Criminology The Essentials 3rd Edition By Walsh – Test Bank

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Chapter 5: Crime as Choice: Rationality, Emotion, and Criminal Behavior

 

Multiple Choice

  1. Which of the following is not considered to be a cause of criminal behavior?
  2. broken home
  3. gender
  4. open front door
  5. drugs

Ans: c

Learning Objective: 5.1 Explain the nature of rationality and the constraints on it

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Returning to Classic Assumptions of Human Nature

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Cultural criminologists agree with evolutionary scholars that ______ are/is more important than ______ in human social decision making.
  2. emotions; rationality
  3. behavior; emotions
  4. rationality; behavior
  5. rationality; emotions

Ans: a

Learning Objective: 5.1 Explain the nature of rationality and the constraints on it | 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories | 5.4 Describe cultural criminology’s point about the primacy of emotions in motivating criminal behavior

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Evaluation of Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Rational choice theory and routine activities theory are both based on what school of ideas?
  2. classical
  3. preclassical
  4. positivist
  5. neoclassical

Ans: d

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Evaluation of Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is the goal behind rationality?
  2. being ethical
  3. morality
  4. self-interest
  5. others emotions

Ans: c

Learning Objective: 5.1 Explain the nature of rationality and the constraints on it | 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories | 5.4 Describe cultural criminology’s point about the primacy of emotions in motivating criminal behavior | 5.6 Know the crime prevention policy recommendations offered by the three theories

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Policy and Prevention: Implications of Cultural Criminology

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Routine activities theory points out that crime increased dramatically with the expansion of the welfare state from the _______ onward.
  2. 1950s
  3. 1960s
  4. 1970s
  5. 1980s

Ans: b

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Routine Activities Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ is as much a “cause” of crime as its poverty because it brings with it many opportunities for crime.
  2. inequality
  3. unemployment
  4. affluence
  5. gender

Ans: c

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Routine Activities Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. All of the following are considered capable guardians EXCEPT:
  2. alarms
  3. concerned neighbors
  4. well-lit streets
  5. all of the above

Ans: d

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Routine Activities Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Who are more likely to be victimized according to Cohen and Felson (1979)?
  2. females
  3. living alone
  4. with many possessions
  5. only a and b
  6. a, b, and c

Ans: d

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Routine Activities Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Choose the statement below that completes the sentence: Routine activities theory looks at crime from the point(s) of view of ______.
  2. both the offender and of crime prevention efforts
  3. the offender only
  4. both the offender and victim
  5. crime prevention efforts only
  6. both the victim and of crime prevention efforts

Ans: a

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories | 5.6 Know the crime prevention policy recommendations offered by the three theories

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Policy and Prevention: Implications of Cultural Criminology

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. All of the following are reasons why capable guardians are in short supply in disorganized neighborhoods EXCEPT:
  2. disrupted families
  3. poverty
  4. unemployment
  5. transient neighborhoods

Ans: c

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Routine Activities Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Crime rates can go up or down depending on how ______ change without any changes in offender motivation or in the prevalence of motivated offenders.
  2. situations
  3. neighborhoods
  4. economics
  5. politics

Ans: a

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Routine Activities Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ tend to not like rational choice and routine activities theories because the “free agent” position naturally leads to a retributivist stance on punishment.
  2. conservatives
  3. moderates
  4. liberals

Ans: c

Learning Objective: 5.1 Explain the nature of rationality and the constraints on it | 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Evaluation of Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the theories discussed in this chapter attracts disenchanted members of the radical left or anarchic label?
  2. routine activities theory
  3. cultural criminology
  4. rational choice theory

Ans: b

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Cultural Criminology

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Cultural criminologists trace cultural breakdown to economic globalization and relentless poverty, which in turn ______.
  2. produces the anelpis mind-set
  3. traces it to the culture itself
  4. are the products of cultural degradation
  5. changes cultural values and norms

Ans: a

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Cultural Criminology

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Both rationality and emotion initiate what?
  2. feelings
  3. behavior
  4. ideas/thoughts
  5. beliefs

Ans: b

Learning Objective: 5.1 Explain the nature of rationality and the constraints on it

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Relationship of Rationality and Emotion

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Hume believes that after humans perceive a situation, experience emotions, and pass judgment on the event based on the emotion it evokes, humans then ______ that judgment.
  2. second guess or rethink
  3. analyze their perceptions of
  4. plan a different reaction related to
  5. provide reasons for

Ans: d

Learning Objective: 5.1 Explain the nature of rationality and the constraints on it

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Relationship of Rationality and Emotion

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Emotion intervenes between what two things?
  2. reality and reaction
  3. perception and action
  4. action and reaction
  5. perception and reality

Ans: b

Learning Objective: 5.1 Explain the nature of rationality and the constraints on it

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Relationship of Rationality and Emotion

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is the primary appeal of crime according to cultural criminologists?
  2. intrinsic rewards
  3. monetary rewards
  4. material rewards

