the movies with me.”

“I want to go to the movies.”

“Let’s go to the movies.”

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-158

Page-Reference: 236

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L012

 

Answer: “Let’s go to the movies.”

 

  1. ____________ is the period in which parents and children jointly control children’s behaviour.

Self-care

Social competence

Coregulation

Adolescence

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-159

Page-Reference: 237

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: Coregulation

 

  1. During the middle-school years, which of the following may occur within families?

Children spend significantly less time with their parents.

Intense sibling rivalries can form if the siblings are more than five years apart in age.

Siblings have little influence on children.

Peer relationships become more influential than family relationships.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-160

Page-Reference: 237

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: Children spend significantly less time with their parents.

 

  1. Which of the following children is likely to be better adjusted, have higher self-esteem, and a stronger motivation to succeed?

An only child in the People’s Republic of China

A child in China who has one sibling

A child in China who has two siblings

A child in China who has more than four siblings

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-161

Page-Reference: 237

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L013

 

Answer: An only child in the People’s Republic of China

 

  1. Which of the following children academically outperforms other children?

An only child of Chinese descent

A child of Chinese descent with siblings

A child born in Canada with siblings

A child born in Canada with one sibling

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-162

Page-Reference: 235

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L013

 

Answer: An only child of Chinese descent

 

  1. What is the term for children who let themselves into their homes after school and wait alone until their caretaker(s) return from work?

latchkey children

socially competent children

self-care children

autonomous children

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-163

Page-Reference: 238

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: self-care children

 

  1. What percentage of children in Canada between the ages of 5 and 12 spend some time alone after school without adult supervision?

12%–14%

15%–20%

5%–10%

8%–10%

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-164

Page-Reference: 238

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: 12%–14%

 

  1. According to psychologist Sandra Hofferth, which of the following is a part of self-care children’s development?

Self-care children often develop lower self-esteem due to a sense of abandonment.

Self-care children may have an opportunity to develop greater autonomy.

Self-care children who stay at home rather than “hanging out” unsupervised with friends may not develop adequate social skills.

Self-care children are emotionally vulnerable, and experience excessive levels of stress and anxiety.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-165

Page-Reference: 238

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L016

 

Answer: Self-care children may have an opportunity to develop greater autonomy.

 

  1. What is the approximate percentage of children in Canada who spend their entire childhood living in the same household with both parents?

25%

33%

75%

85%

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-166

Page-Reference: 238

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: 75%

 

  1. Immediately after a divorce, both children and parents may show several types of psychological maladjustment for a period that may last from

1 to 2 years.

3 months to 3 years.

6 months to 2 years.

1 to 3 years.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-167

Page-Reference: 238

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: 6 months to 2 years.

 

  1. Following a divorce, a child may exhibit which of the following?

sleep disturbances

learning disorders

ADD/ADHD

a stronger sense of attachment to the parent with whom they live

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-168

Page-Reference: 238

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: sleep disturbances

 

  1. After a divorce, ______-year-old children feel pressured to choose sides between the mother and father and may experience a degree of divided loyalty.

2

5

8

10

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-169

Page-Reference: 238

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: 10

 

  1. With regard to children of divorced parents, which of the following is true?

Twice as many children of divorced parents enter psychological counselling as children from intact families.

Fove years after the divorce, most children have not returned to their predivorce state of psychological adjustment.

People who have experienced parental divorce are less at risk for experiencing divorce themselves.

Divorce is not beneficial to children living in households overwhelmed by parental strife.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-170

Page-Reference: 238

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: Twice as many children of divorced parents enter psychological counselling as children from intact families.

 

  1. Approximately how many children under the age of 14 in Canada live in single-parent households?

11%

18%

32%

54%

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-171

Page-Reference: 239

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: 18%

 

  1. By definition, a remarried couple that has at least one stepchild living with them is called a

multigenerational family.

single-parent family.

blended family.

mixed family.

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-172

Page-Reference: 239

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: blended family.

 

  1. When living in a blended family, roles and expectations can be unclear, and this is called

automony.

self-care.

shared benefits.

role ambiguity.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-173

Page-Reference: 239

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: role ambiguity.

 

  1. ____ percent of male same-sex couples have children, while ____ percent of female same-sex couples have children.

