Criminal Procedure 10th Edition by Samaha – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

 

1. ​Stops differ from arrests in that:

  a. ​they always lead to a frisk or a more invasive search.
  b. ​they produce written records of the police action.
  c. ​they usually occur in public places and are shorter in duration.
  d. ​they are always shorter in duration.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Chapter Introduction
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.01 – Understand that arrests are a vital tool that can help law enforcement officers catch the guilty and free the innocent, but that the noble end of crime control doesn’t justify unreasonable arrests.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/3/2017 11:37 PM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

2. When an official takes a person into custody and holds the person for anywhere between a few hours to a few days to answer for a criminal charge, the official has conducted:​

  a. ​a stop.
  b. ​a detention.
  c. ​a custodial arrest.
  d. ​imprisonment.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Chapter Introduction
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.01 – Understand that arrests are a vital tool that can help law enforcement officers catch the guilty and free the innocent, but that the noble end of crime control doesn’t justify unreasonable arrests.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/3/2017 11:43 PM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

3. Whether Fourth Amendment seizures are stops or arrests depends on:​

  a. ​duration, invasiveness, location, and the officer’s subjective intent.
  b. ​duration, invasiveness, and location.
  c. ​duration and invasiveness.
  d. ​invasiveness and the officer’s subjective intent.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Chapter Introduction
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.01 – Understand that arrests are a vital tool that can help law enforcement officers catch the guilty and free the innocent, but that the noble end of crime control doesn’t justify unreasonable arrests.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/3/2017 11:54 PM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

4. Which of the following is not a requirement for obtaining a warrant to arrest a suspect at home?​

  a. ​a neutral magistrate
  b. ​an affidavit
  c. ​the name of the person to be arrested
  d. ​the suspect’s criminal history

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Arrest Warrant Requirement
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.04 – Know that officers can use both direct information and hearsay to build probable cause.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/3/2017 11:59 PM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

5. Firsthand information is also called:​

  a. ​hearsay information.
  b. ​direct information.
  c. ​indirect information.
  d. ​visual information.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.04 – Know that officers can use both direct information and hearsay to build probable cause.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:02 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

6. Who determines the ultimate legitimacy of a request for an arrest warrant?​

  a. ​a neutral magistrate
  b. ​the officer making the arrest
  c. ​the chief of police
  d. ​the district attorney

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Arrest Warrant Requirement
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.05 – Know that arrest warrants are required to enter homes to arrest except when the need to act immediately exists at the time of the arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:07 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

7. According to SCOTUS in Draper v. U.S., involving a narcotics arrest based on an informant’s description of a suspect:​

  a. ​hearsay cannot be used to determine probable cause.
  b. ​magistrates must determine probable cause before officers make arrests.
  c. ​police officers must have warrants in order to make arrests.
  d. ​hearsay can be used to determine probable cause.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.04 – Know that officers can use both direct information and hearsay to build probable cause.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:10 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

8. Probable cause deals with:​

  a. ​hunches and suspicions.
  b. ​an exact degree of probability.
  c. ​factual and practical considerations of everyday life.
  d. ​unquestionable certainties.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.02 – Know that the Fourth Amendment’s reasonableness requirement requires both probable cause before, and a reasonable execution during and after, arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:12 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

9. ​In which of the following situations have the courts found a use of unreasonable force?

  a. ​a police dog grabbing and holding a defendant’s arm until the police arrive
  b. ​using pepper spray on an armed suspect
  c. ​binding a suspect’s ankles to his wrists behind his back (hog-tying)
  d. ​using a single application of the taser gun

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrest by Force
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:15 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

10. In Graham v. Conner (1989), Graham was a diabetic who was essentially stopped and arrested after police thought something was wrong when Graham left a convenience store abruptly. As it turned out, he was trying to find some sugar for his diabetic condition, but the line was too long, so he left. Appearing drunk (due to the hypoglycemic condition), he was arrested and denied sugar or orange juice, and was basically “roughed up” by the police. The court said:​

  a. ​the use of force was not excessive and upheld the conviction for being drunk in public.
  b. ​the police were justified in using force, but they should have given him the juice. However, the conviction stood.
  c. ​the use of force was excessive, and the case was remanded back to the lower court.
  d. ​the police were justified in “roughing up” Graham and denying him any sugar or orange juice, because it would have been “unreasonable” for the police to stop in the middle of an arrest and get him relief.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrest by Force
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:18 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

