Criminology A Sociological Understanding 6th Edition Barkan – Test Bank

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Chapter 5

Multiple Choice:

  1. Neoclassical explanations of crime are rooted in _____.
    1. economic thinking
    2. biology
    3. religion
    4. anthropology

Answer: a

Objective: Understand the neoclassical perspective of crime.

Page: 95

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Which of the following statements fits neoclassical thinking?
    1. Crime is the result of genetic predisposition.
    2. Criminals act with free will.
    3. Crime is the result of one’s social ecology.
    4. Criminals act due to demonic possession.

Answer: b

Objective: Understand the neoclassical perspective of crime.

Page: 95

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Who pioneered the classical school of criminology?
    1. Freud
    2. Sutherland
    3. Beccaria
    4. Hirschi

Answer: c

Objective: Understand the classical school of criminology.

Page: 92

Level: Basic

 

  1. Why was Joan of Arc burned at the stake?
    1. She was convicted of murder.
    2. She refused to recognize the king of France.
    3. She converted from Christianity to Islam.
    4. She was thought to be a witch.

Answer: d

Objective: Understand the history and progression of crime.

Page: 91

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. What was the dominant source of knowledge in the Western world through the middle ages?
    1. Religion
    2. The Koran
    3. Ancient Greek philosophers
    4. The nobility

Answer: a

Objective: Understand the history and progression of crime.

Page: 91

Level: Basic

 

  1. Which of the following best reflects the Age of Reason, or the Enlightenment?
    1. A time when religious views began to give way to scientific explanations
    2. An era when the Christian majority began to adopt Islamic ideas about behavior
    3. A period when psychology began to develop scientific explanations for crime
    4. A century when Marxists explanations for behavior began to emerge

Answer: a

Objective: Understand the history and progression of crime.

Page: 91

Level: Basic

 

  1. During the Enlightenment period, because laws were vague and different judges handed out different sentences, justice could be described as _____.
    1. balanced
    2. facetious
    3. impartial
    4. arbitrary

Answer: d

Objective: Understand the history and progression of crime.

Page: 92

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Which of the following best describes Beccaria’s position regarding punishment as a deterrent to crime?
    1. It must include rehabilitation.
    2. It must be religion-based.
    3. It must be certain and swift.
    4. It must be disproportionate to the crime.

Answer: c

Objective: Understand different theories of punishment.

Page: 92

Level: Intermediate

  1. Rational choice suggests:
    1. individuals increase their chances of victimization when they act irrationally.
    2. individuals who are rational will not commit crime.
    3. offenders commit crime whenever a victim is present.
    4. offenders commit crime because of the benefits it brings them.

Answer: d

Objective: Understand the different theories of criminal behavior.

Page: 95

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. The idea that potential and actual legal punishment can deter crime is a synopsis of _____.
    1. Routine Activities Theory
    2. Deterrence Theory
    3. Corporal Theory
    4. Penal Theory

Answer: b

Objective: Understand and distinguish between different punishment theories in criminology.

Page: 97

Level: Basic

 

  1. Positivism suggest that:
    1. offenders commit crime solely because of the benefits it brings them.
    2. evil forces such as demons can affect criminal behavior.
    3. individuals are less likely to be victims if they have positive attitudes.
    4. forces both outside and inside an individual might affect his/her likelihood of breaking the law.

Answer: d

Objective: Understand different perspectives and theories in criminology.

Page: 94

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Contemporary rational choice suggests that:
    1. offenders commit crimes only for monetary gains.
    2. offenders sometimes commit crimes for excitement or prestige.
    3. offenders never commit crime unless provoked.
    4. offenders carefully plan all crimes they commit.

Answer: d

Objective: Understand contemporary theories in criminology.

Page: 95

Level: Basic

 

  1. Rational choice perspective emphasizes two related concepts:
    1. low IQ and utilitarianism.
    2. situational factors and opportunity.
    3. utilitarianism and positivism.
    4. opportunity and genetics.

Answer: b

Objective: Understand different perspectives in criminology.

Page: 95

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. The effect of increasing severity, certainty and/or swiftness of legal punishment is called _____.
    1. general deterrence
    2. marginal deterrence
    3. positive deterrence
    4. negative deterrence

Answer: b

Objective: Understand different theories of punishment in criminology.

Page: 97

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Which of the following types of crimes is considered more deterrable?
    1. Terminal offenses
    2. Instrumental offenses
    3. Expressive offenses
    4. Penal offenses

Answer: b

Objective: Distinguish between different offenses and deterrence.

Page: 98

Level: Intermediate

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which type of criminal offense is committed for emotional reasons and with little or no planning?
    1. Terminal
    2. Instrumental
    3. Expressive
    4. Penal

Answer: c

Objective: Understand the difference between offenses and deterrence.