3; 16

6; 25

16; 3

25; 6

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-174

Page-Reference: 240

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: 3; 16

 

  1. The latest research regarding children raised in lesbian and gay households suggests that

these children develop similarly to children of heterosexual families and are equally well-adjusted.

most children raised in gay/lesbian households demonstrate significant adjustment problems.

children raised in gay or lesbian households have more significant learning problems.

children raised in gay and lesbian households have gender identity issues.

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-175

Page-Reference: 240

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: these children develop similarly to children of heterosexual families and are equally well-adjusted.

 

  1. Children living in poverty experience many more disruptions than children in socioeconomically secure environments. Examples of these disruptions include

lower intelligence.

impaired moral development.

living in unsafe neighbourhoods with high rates of violence.

living in single-parent households.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-176

Page-Reference: 240

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L013

 

Answer: living in unsafe neighbourhoods with high rates of violence.

 

  1. What are the major effects of poverty, chronic stress, and susceptibility to disease in children?

Poor academic performance, and mental health problems

There are no major effects regarding stress and susceptibility to disease

Children are prone to brain delays and adjustment problems

Poor self esteem, high resilience, improved health

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-177

Page-Reference: 240

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: Poor academic performance, and mental health problems

 

  1. In Canada, the institution of the “orphanage” has been replaced by

foster homes.

group home or residential treatment center.

direct adoption.

residential schools.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-178

Page-Reference: 240

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: foster homes.

 

 

Chapter 05 Essay Questions

 

  1. Briefly explain the treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the controversies surrounding them.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-179

Page-Reference: 203-204

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L03

 

Answer: Many physicians routinely prescribe stimulant drugs such as Ritalin or Dexadrine because they reduce hyperactivity in children. However, the side effects, such as irritability, reduced appetite, and depression, can be considerable, and the long-term health consequences are unclear. Although the drugs are effective in the short run, the evidence for continued improvement is mixed; some studies suggest that after a few years, children treated with drugs perform no better than untreated ADHD children. In addition to drugs, behaviour therapy is often used to treat ADHD, using rewards and increased structure of classroom activities to improve behaviour. Research showing links between ADHD and children’s diet have prompted dietary treatments; however, dietary treatments are usually insufficient by themselves.

 

  1. Provide some criticisms of Piaget’s perspective of learning.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-180

Page-Reference: 206-207

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L04

 

Answer: Researchers argue that Piaget underestimated children’s capabilities because of the limited nature of Piaget’s mini-experiments. Researchers believe that Piaget misjudged the age at which children’s cognitive abilities emerge. Researchers believe that Piaget’s theories were based too much on Western culture.

 

  1. Briefly explain some of the educational trends of the 21st century.

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-181

Page-Reference: 213-214

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L06

 

Answer: The renewed focus on educational fundamentals (reading, writing, and arithmetic) is a departure from previous decades when the emphasis was on social well-being and on allowing students to choose study topics. Schools today stress individual accountability for students and teachers. Consequently, the pressure on students to succeed has grown. Schools today also pay increased attention to issues involving student diversity and multiculturalism.

 

  1. Briefly provide information regarding the success and adjustment of the children of immigrant families.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-182

Page-Reference: 228

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L09

 

Answer: Immigrant children are faring quite well, and in some ways, doing better than their non-immigrant peers. They tend to have equal or better grades than non-immigrant students, and they demonstrate similar levels of self-esteem. Their socioeconomic status is relatively high, and their parents are educated. Immigrant children are highly motivated and place a higher value on education than non-immigrant children, and immigrant children feel an obligation and duty to succeed. Due to a strong identity, they do not adopt undesirable “Western” behaviours.

 

  1. Briefly describe criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-183

Page-Reference: 228-229

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: Kohlberg’s theory has been criticized because it is based solely on observations of Western cultures. Members of industrialized, technically advanced societies move through morality stages faster than members of nonindustrialized countries. One theory is that Kohlberg’s morality involves governmental and societal institutions such as the police and the court system, while less industrialized cultures’ morality may be based on the relationship between people in a village. Kohlberg’s morality also does not explain females’ moral judgments because his data was based on males.

 

  1. Briefly explain the major points regarding psychologist Carol Gilligan’s moral development for girls.

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-184

Page-Reference: 230-231

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: Girls see morality in terms of responsibility toward individuals and willingness to sacrifice themselves to help specific individuals within the context of particular relationships. There are three stages that girls pass through: 1) orientation toward individual survival; 2) goodness as self-sacrifice; and 3) morality of nonviolence.