11. In building probable cause, police officers may rely on what they:​

  a. ​see and hear only.
  b. ​see, hear, and smell only.
  c. ​see, hear, and taste only.
  d. ​see, hear, smell, and taste.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.04 – Know that officers can use both direct information and hearsay to build probable cause.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:20 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

12. ​The objective standard of reasonable force was adopted by SCOTUS in which case?

  a. Tennessee v. Garner (1985)
  b. Graham v. Connor (1989)
  c. Kuha v. Minnetonka (2003)
  d. Vinyard v. Wilson (2002)

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrest by Force
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:23 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

13. In what case did SCOTUS hold that the Fourth Amendment authorized a police officer to make a full custodial arrest for a fine-only criminal offense occurring in the officer’s presence?​

  a. Atwater v. City of Lago Vista (2001)
  b. Draper v. U.S. (1959)
  c. Graham v. Connor (1989)
  d. Tennessee v. Garner (1985)

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrest by Force
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:25 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

14. In Tennessee v. Garner (1985), SCOTUS decided that:​

  a. ​police cannot shoot a fleeing suspect if the suspect poses no imminent danger.
  b. ​suspects can be engaged with deadly force if there are bystanders who could be harmed.
  c. ​lethal force can be applied against non-dangerous criminal suspects.
  d. ​lethal force is permitted against misdemeanor offenders.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrest by Force
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:30 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

15. ​The majority of arrests:

  a. ​do not require a warrant to make them reasonable, as long as there is probable cause to arrest.
  b. ​require a warrant based on probable cause.
  c. ​occur in the home, but still do not require a warrant.
  d. ​occur after stops and frisks.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Arrest Warrant Requirement
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.05 – Know that arrest warrants are required to enter homes to arrest except when the need to act immediately exists at the time of the arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:32 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

16. Which of the following usually occurs after a misdemeanor arrest?​

  a. ​booking
  b. ​photographing
  c. ​interrogation
  d. ​release

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrests in Homes
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.07 – Know that after an arrest, felony suspects usually are taken to the police station for booking, photographing, and possible interrogation and identification procedures; misdemeanor suspects usually are released.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:34 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

17. What rule states that in arrests, courts don’t admit secondhand evidence to prove guilt, but, if it’s reliable and truthful, they’ll accept it to show probable cause to arrest?​

  a. ​knock and announce rule
  b. ​hearsay rule
  c. ​felony arrest rule
  d. ​probable cause rule

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrests in Homes
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.04 – Know that officers can use both direct information and hearsay to build probable cause.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:37 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

18. In developing probable cause, officers rely on their _______________ to make decisions regarding arrests without warrants.​

  a. ​training and experience
  b. ​luck and intuition
  c. ​good intentions
  d. ​reasonableness and good faith

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.02 – Know that the Fourth Amendment’s reasonableness requirement requires both probable cause before, and a reasonable execution during and after, arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:39 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

19. The right to come and go as you please is known as the:​

  a. ​right of way.
  b. ​right of locomotion.
  c. ​right of absolution.
  d. ​right of sway.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.02 – Know that the Fourth Amendment’s reasonableness requirement requires both probable cause before, and a reasonable execution during and after, arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:41 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

20. Which of the following is an exception allowing entrance to a home without a warrant?​

  a. ​exigent circumstances
  b. ​the smell of drugs
  c. ​a tip from a neighbor
  d. ​a tip from an informant

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrests in Homes
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.05 – Know that arrest warrants are required to enter homes to arrest except when the need to act immediately exists at the time of the arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:43 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

21. The Fourth Amendment requires that a magistrate base a probable cause determination on written information sworn to under oath, also known as: ​

  a. ​an affidavit.
  b. ​a warrant.
  c. ​a writ.
  d. ​a statement.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Arrest Warrant Requirement
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.05 – Know that arrest warrants are required to enter homes to arrest except when the need to act immediately exists at the time of the arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:45 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

22. Federal law enforcement officers can phone or radio their affidavits seeking warrants to federal magistrates under the:​

  a. ​Federal Criminal Code.
  b. ​Federal Rules of Evidence.
  c. ​Federal Code of Regulations.
  d. ​Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Arrest Warrant Requirement
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.05 – Know that arrest warrants are required to enter homes to arrest except when the need to act immediately exists at the time of the arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:47 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

