Death and Dying Life and Living 7th Edition by Charles A. Corr – Test Bank

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CHAPTER FIVE

 

 

CULTURAL PATTERNS AND DEATH

 

 

TOPICAL OUTLINE

 

  • An example of cultural differences from children’s literature: A “happy funeral” in a Chinese-American community

 

  • Some reasons why we should study cultural patterns within American society:

 

To appreciate the diversity within and between groups in American society

To develop greater sensitivity and a richer understanding of diverse encounters,

attitudes, and practices surrounding death and grief

To empower ourselves to provide more effective care for others in our communities

To learn more about ourselves by comparing and contrasting our experiences

with those described in this chapter

 

  • Hispanic Americans and their death-related encounters, attitudes, and practices

 

  • African Americans and their death-related encounters, attitudes, and practices

 

  • Asian and Pacific Island Americans and their death-related encounters, attitudes, and practices

 

  • American Indians and Native Alaskans and their death-related encounters, attitudes, and practices

 

 

OBJECTIVES

 

  • To demonstrate how racial, cultural, and other factors interact with death-related experiences

 

  • To focus on death-related experiences in four selected cultural groups within American society

 

  • To describe typical and/or distinctive features of death-related encounters, attitudes, and

practices in these four selected cultural groups

 

  • To demonstrate heterogeneity, diversity, and richness—as well as similarities and communality—within American experiences with death

 

  • To resist tendencies to ethnocentrism by suggesting some of the many lessons we can all learn as we seek culturally conscientious ways of understanding and helping each other

 

 

KEY TERMS AND PHRASES

 

African Americans: Americans whose cultural origins trace back to the Black cultures of the African continent (especially in West African nations)

 

American Indians and Native Alaskans (sometimes called Native Americans or “First Nation Peoples”): Americans whose cultural origins trace back to the indigenous populations of North America

 

Asian Americans: Americans whose cultural origins trace back to the Asian continent

Cultural patterns: Distinctive features arising from a unified set of values, ideas, beliefs, and standards of behavior shared by a group of people

 

Ethnicity: pertaining to, or characteristic of, a people; especially in relationship to cultural, racial, religious, or linguistic traditions of that people

 

Hispanic Americans: Americans whose cultural origins trace back to countries in which the dominant language is Spanish (e.g., Cuba, Mexico, and Puerto Rico, as well as Central and South American countries)

 

Pacific Island Americans: Americans whose cultural origins trace back to the Pacific Islands (e.g., Hawaii and Samoa)

 

 

SELECTED INTERNET SEARCH TERMS: African Americans and death; Alaskan Natives and death; American Indians and death; Asian Americans and death; cultural patterns; ethnicity and death; Hispanic Americans and death; Native Americans and death; Pacific Island Americans and death

 

 

SELECTED ORGANIZATIONAL AND OTHER INTERNET SITES:

 

Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations; www.acpcho.org

Ethnic Elders Care; www.ethnicelderscare.net

National Alliance for Hispanic Health; www.hispanichealth.org

National Black Women’s Health Imperative; www.blackwomenshealth.org

National Minority AIDS Council; www.nmac.org

National Native American AIDS Prevention Center; www.nnaapc.org

U.S. Census Bureau; www.census.gov

 

 

SUGGESTED DISCUSSION TOPICS

 

In Chapter 5, we describe significant cultural patterns within American society as related to human experiences of death, dying, and bereavement. We do this to help students understand themselves, their neighbors, and their multicultural society. Our main focus is on broad cultural patterns, even though we realize there are challenges and limitations in what can be said about specific topics and cultures.

 

Our goal is to help students appreciate that death-related encounters, attitudes, and practices are shaped not only at the broader social level (as shown in Chapters 2-4), but also by the interactions we have with others in specific cultural and personal contexts. We do this by encouraging students to look at how their particular cultural groups (neighborhood, town, church, family) deal with death.

 

For example: What patterns of mourning are recognized, accepted, and acted on in the student’s own subculture? What sort of rituals has the student observed, participated in, or heard discussed? What sorts of attitudes and practices are approved, and what sorts are disapproved, by his or her family, friends, clergy person, or community?