Page: 98

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Which type of crime offense is committed for material gain with some degree of planning?
    1. Terminal
    2. Instrumental
    3. Expressive
    4. Penal

Answer: b

Objective: Understand the difference between offenses and deterrence.

Page: 98

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Which of the following has become so common in the US, especially among young males in large cities, that scholars think they have lost the stigma they once held?
    1. Use of the death penalty and boot camps
    2. Half-way houses and chain gangs
    3. Truancy citations and fines
    4. Arrest and imprisonment

Answer: d

Objective: Understand contemporary effects of punishment in criminology.

Page: 98

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Regarding deterrence theory, various kinds of evidence suggest that ____ especially has little or no deterrent effect.
    1. drug rehabilitation programs
    2. work-release programs
    3. severe punishment
    4. uncertain punishment

Answer: c

Objective: Understand contemporary effects of punishment in criminology.

Page: 100

Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following reflects what routine activities theory suggests is a lack of guardianship?
    1. Wearing an expensive watch in a low-income neighborhood
    2. A child playing in a park alone
    3. A drug addict in need of money for a fix
    4. The opening of a half-way house in a low crime neighborhood

Answer: b

Objective: Understand different theories and perspectives in criminology.

Page: 101

Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following best expresses situational crime prevention?
    1. Efforts that aim to reduce exposure to motivated offenders
    2. Efforts that encourage victims to contact the police
    3. Efforts that encourage legislators to pass tougher sentencing laws
    4. Efforts that aim to increase rehabilitation programs

Answer: a

Objective: Understand different perspectives in crime prevention.

Page: 103

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of situational crime prevention?
    1. Community paroling
    2. Hot-spot policing
    3. Teen courts
    4. Cold case corrections

Answer: b

Objective: Understand different perspectives in crime prevention.

Page: 103

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Which of the following best reflects the beliefs of classical school philosophers such as Beccaria and Bentham?
    1. They believed that people acted to maximize pleasure and reduce pain.
    2. They believed that people are inherently good but turned evil when possessed.
    3. They believed that most crime was the result of psychological problems.
    4. They believed that criminality could be predicted by examining body-type.

Answer: a

Objective: Understand different perspectives in criminology.

Page: 104

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. The idea that areas with high crime rates have lower arrest rates because their police are “extra” busy, and their police also realize that too many arrests would overburden the criminal justice system is known as the _____ argument.
    1. minority income
    2. system capacity
    3. conviction discretion
    4. police nullification

Answer: b

Objective: Understand different perspectives in crime prevention.

Page: 99

Level: Basic

 

  1. Which of the following countries has enacted the most mandatory penalty laws?
    1. Canada
    2. Australia
    3. England
    4. United States

Answer: d

Objective: Understand different, international perspectives on crime.

Page: 99

Level: Intermediate

 

True/False:

  1. Neoclassical explanations stress biology as the root cause of crime.

Answer: false

Objective: Understand different perspectives on criminology.

Page: 95

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Neoclassical theorists assume criminals act with free will.

Answer: true

Objective: Understand different perspectives on criminology.

Page: 95

Level: Basic

 

 

  1. People in ancient times often thought crime was caused by possession.

Answer: true

Objective: Understand the history and progression of different perspectives on crime.

Page: 91

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Religion was the dominant source of knowledge through the Middle Ages.

Answer: true

Objective: Understand the history and progression of different perspectives on crime.

Page: 91

Level: Basic

 

  1. Beccaria believed punishment should be certain and swift.

Answer: true

Objective: Understand the different perspectives of punishment in criminology.

Page: 92

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Classical theory is grounded in utopianism.

Answer: false

Objective: Understand different perspectives of punishment in criminology.

Page: 92

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Positivism stresses free will as the main reason for criminal behavior.

Answer: false

Objective: Understand different perspectives in criminology.

Page: 94

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. People only commit crime for financial reward.

Answer: false

Objective: Understand contemporary views on criminal rationale.

Page:

Level: Basic

 

  1. General deterrence is when someone does not offend because of fear of punishment.

Answer: true

Objective: Distinguish between different types of deterrence.

Page: 97

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. The United States utilizes mandatory sentences more than any other Western nation.

Answer: true

Objective: Understand different international perspectives on punishment.

Page: 99

Level: Basic

 

  1. “Three Strikes” laws reflect a sociological approach to combatting crime.

Answer: false

Objective: Understand different perspectives on crime prevention.

Page: 100

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Hot-spot policing involves intensive police patrols of high crime areas.

Answer: true

Objective: Understand different crime prevention techniques.

Page: 103

Level: Basic

 

  1. Criminals always act rationally choice assumes.

Answer: false

Objective: Understand different motivations and criminal thought rationale.

Page: 95

Level: Basic

 

  1. Psychological solutions focus on the individual.

Answer: true

Objective: Understand different perspectives in criminology.