23. ​Most cases demand that arrest warrants identify the person to be arrested:

  a. ​with absolute certainty.
  b. ​in sufficient detail so as to leave nothing to the discretion of the arresting officer.
  c. ​with reasonable certainty.
  d. ​by name.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Arrest Warrant Requirement
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.05 – Know that arrest warrants are required to enter homes to arrest except when the need to act immediately exists at the time of the arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:48 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

24. The vast majority of arrests are made:​

  a. ​with deadly force.
  b. ​without the use of any force.
  c. ​with the use of nondeadly force.
  d. ​with the use of unreasonable force.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrest by Force
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:50 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

25. ​According to the SCOTUS opinion in Tennessee v. Garner, involving the use of deadly force to apprehend a fleeing burglary suspect, deadly force:

  a. ​is not a Fourth Amendment seizure.
  b. ​to prevent the escape of all felony suspects is constitutionally reasonable.
  c. ​is a Fourth Amendment seizure.
  d. ​can never be used for a property crime.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrest by Force
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 12:52 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

26. The landmark SCOTUS case Tennessee v. Garner (1985) involved the authority of police to use deadly force to stop fleeing felons. In this case, SCOTUS held that:​

  a. ​deadly force could be used only if the officer using it had probable cause to believe the fleeing felon posed a physical danger to himself or others.
  b. ​the Constitution does not address such a situation.
  c. ​deadly force could be used only if the officer using it had reasonable suspicion that the fleeing felon posed a physical danger to himself or others.
  d. ​deadly force could be used by the officer only if there was no other means reasonably available to stop the fleeing felon.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrest by Force
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 1:18 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

27. ​In Tennessee v. Garner, involving the death of a citizen due to the use of deadly force by the police, SCOTUS ruled that:

  a. ​evidence seized from illegal use of deadly force is admissible in criminal cases.
  b. ​apprehension by the use of deadly force is a seizure subject to the reasonableness requirement of the Fourth Amendment, and a police officer may not seize an unarmed, nondangerous suspect by shooting the suspect dead.
  c. ​evidence seized from illegal use of deadly force is not admissible in criminal cases.
  d. ​the use of deadly force to prevent the escape of any felony suspect, whatever the circumstances, is constitutionally unreasonable.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrest by Force
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 1:20 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

28. In Graham v. Connor (1989), involving the arrest of a diabetic who was suffering from an insulin reaction, SCOTUS held that claims of excessive force in the course of making an arrest are to be analyzed under: ​

  a. ​a substantive due process standard.
  b. ​the Fourth Amendment’s “objective reasonableness” standard.
  c. ​a “malicious and sadistic” standard.
  d. ​a subjective standard that focuses on the intentions of the officer making the arrest.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrest by Force
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 1:58 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

29. Which of the following cases involve exigent circumstances that may make entering a home to arrest a suspect without an arrest warrant reasonable?​

  a. Warden v. Hayden (1967)
  b. Colorado v. Mendez (1999)
  c. ​Both of these cases involve exigent circumstances that may make entering a home to arrest a suspect without an arrest warrant reasonable.
  d. ​Neither of these cases involve exigent circumstances that may make entering a home to arrest a suspect without an arrest warrant reasonable.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrests in Homes
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.05 – Know that arrest warrants are required to enter homes to arrest except when the need to act immediately exists at the time of the arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 2:03 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

30. Which of the following cases involved the use of a taser?​

  a. Kuha v. City of Minnetonka (2003)
  b. Atwater v. City of Lago Vista (2001)
  c. Estate of Ronald Armstrong v. Village of Pinehurst (2016)
  d. Graham v. Connor (1989)

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrests in Homes
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 2:11 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

31. ​Most misdemeanor offenders are issued _______________, but can be arrested under certain circumstances.

  a. ​a citation
  b. ​an indictment
  c. ​a writ of appearance
  d. ​an injunction

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrest by Force
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.07 – Know that after an arrest, felony suspects usually are taken to the police station for booking, photographing, and possible interrogation and identification procedures; misdemeanor suspects usually are released.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 2:14 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

32. Direct information in probable cause to arrest means firsthand information known to arresting officers through which of the following?