 

In these ways, this chapter can be used to move beyond the general, somewhat abstract level of discussion in Chapters 2-4 to get students to focus more carefully on their own unique death-related experiences. Comparing and contrasting experiences of different members of the class can begin to reveal the richness and variety of human experiences and expressions about death.

 

 

SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES

 

Activities ##1 & 2: See p. 36 in this Instructor’s Manual.

 

Activity #3: Cultural Experiences with Death

  1. Create small groups of at least 5-6 participants
  2. Ask each group to describe and discuss the cultural experiences with death of

each individual member of the group, stating expectations, disappointments,

and concerns

  1. Choose a reporter to share results of each discussion with the class as a whole

 

Activity #4: Personal Experiences with Death in My Family or Community

  1. Ask each student to write a brief essay about his or her family’s response to

a death or about cultural rituals (e.g., ethnic, religious, social) in his or her

home community’s responses to a death.

  1. Encourage individuals to be as specific as possible and to include exact details

(what did the men wear, what did the women wear, what did people say, where

did they sit, stand, go?). Who “took care” of whom, and how did they do that?

Who was present when the death occurred? Who was not present? Who was

called about the death first? Why? Was food served after the funeral? If so,

what types of food?

 

Activity #5: Members of Other Cultural Groups and Their Death-Related Practices

  1. Assign each student to interview a member of a cultural group other than the

students’ own and to inquire about that group’s death-related practices

  1. Ask each student to write a brief essay or discuss with a small group of other

students what took place in the experience and how he or she reacted to it

 

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

(Note: Our directions to students for multiple-choice questions are, “Select the best answer from among the options provided.” Items marked “WWW” are posted on the companion website for this book at www.cengagebrain.com to use as practice quizzes.)

 

  1. The vignette in Chapter 5 describes a “happy funeral.” It was happy because
  2. grandmother died without pain or discomfort
  3. incense sticks were burned in front of the casket
  4. there was a parade through the streets of Chinatown with a marching band
  5. after the ceremony each mourner was given a small candy “to sweeten your sorrow”

*   e. grandfather was ready for his death and he left a good legacy                    (pp. 107-108)

 

  1. An important fact concerning death-related issues in American society is that individuals who

make up our society

*   a. are not a single homogeneous group

  1. share common cultural and ethnic values
  2. share common educational background
  3. all of these
  4. none of these (p. 108)

 

 

 

 

 

  1. To avoid the danger of stereotyping in analyzing cultural diversity among Americans with

regard to death, dying, and bereavement, one must appreciate

  1. individuality in particular persons
  2. differences between various cultural groups
  3. differences within various cultural groups

*   d. all of these

  1. none of these (pp. 108-110)WWW

 

  1. According to projections by the U.S. Census Bureau, in 2007 the largest minority group in the

United States was

  1. Native Americans
  2. Asian and Pacific Island Americans

*   c. Hispanic Americans

  1. African Americans
  2. Caucasian Americans (pp. 110 & 112)

 

  1. The “Tiger Woods description” in the 2000 census refers to
  2. new types of encounters with death

*   b. the possibility that individuals might classify themselves in more than one racial or cultural

category

  1. the fact that Hispanics are now the largest minority group in the United States
  2. all of these
  3. none of these (p. 112)

 

  1. Persons of Hispanic origin in the United States
  2. are primarily individuals who live in or came to the mainland from Puerto Rico

*   b. may be of any race

  1. exclude individuals from Central and South America
  2. are Caucasians distinguished in government documents from the larger community of

“Anglo” whites

  1. none of these (pp. 110-112)

 

  1. Efforts to study death rates among Hispanic Americans face particular difficulties because
  2. data collected on death rates mainly derives from records in county offices
  3. death records record race, but not Hispanic origin

*   c. noting the Hispanic origin of a person who has died depends upon accuracy

by the recorder and reliable information from sources

  1. all of these
  2. none of these (p. 113)

 