Ans: a

Learning Objective: 5.1 Explain the nature of rationality and the constraints on it | 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Relationship of Rationality and Emotion

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Emotions are situated in what system in the brain?
  2. sympathetic nervous system
  3. central nervous system
  4. limbic system
  5. peripheral nervous system

Ans: c

Learning Objective: 5.4 Describe cultural criminology’s point about the primacy of emotions in motivating criminal behavior

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Emotions and Their Functions

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. All of the following are considered primary emotions EXCEPT:
  2. fear
  3. empathy
  4. disgust
  5. joy

Ans: b

Learning Objective: 5.4 Describe cultural criminology’s point about the primacy of emotions in motivating criminal behavior | 5.5 Understand what primary and secondary emotions

are and how they function to both facilitate and prevent criminal activity

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Primary and Secondary Emotions

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Emotions such as empathy and guilt serve to adjust our social behavior by arousing, focusing, and modifying brain activity in ways that lead most people to habitually choose ______ responses.
  2. defiant
  3. rebellious
  4. antisocial
  5. prosocial

Ans: d

Learning Objective: 5.4 Describe cultural criminology’s point about the primacy of emotions in motivating criminal behavior | 5.5 Understand what primary and secondary emotions

are and how they function to both facilitate and prevent criminal activity

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Primary and Secondary Emotions

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Guilt is ______-centered while shame is ______-centered.
  2. self; other
  3. other; self

Ans: b

Learning Objective: 5.4 Describe cultural criminology’s point about the primacy of emotions in motivating criminal behavior | 5.5 Understand what primary and secondary emotions are and how they function to both facilitate and prevent criminal activity

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Primary and Secondary Emotions

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ is a model for residential environments that inhibit crime by creating the physical expression of a social fabric that defends itself.
  2. defensible space

 

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories | 5.6 Know the crime prevention policy recommendations offered by the three theories

Cognitive Domain: Evaluation

Answer Location: Policy and Prevention: Implications of Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. All of the following are considered examples of target-hardening EXCEPT
  2. antitheft devices on automobiles
  3. improved city lighting
  4. sale of alcohol at sporting events
  5. check guarantee cards

Ans: c

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories | 5.6 Know the crime prevention policy recommendations offered by the three theories

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Policy and Prevention: Implications of Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ is primarily concerned with defensible space (inhibiting crime by creating physical expression of a social fabric that defends itself).
  2. cultural criminology
  3. rational choice
  4. routine activities
  5. environmental design

Ans: d

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories | 5.5 Understand what primary and secondary emotions are and how they function to both facilitate and prevent criminal activity | 5.6 Know the crime prevention policy recommendations offered by the three theories

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Policy and Prevention: Implications of Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

True/False

  1. Hume considered our species to be Homo emovere or “emoting man” rather than Homo sapiens or “wise man.”

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5.1 Explain the nature of rationality and the constraints on it

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Relationship of Rationality and Emotion

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Cultural criminology emphasizes the role of emotions in instigating criminal behavior rather than rationality.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5.1 Explain the nature of rationality and the constraints on it | 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories | 5.4 Describe cultural criminology’s point about the primacy of emotions in motivating criminal behavior

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Cultural Criminology

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Cultural criminologists view emotions as a fleeting perception, not a permanent fixture of many criminals’ mental lives.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories | 5.4 Describe cultural criminology’s point about the primacy of emotions in motivating criminal behavior

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Cultural Criminology

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Primary emotions are also known as social emotions.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5.4 Describe cultural criminology’s point about the primacy of emotions in motivating criminal behavior | 5.5 Understand what primary and secondary emotions are and how they function to both facilitate and prevent criminal activity

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Primary and Secondary Emotions

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Negative emotions that function to prevent criminal behavior have been practically ignored in criminology.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5.4 Describe cultural criminology’s point about the primacy of emotions in motivating criminal behavior | 5.5 Understand what primary and secondary emotions are and how they function to both facilitate and prevent criminal activity

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Primary and Secondary Emotions

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Routine activities theory looks at crime from the points of view of both the offender and of crime prevention efforts.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Routine Activities Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The concept of human agency is not compatible with determinism or free will.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Rational Choice theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A rational decision is one that is reasoned to be optimal for achieving a goal, but rationality is subject and unbounded.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5.1 Explain the nature of rationality and the constraints on it | 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Rational Choice Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Routine activity theory discounts what others see as causes of crime such as poverty, unemployment, and inequality.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories | 5.3 Be aware of the criticisms aimed at all three theories

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Routine Activities Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Motivated offenders are individuals unwilling and not able to commit crimes.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Routine Activities Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Suitable targets are persons that offenders view as vulnerable or attractive who possess something they want or are objects they want to possess.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Routine Activities Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Capable guardians can only be persons, not things.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Routine Activities Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Victimization is more prevalent in affluent areas as compared with poor disorganized communities.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Routine Activities Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Rational choice and routine activities theories both resonate most with liberals.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Evaluation of Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories

Difficulty Level:  Easy

 

  1. Incentives and disincentives to law-abiding or criminal behavior are perceived differently because of ingrained habits.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Evaluation of Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Routine activities theory concentrates on the motivated offender rather than on crime as a process of unfolding events.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Routine Activities Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Cultural criminology theory looks at much of modern crime as the result of the breakdown of the economy and politics.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Cultural Criminology

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Essay

  1. What does the term anelpis mean?
    Ans: without hope

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cultural Criminology

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain routine activities theory. Identify three examples of crime prevention strategies that are consistent with its arguments.