  a. ​thought
  b. ​note-taking
  c. ​intuition
  d. ​sight

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.04 – Know that officers can use both direct information and hearsay to build probable cause.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 2:16 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

33. In what case did SCOTUS hold that hearsay evidence could be used to establish probable cause?

  a. Tennessee v. Garner (1985)
  b. Graham v. Connor (1989)
  c. Draper v. U.S. (1959)
  d. Atwater v. City of Lago Vista (2001)

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.04 – Know that officers can use both direct information and hearsay to build probable cause.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 2:19 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

34. Immediately after an arrest, police officers may use force for which of the following?​

  a. ​to subdue unruly suspects
  b. ​to prevent escape
  c. ​to protect suspects
  d. ​to subdue unruly suspects, prevent escape, and protect suspects

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   After Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 2:22 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

35. The probable cause requirement balances the societal interest in crime control and:​

  a. ​the individual right to free movement.
  b. ​the individual right to free speech.
  c. ​the individual right to free religion.
  d. ​the individual right to freedom.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.03 – Appreciate that the probable cause requirement balances the societal interest in crime control and the individual right to free movement.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 2:25 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

36. Arrests produce written documents that become part of a person’s record.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Chapter Introduction
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.01 – Understand that arrests are a vital tool that can help law enforcement officers catch the guilty and free the innocent, but that the noble end of crime control doesn’t justify unreasonable arrests.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 3:39 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

37. It is constitutionally lawful for officers to make full custodial arrests for fine-only offenses.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   After Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.07 – Know that after an arrest, felony suspects usually are taken to the police station for booking, photographing, and possible interrogation and identification procedures; misdemeanor suspects usually are released.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 3:46 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

38. Most arrests based on probable cause are reasonable without warrants.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Arrest Warrant Requirement
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.05 – Know that arrest warrants are required to enter homes to arrest except when the need to act immediately exists at the time of the arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 3:47 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

39. An officer’s subjective, honest belief that a crime has been committed is enough to support probable cause to arrest.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.02 – Know that the Fourth Amendment’s reasonableness requirement requires both probable cause before, and a reasonable execution during and after, arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 3:49 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

40. Police can never arrest someone for a minor traffic offense.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Arrest Warrant Requirement
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 3:50 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

41. In determining probable cause, police officers must rely solely on direct information.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.02 – Know that the Fourth Amendment’s reasonableness requirement requires both probable cause before, and a reasonable execution during and after, arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 3:51 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

42. Victims and witnesses are the source of most hearsay information that the police obtain.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.04 – Know that officers can use both direct information and hearsay to build probable cause.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 3:52 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

43. In Draper v. United States, SCOTUS determined that information that may not be admissible at trial to prove guilt could still be used to establish probable cause.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.04 – Know that officers can use both direct information and hearsay to build probable cause.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 3:53 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

44. There is a bright line difference between an arrest and a stop.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Chapter Introduction
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.01 – Understand that arrests are a vital tool that can help law enforcement officers catch the guilty and free the innocent, but that the noble end of crime control doesn’t justify unreasonable arrests.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 3:55 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

45. Arrests have to satisfy the reasonableness requirement of the Fourth Amendment.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Chapter Introduction
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.01 – Understand that arrests are a vital tool that can help law enforcement officers catch the guilty and free the innocent, but that the noble end of crime control doesn’t justify unreasonable arrests.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 4:15 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

46. Deadly force can never be used to make an arrest.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrest by Force
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 4:16 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

47. The Fourth Amendment requires that magistrates base their probable cause determination on information sworn to under oath.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Arrest Warrant Requirement
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.05 – Know that arrest warrants are required to enter homes to arrest except when the need to act immediately exists at the time of the arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 4:20 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

48. During and after arrests, officers can use only the amount of force that is objectively reasonable to get and maintain control of suspects.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrest by Force
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 4:22 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

49. Unless the police are in hot pursuit of a suspect, the Fourth Amendment usually requires a warrant to enter a private home to make arrests.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrests in Homes
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.05 – Know that arrest warrants are required to enter homes to arrest except when the need to act immediately exists at the time of the arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 4:25 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

50. Whether police used excessive force in making a nondeadly force arrest is measured by an objective standard.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrest by Force
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 4:27 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