  1. A major reason that Hispanic Americans had a comparatively low number of deaths in 2007 is
  2. Hispanic Americans have a healthier diet than do other Americans
  3. Hispanic Americans have largely kept separated from the rest of American society
  4. there is a wide gap between the infant mortality rates among Hispanic Americans and other

cultural groups in the United States

  1. more Hispanic Americans are recent immigrants than other groups in American society

*   e. the Hispanic American population has a greater proportion of young persons than other

cultural groups in the United States                                                            (p. 114)

 

  1. Among Hispanic Americans deaths in the United States in 2007
  2. infant mortality rates were much lower than those for non-Hispanic Caucasian infants
  3. an excessive number resulted from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and suicide
  4. death rates were much higher than those for non-Hispanic Caucasian Americans

*   d. death rates were much lower than those for non-Hispanic Caucasian Americans

  1. heart disease and cancer are unusually prominent causes of death (pp. 113-114)

 

 

  1. Which of the following is/are important in Hispanic-American attitudes toward death?
  2. a sense of fatalism
  3. the importance of family
  4. the role of religion

*   d. all of these

  1. none of these (pp. 114-115)

 

  1. Among Hispanic Americans, death-related attitudes appear to
  2. favor displacement of the locus of emotional support from the family unit

*   b. be shaped largely by family and religion

  1. derive from the structure of the Spanish language
  2. all of these
  3. none of these (pp. 114-115)WWW

 

  1. Care of Hispanic Americans who are dying is typically provided by

*   a. female family members

  1. nursing homes
  2. a sense of “machismo”
  3. all of these
  4. none of these (p. 116)

 

  1. Death-related practices among Hispanic Americans often involve
  2. prohibitions against touching the body

*   b. efforts to be present at or near the time of death

  1. permission to speak ill of the person who has died
  2. all of these
  3. none of these (p. 116)

 

  1. Mourning practices among Hispanic Americans often involve
  2. an emphasis on grief in men
  3. the absence of children

*   c. public expression of emotion by women

  1. strong prohibitions against revealing intense feelings of grief by those who take part
  2. participation restricted to members of the nuclear family (p. 117)

 

  1. Age-adjusted death rates for African Americans in our society are;

*  a. higher than those for Caucasian Americans

  1. about the same as those for Caucasian Americans
  2. lower than those for Caucasian Americans
  3. not been documented
  4. none of these (pp. 113 & 120)

 

  1. In general, death rates among African Americans are influenced by
  2. poverty
  3. inadequate access to health care
  4. a relatively high incidence of life-threatening behavior

*   d. all of these

  1. none of these (pp. 120-121)

 

  1. High overall death rates and infant mortality rates among African-Americans
  2. result directly from ethnic and racial characteristics

*   b. are often associated with disadvantaged socioeconomic standing

  1. are more likely to characterize females than males
  2. have been overcome in the early 21st century
  3. are directly related to educational attainment (pp. 113 & 120-121)

 

  1. According to recent research studies, the role of the family in African-American

society is described as

  1. peripheral to the care provided for the terminally ill among African Americans
  2. discouraging anyone else outside the immediate family from getting involved

in death-related situations

  1. usually leading to care for terminally-ill persons in hospitals or nursing homes
  2. all of these

*   e. none of these                                                                                           (pp. 121-122)

 

  1. African-American attitudes toward death show that they greatly value
  2. trust in the medical community
  3. the writing of living wills

*   c. family support (as shown in recent studies)

  1. the work of the Tuskegee syphilis experiment
  2. none of these                         (pp. 121-123)

 

  1. In their relations with the medical community, African Americans have been reported to

*   a. display distrust

  1. follow the guidance of physicians implicitly
  2. have relatively high organ donor rates
  3. prefer not to care for dying persons at home
  4. have good prenatal care leading to relatively low infant death rates (pp. 122-123)WWW

 

  1. In the Tuskegee syphilis study
  2. participants were informed of the nature of their disease
  3. participants were treated with penicillin when it became available in the mid-1940s
  4. participants included African-American farmers in Alabama at different economic levels