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories | 5.6 Know the crime prevention policy recommendations offered by the three theories

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Policy and Prevention: Implications of Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Discuss the evaluation of neoclassical theories. What do they seek to achieve? What are some of the criticisms of neoclassical theories?

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories | 5.3 Be aware of the criticisms aimed at all three theories | 5.6 Know the crime prevention policy recommendations offered by the three theories

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Policy and Prevention: Implications of Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Cultural criminology may also be called ______ because it references state repression and oppression and calls for resistance.
    Ans: anarchic criminology

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories | 5.6 Know the crime prevention policy recommendations offered by the three theories

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Policy and Prevention: Implications of Cultural Criminology

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Define emotions.
    Ans: Subjective feelings of varying strength prompted by nervous system arousal in response to some perceived event.

Learning Objective: 5.4 Describe cultural criminology’s point about the primacy of emotions in motivating criminal behavior

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Emotions and Their Functions

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Because guilt is psychologically punitive, it motivates individuals to do what two things?
    Ans: Not to repeat the transgression (avoidance), and it motivates approach behavior.

Learning Objective: 5.4 Describe cultural criminology’s point about the primacy of emotions in motivating criminal behavior

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Important Crime-Preventing Social Emotions

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is meant by “arranging the environment” to prevent crime?
    Ans: Make changes to the environment to make it more difficult and more risky to offend, such as adding lights or making targets not vulnerable.

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories | 5.6 Know the crime prevention policy recommendations offered by the three theories

Cognitive Domain: Synthesis

Answer Location: Policy and Prevention: Implications of Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What are the central beliefs of the classical school of thought?
    Ans: People freely choose their behavior and that they do so motivated by the hedonistic calculus

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Rational Choice Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What is the pleasure versus pain principle discussed in relation to rational choice theory and crime?
    Ans: Crime is all about attempts to gain some sort of personal satisfaction (pleasure) or to remove some source of irritation (pain)

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Rational Choice Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Why are rational choice theorists also called “soft determinists”?
    Ans: While they believe that criminal behavior is ultimately a choice, the choice is made in the context of personal and situational constraints and opportunities.

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Rational Choice Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. According to routine activities theory, what are the three components that combine for crime to occur?
    Ans: Motivated offender, suitable target, and the lack of a capable guardian.

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Routine Activities Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Give two examples of wertrationalitat.
    Ans: Example from book is Catholic priests taking vows of poverty, obedience, and chastity or terrorists blowing themselves up along with busloads of kids in the belief that it is pleasing to God.

Learning Objective: 5.1 Explain the nature of rationality and the constraints on it

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Is Rationality?

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain rationality.
    Ans: Although rationality is defined somewhat differently in different disciplines, the basic notion is that rationality is the state of having good sense and sound judgment. Rationality is thus the quality of thinking and behaving in accordance with logic and reason such that one’s reality is an ordered and intelligible system for achieving goals and solving problems.

Learning Objective: 5.1 Explain the nature of rationality and the constraints on it

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What Is Rationality?

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. How can affluence be a cause of crime?
    Ans: A general level of affluence makes more things available to steal, rob, loot, and kill for. Additionally, convenience stores and ATMs stay open all hours of the day and night, thus making them convenient for robbers and thieves as well as for shoppers.

Learning Objective: 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Routine Activities Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What is choice structuring?
    Ans: The process that individual offenders go through in making the choice to offend.

Learning Objective: 5.1 Explain the nature of rationality and the constraints on it

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory in Action: “Slick Willie: Sutton”—“Where the Money Is”

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Why is rationality considered the most glaring criticism of rational choice and routine activities theory?
    Ans: It is assumed that everyone agrees that all humans of sound mind are rational in the classical sense of wanting to maximize their pleasure and minimize their pain. But if everyone is rational, rationality is a constant and thus cannot by itself explain something as variable as human behavior.

Learning Objective: 5.1 Explain the nature of rationality and the constraints on it | 5.2 Understand the assumptions and key strengths and weaknesses of rational choice, routine activities, and cultural/anarchic theories | 5.3 Be aware of the criticisms aimed at all three theories

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge | Comprehension

Answer Location: Evaluation of Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories

Difficulty Level: Medium | Hard

 

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