Page: 89

Level: Basic

 

  1. During the Age of Reason, science began to weaken religions influence.

Answer: true

Objective: Understand the history and progression of perspectives in criminology.

Page: 91

Level: Basic

 

 

Fill-in-the-Blank:

  1. _____ deterrence refers to the effect of having some legal punishment (arrest, incarceration, and so forth) versus the effect of having no legal punishment.

Answer: absolute

Objective: Distinguish between different types of deterrence.

Page: 97

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. _____ deterrence refers to the effect of increasing the severity, certainty, and/or swiftness of legal punishment.

Answer: marginal

Objective: Distinguish between different types of deterrence.

Page: 97

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Subjective deterrence refers to the impact of people’s _____ of the certainty and severity of legal punishment.

Answer: perception

Objective: Distinguish between the different types of deterrence.

Page: 97

Level: Basic

 

  1. Most deterrence research has focused on the _____ of punishment (the likelihood of being arrested).

Answer: certainty

Objective: Understand the effects of deterrence.

Page: 98

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. Your police department has tripled the number of patrols in a high crime area. This is an example of ___ policing.

Answer: hot-spot

Objective: Understand different types of crime prevention.

Page: 103

Level: Basic

 

  1. Routine activities theory is also known as _____ theory.

Answer: routine activity (opportunity or neoclassical)

Objective: Understand the different perspectives in criminology.

Page: 101

Level: Difficult

 

  1. The Age of _____ eventually led to more scientific explanations, especially those grounded in positivism, which attributes behavior to forces inside and outside the individual.

Answer: reason

Objective: Understand the history and progression of perspectives in criminology.

Page: 91

Level: Basic

 

  1. Crimes committed for material gain with some degree of planning are called _____.

Answer: instrumental offenses

Objective: Understand and distinguish between different types of offenses.

Page: 98

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. _____ offenses are those committed for emotional reasons and with little or no planning.

Answer: expressive

Objective: Understand the history and progression of perspectives in criminology.

Page: 98

Level: Intermediate

 

  1. _____ deterrence occurs when members of the public decide not to break the law because they fear legal punishment.

Answer: general

Objective: Understand and distinguish between different types of deterrence.

Page: 97

Level: Basic

 

Matching:

 

1. classical school a. attributes behavior to forces inside and outside the individual
2. absolute deterrence b. require life imprisonment or, at the least, a very long prison sentence for offenders convicted of their second or third felony
3. deterrence theory c. crimes committed for emotional reasons and with little or no planning
4. expressive offenses d. the Age of Reason
5. instrumental offenses e. assumes that potential and actual legal punishment can deter crime
6. objective deterrence f. specific locations that aim to reduce exposure to motivated offenders, decrease target suitability, and increase capable

guardianship

7. positivism g. the effect of having some legal punishment v. the effect of having no legal punishment
8. situational crime prevention h. believes criminals act with free will
9. “three-strikes” laws i. crimes committed for material gain with some degree of planning
10. enlightenment j. the impact of actual legal punishment
  1. p92
  2. p97
  3. p97
  4. p98
  5. p98
  6. p97
  7. p94
  8. p103
  9. p100
  10. p91

Objective: Distinguish between the various terminology regarding classical and neoclassical perspectives.

Level: Intermediate

 

Essay:

 

  1. Discuss the basically philosophy of the classical and how it differs from a positivist approach.

 

Answer: Classical scholars largely failed to consider that forces both outside and inside individuals might affect their likelihood of breaking the law. This view was the central insight of a new way of thinking, positivism, which came to dominate the nineteenth century and derived from the great discoveries in the physical sciences. These discoveries indicated to social philosophers the potential of using science to understand not only the physical world but also the social world.

 

Page number: 94-98

 

Level: Difficult

 

 

  1. What are the different types of deterrence?

 

Answer: The different types of deterrence are absolute, marginal, general, specific, objective and subjective.  Deterrence theory predicts that people are deterred from crime by actual legal punishment that is certain and severe and also by their own perceptions that legal punishment will be certain and severe.

 

Page number: 97

 

Difficulty: Intermediate

 

  1. Identify the three major components of routine activities theory.

 

Answer: routine activities theory assumes that crime is more likely when three factors are simultaneously present: (1) motivated offenders, (2) attractive targets, and (3) an absence of guardianship (such as police, bystanders, and even a dog). Because the theory also assumes that offenders are more likely to decide to commit crime when they have attractive targets and when there are no guardians, it reflects rational choice assumptions of criminal decision making and is considered a neoclassical theory.

 

Page number: 101-103

 

Level: Intermediate

 

Critical Thinking:

 

  1. Assume college officials at your school have asked you for advice on “situational crime prevention”. What recommendations would you give them?

 

Answer: Answers will vary

 

Page number: 103

 

Difficulty: Basic

 

  1. Would you regard “three-strike” laws to be successful?

 

Answer: Answers will vary

 

Page number:  100

 

 

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