*   d. while treatments were initially suspended when results were unimpressive, study of the

progress of the disease continued until participants died

  1. the study itself was halted before it was exposed by the press (p, 123)

 

  1. In their death-related practices, African Americans are said to be
  2. unwilling to touch the body at the funeral, but likely to visit the grave
  3. unlikely to be freely expressive in times of grief
  4. likely to regard funerals as unimportant
  5. unlikely to hold funeral directors in high regard

*   e. likely to view death as a moment in which recognition can be provided for the deceased

person’s ability to stand up to others                                                          (pp. 124-126)

 

  1. African-American practices related to death have been shown to involve
  2. distrust of funeral directors
  3. willingness to donate organs after death

*   c. the importance of storytelling

  1. resistance to expressing emotions
  2. none of these (pp. 124-126)

 

  1. In 2007, Asian and Pacific Island Americans experienced approximately
  2. 117,135 deaths
  3. 286,573 deaths
  4. 12,415 deaths

*   d. 45,609 deaths

  1. none of these (p. 113)

 

 

 

 

  1. Age-adjusted death rates among Asian and Pacific Island Americans in 2007 were
  2. higher than those for African Americans
  3. higher than those for American Indians and Native Alaskans

*   c. lower than those for all of the other four groups studied in Chapter Five

  1. about the same as those for Hispanic Americans
  2. none of these (p. 126)

 

  1. Infant mortality rates for Asian and Pacific Island Americans are
  2. higher than those for Caucasian Americans
  3. higher than those for African Americans
  4. higher than those for Native Americans

*   d. lower than those for Caucasian Americans, African Americans, and American Indians

  1. none of these (p. 127)

 

  1. Research indicates that Asian and Pacific Island American attitudes toward death involve
  2. preferences that dying persons not be told they are dying
  3. a view that talking about bad things may actually produce them
  4. a desire to maintain control over communication

*   d. all of these

  1. none of these (p. 127)

 

  1. Death-related attitudes among Asian and Pacific Island Americans tend to favor

communications that are likely to

  1. involve open expressions of feelings and distress
  2. involve questioning of authority
  3. tell seriously-ill persons that they are dying

*   d. involve careful control over expressions of feeling

  1. none of these (p. 127)WWW

 

  1. One study of attitudes among Asian and Pacific Island Americans toward

physician-assisted suicide found that

  1. such attitudes tended to be associated with religious factors
  2. acculturation to the dominant culture influenced such attitudes
  3. were most hostile among sub-groups with the worst health status and the

shortest life expectancy among study populations

*   d. all of these

  1. none of these (pp. 127-128)

 

  1. Research on attitudes toward funerals among Asian and Pacific Island Americans

Indicate that funerals are

  1. generally not regarded as very important by the community

*   b. likely to involve strict rituals and roles for  participants

  1. usually limited to those who knew the deceased personally
  2. all of these
  3. none of these (p. 128)

 

  1. Death-related practices among Asian and Pacific Island Americans

*   a. encourage frequent visits to gravesites

  1. reject any blending of Western and non-Western elements in their funeral rituals
  2. are quite liberal in their mourning customs
  3. deny any continued interaction between the living and the deceased
  4. require the exchange of fine Samoan mats (p. 130)

 

 

 

  1. Among Asian and Pacific Island Americans, death-related attitudes and practices
  2. tend to sever links with the deceased after the funeral
  3. often frown upon large-scale, public activities
  4. permit only infrequent visits to gravesites

*   d. allow for continued relationships between the deceased and survivors

  1. frequently discourage touching the body of the deceased (p. 130)

 

  1. American Indians and Native Alaskans
  2. are best described as a single cohesive group, sharing similar beliefs and behaviors
  3. are more likely to live on a reservation than in urban areas in the United States

*   c. have most frequently died from communicable diseases

  1. have low mortality rates from automobile accidents
  2. none of these (p. 130)

 

  1. American Indians and Native Alaskans make up about
  2. 10% of the total population of the United States
  3. 5% of the total population of the United States
  4. 15% of the total population of the United States
  5. 25% of the total population of the United States

*   e. 1% of the total population of the United States                                           (pp. 112 & 130)