51. The objective basis necessary for a police officer to make an arrest is _______________ _______________.​

ANSWER:   ​probable cause
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.02 – Know that the Fourth Amendment’s reasonableness requirement requires both probable cause before, and a reasonable execution during and after, arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 4:49 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

52. Information received by the police from third persons is called _______________.​

ANSWER:   ​hearsay
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.04 – Know that officers can use both direct information and hearsay to build probable cause.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 4:53 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

53. A written, sworn statement submitted to a magistrate by a police officer seeking an arrest warrant or a search warrant is called a(n) _______________.​

ANSWER:   affidavit​
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Arrest Warrant Requirement
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.05 – Know that arrest warrants are required to enter homes to arrest except when the need to act immediately exists at the time of the arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 4:56 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

54. The main sources of hearsay information used to establish probable cause in most arrests that rely on hearsay are _______________ _______________.​

ANSWER:  
professional informants​
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.02 – Know that the Fourth Amendment’s reasonableness requirement requires both probable cause before, and a reasonable execution during and after, arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 4:57 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

55. The _______________ of the person to be arrested must be listed on the arrest warrant.​

ANSWER:   name​
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Arrest Warrant Requirement
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.05 – Know that arrest warrants are required to enter homes to arrest except when the need to act immediately exists at the time of the arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 4:59 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

56. Kuha v. Minnetonka (2003) held that a dog trained only in the _______________ and _______________ technique meets the requirements of the objective standard of reasonable force test.​

ANSWER:   ​bite; hold
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrest by Force
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 5:01 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

57. Information known by police based on what they see, hear, and smell is _______________ information.​

ANSWER:   direct​
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.04 – Know that officers can use both direct information and hearsay to build probable cause.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 5:02 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

58. Whether the manner of an arrest was reasonable is affected by whether the amount of _______________, if any, was reasonably necessary.​

ANSWER:   force​
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrest by Force
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.06 – Understand that officers can use only the amount of force that is necessary to get and maintain control of suspects they have probable cause to arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 5:04 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

59. Police can arrest a suspect in the suspect’s home without a warrant if there are _______________ circumstances that would justify such an arrest.​

ANSWER:   exigent​
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrests in Homes
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.05 – Know that arrest warrants are required to enter homes to arrest except when the need to act immediately exists at the time of the arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 5:06 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

60. SCOTUS has ruled that a _______________ is necessary to effect a routine arrest of a suspect at home.​

ANSWER:   warrant​
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Arrests in Homes
QUESTION TYPE:   Completion
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.05 – Know that arrest warrants are required to enter homes to arrest except when the need to act immediately exists at the time of the arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 5:12 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

61. Identify the characteristics of a full custodial arrest, and contrast it with a stop.​

ANSWER:   A full custodial arrest (one that lasts for a substantial period of time) is usually accompanied by a trip to a police station or to jail and must be based on probable cause. Secondly, the duration of a full custodial arrest can last from several hours to a few days. The location of full custodial arrest begins on the street or in other public or private places, but usually results in removal to a police station. Besides being removed to a police station, the arrested person usually also suffers other invasions of privacy., including being fingerprinted, booked, photographed, interrogated, and possibly subjected to some identification procedures.

Full custodial arrests differ from stops in two important respects. The first is duration. Stops are measured in minutes; full custodial arrests can last hours and sometimes even days. The second respect in which the two differ is location. Stops begin and end on the streets and in other public places. Arrested people are taken to the isolated and intimidating surroundings of local police departments or jails.

Not all arrests are equally invasive. Full custodial arrests are the most invasive of all arrests, but less invasive seizures are also arrests. An arrest begins when a stop ends and the individual is still detained, and continues through a full custodial arrest, where the person is usually placed into a squad car, taken into a station house, subjected to a search, photographed, booked and fingerprinted, interrogated, and ultimately locked up for a substantial period of time.

POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Chapter Introduction
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.01 – Understand that arrests are a vital tool that can help law enforcement officers catch the guilty and free the innocent, but that the noble end of crime control doesn’t justify unreasonable arrests.
KEYWORDS:   Apply
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 5:22 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

62. Compare the definitions of reasonable suspicion and probable cause. What two interests does probable cause balance?​

ANSWER:   Probable cause to arrest means that there are enough facts and circumstances to lead police officers, in light of their experience, to reasonably believe that the person arrested has committed, is committing, or is about to commit a crime. Reasonable suspicion only requires that officers, based upon the information that they have seen or that they learn from a relatively trustworthy source, reasonably suspect that a person may, has, or is about to commit a crime.