 

 

Chapter 05 True/False

 

  1. Boys begin their adolescent growth spurt before girls.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-185

Page-Reference: 195

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L01

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Obesity in children ages 6–12 has dropped dramatically over the past four decades.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-186

Page-Reference: 196

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L01

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Adopted children tend to have weights that are more similar to their adoptive parents than their birth parents.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-187

Page-Reference: 196

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L01

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. The only cause of obesity is diet.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-188

Page-Reference: 196

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L01

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. School-age children are very active; therefore, they do not need to exercise more.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-189

Page-Reference: 197

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L01

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Recent comparisons made between boys and girls in middle childhood indicate that there are extreme differences between the motor skills of the two genders.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-190

Page-Reference: 198

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L02

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Antidepressant drugs have received unconditional approval by Health Canada for use with children.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Difficult

QuestionID: 5-191

Page-Reference: 201

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L02

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Health Canada issued a warning linking the use of antidepressant medication(s), specifically called SSRIs, with the increased risk of suicide in 2003.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-192

Page-Reference: 201

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L02

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. There is a simple diagnostic test available to diagnose ADHD.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-193

Page-Reference: 203-204

Topic: 5.1—Physical Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L03

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Not much of future development is charted during middle childhood.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-194

Page-Reference: 205

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L04

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. During early childhood, children’s thinking becomes fully mature.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-195

Page-Reference: 206

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L04

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Children are able to demonstrate metamemory awareness as early as the preschool years.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-196

Page-Reference: 208

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L04

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Bilingual students often have greater metalinguistic awareness.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-197

Page-Reference: 208

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L05

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. In almost all developing countries, males and females receive formal educations equally.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-198

Page-Reference: 212

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L06

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. A growing body of research suggests that the code-based approach to reading instruction is superior to whole-language approaches.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-199

Page-Reference: 213

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L06

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Educators now agree that minority children should be encouraged to develop a bicultural identity.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-200

Page-Reference: 214

Topic: 5.2—Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L06

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Children are on a quest for self-understanding in middle childhood.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-201

Page-Reference: 225-26

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L08

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Recent research indicates that around age 11, black children begin to show slightly higher self-esteem than white children.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-202

Page-Reference: 227

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L09

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Kohlberg’s theory contends that students with higher levels of moral reasoning are less likely to engage in antisocial behaviour at school.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-203

Page-Reference: 230

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. One experiment found that 15% of students who reasoned at the postconventional level of morality (the highest category) cheated when given the opportunity.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-204

Page-Reference: 230

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Kohlberg’s morality theory is problematic because his data was largely based on males rather than equally on males and females.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-205

Page-Reference: 230

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Psychologist Carol Gilligan suggested that differences in the ways boys and girls are raised in society leads to basic distinctions in how men and women view moral behaviour.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-206

Page-Reference: 23031

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L010

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Although generally popular children are friendly and cooperative, one subset of popular boys display negative behaviours such as aggressiveness and disruptiveness, which is viewed as cool because they are seen as breaking the rules.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-207

Page-Reference: 233

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Bullying is a phenomenon that is exclusive to preschool children.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-208

Page-Reference: 234

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Some 90% of middle school children report being bullied at some point in their time at school, beginning as early as the preschool years.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-209

Page-Reference: 234

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L011

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Middle-school-age girls typically have larger networks of friends than boys.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-210

Page-Reference: 235

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L012

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Research indicates that, for the most part, friendships are colour-blind.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-211

Page-Reference: 236

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L012

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. A good deal of research supports the notion that contact between majority and minority groups can reduce prejudice and discrimination.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

QuestionID: 5-212

Page-Reference: 236

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Factual

Objective: L012

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Children who have no siblings are not as well adjusted as children who grow up with siblings.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-213

Page-Reference: 237

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: L013

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Adolescents are able to adjust better to living in a blended family than school-age children.

a True

b False

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

QuestionID: 5-214

Page-Reference: 239

Topic: 5.3—Social/Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Skill: Applied

Objective: L013

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. A growing body of research suggests that there is little developmental difference between children whose parents are gay and lesbian and those who have heterosexual parents.

a True

b False

 

 

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