 

  1. Causes of death among American Indians and Native Alaskans have typically

most often involved

*   a. communicable diseases

  1. degenerative diseases
  2. increased average life expectancy
  3. rejection of the view that life and death are linked in a circular fashion
  4. low risk of sudden infant death syndrome (p. 130)

 

  1. American-Indian and Native Alaskan infant mortality rates
  2. are lower than for most other American groups
  3. are about the same as those of Caucasian Americans

*   c. are substantially higher than those of other American groups, except for African Americans

  1. are largely due to SIDS
  2. are not related to family income (p. 131)

 

  1. American-Indian and Native Alaskan groups experience high vehicular death rates from
  2. alcoholism
  3. living in sparsely populated areas
  4. living in areas where roads are often in poor condition

*   d. all of these

  1. none of these (p. 131)

 

  1. American Indians and Native Alaskans often view life and death
  2. in a strictly linear fashion, where life precedes death and is completely ended at death
  3. as a product of physical events
  4. without much anxiety

*   d. as interwoven and related in a circular fashion

  1. as explicitly distinct and unrelated to each other (p. 132)WWW

 

  1. Among American Indians and Native Alaskans, death-related attitudes may include
  2. a high level of death-related fear
  3. strict taboos against polluting the living and their homes
  4. acceptance without anxiety

*   d. all of these

  1. none of these (p. 132)

 

  1. One report on death-related practices among American-Indian (or First Nation) peoples in

Canada suggested the value of trained native interpreters who could

  1. interpret biomedical concepts to clinical staff
  2. explain cultural perspectives on terminal illness and postmortem rituals to native peoples
  3. advocate locating death in urban, tertiary-care hospitals
  4. conduct memorial “potlach” ceremonies before a person dies

*   e. serve as advocates to enable patients to return to their home communities in the final days

of life                                                                                                      (pp. 133-135)

 

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. Identify and discuss one lesson that is important to our course that we should learn from the

account of a “happy funeral” near the beginning of Chapter 5.                         (pp. 107-108)

 

  1. Discuss the limits on what can be said about cultural differences in the field of death,

dying, and bereavement?                                                                             (p. 110)

 

  1. Identify and briefly explain any two (2) differences between encounters with death in any two

(2) of the four groups discussed in Chapter 5.                                                 (pp. 110-132)

 

  1. Contrast what you have learned about cultural differences regarding care of the dying and

communications with the dying in any two of the four groups discussed in Chapter 5.                                                                                                                                      (pp. 116-136)

 

  1. What does it mean to speak of “death-related practices”? Identify and briefly explain two (2)

different death-related practices mentioned in Chapter 5 in which one notes cultural

differences.                                                                                                 (pp. 116-136)

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Discuss two reasons why it is important to examine cultural and ethnic patterns in death-

related encounters, attitudes, and practices. Then, discuss two lessons we can learn about

ourselves and about others by noting such differences.                                 (pp. 108-110)

 

  1. List two important ways in which Hispanic Americans’ encounters with dying and death are

likely to be different from those of African Americans. Explain in depth your reasons for

seeing these as differences. Then suggest how these differences in encounters might affect

attitudes toward death in these two communities.  (This question could be varied by altering

the communities that it compares: for example, Asian Americans vs. Native Americans.)

(pp. 113-114 & 120-121)

 

  1. Table 5.2 in Chapter 5 shows important contrasts in age-adjusted death rates between the

four cultural groups discussed in this chapter. Identify and discuss one important lesson to be

learned from these contrasts?                                                                      (p. 113)

 

  1. Explain the importance of the family in death-related matters among Hispanic Americans and

African Americans. Be specific. Give examples.                     (pp. 114-115 & 121-122)

 

  1. Identify and explain two important ways in which death-related practices among African

Americans are likely to be different from those of Asian and Pacific Island Americans.  Explain

in depth your reasons for seeing these as differences.  Then suggest how these differences in

practices might reflect attitudes toward death in these two communities. (This question could

be varied by altering the communities that it compares.)         (pp. 123-126 & 128-130)

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