Probable cause to arrest lies on a continuum between reasonable suspicion on one end and proof beyond a reasonable doubt on the other. Reasonable suspicion is needed to justify a stop, the least intrusive activity, subject to the Fourth Amendment. Probable cause is needed to justify an arrest, which is more intrusive than a stop, as it lasts longer and usually requires a removal from the place stopped. The highest burden of proof is proof beyond a reasonable doubt. This is the proof needed to convict and imprison someone for a crime that can lead to a punishment from some part of a year to life.

The probable cause requirement balances the societal interest in crime control against the individual right of locomotion—the freedom to come and go as one pleases.

POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.02 – Know that the Fourth Amendment’s reasonableness requirement requires both probable cause before, and a reasonable execution during and after, arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Apply
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 5:26 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

63. Make a list of facts that officers can take into account in building probable cause. What use can officers make of hearsay in building probable cause?​

ANSWER:   Police can use both direct information and hearsay in building probable cause. Direct information is firsthand information known to arresting officers by what they see, hear, feel, taste, or smell. Some examples of direct information would be flight, furtive movements, hiding, attempts to destroy evidence, resisting officers, giving evasive answers, giving contradictory explanations, fingerprints, hair samples, blood samples, and DNA information.

Hearsay is information that officers get second-hand from victims, witnesses, other police officers, or professional informants. To help in the probable cause determination, this hearsay must be reliable. Officers can use hearsay in order to build probable cause.

POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.02 – Know that the Fourth Amendment’s reasonableness requirement requires both probable cause before, and a reasonable execution during and after, arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Apply
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 5:28 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

64. Identify and provide details about the three elements of arrest warrants that satisfy the requirements of the Fourth Amendment warrant clause.​

ANSWER:   The three elements of arrest warrants that satisfy the Fourth Amendment warrant clause are as follows: (1) a neutral magistrate who decides whether probable cause exists; (2) a sworn statement made by somebody who swears under oath to the facts and circumstances amounting to probable cause; and (3) the name of the person to be arrested (i.e., the warrant must identify specifically the person the officers are going to arrest).

As for the first requirement, that of a neutral magistrate, this requires the police to get approval from a neutral magistrate, who will fairly and accurately review the warrant before it is issued. Studies have shown that most magistrates devote little time to reviewing a warrant’s sufficiency. They assume that the person swearing to it is being honest, and they tend to ask no questions about the warrant.

As for the second requirement of a sworn statement, also known as an affidavit, the Fourth Amendment requires that magistrates base their probable cause determinations on information sworn to under oath. The pain of perjury encourages truthfulness. If the affidavit establishes probable cause, the magistrate usually issues the warrant.

The final requirement, naming the person to be arrested, is part of the Fourth Amendment’s particularity requirement. Thus the warrant should contain the name of the person to be arrested or, if the person’s name is not known, a description by which the person can be identified with reasonable certainty.

POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Arrest Warrant Requirement
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.05 – Know that arrest warrants are required to enter homes to arrest except when the need to act immediately exists at the time of the arrest.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 5:31 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

65. What is required to satisfy the Fourth Amendment’s reasonableness requirement regarding arrests?​

ANSWER:   To satisfy the Fourth Amendment’s reasonableness requirement, arrests require both probable cause before, and a reasonable execution during and after, the arrest. Probable cause requires that an officer, in light of training and experience, knows enough facts and circumstances to reasonably believe both that: (1) a crime has been, is being, or is about to be committed; and (2) the person arrested has committed, is committing, or is about to commit the crime.
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Probable Cause to Arrest
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CRPR.SAMA.18.05.02 – Know that the Fourth Amendment’s reasonableness requirement requires both probable cause before, and a reasonable execution during and after, arrest.
CRPR.SAMA.18.05.03 – Appreciate that the probable cause requirement balances the societal interest in crime control and the individual right to free movement.
KEYWORDS:   Remember
DATE CREATED:   1/4/2017 5:34 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/6/2017 6:03 AM

 

 

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