Color Textbook of Histology 3rd Edition by Leslie P. Gartner – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The apical and basolateral surfaces of a polarized cell maintain their integrity due to the presence of

 

  1. gap junctions
  2. zonula adherens
  3. fascia adherens
  4. zonula occludens
  5. fascia occludens

 

Explanation:

The answer is d. Zonulae occludentes maintain the integrity of the basolateral cell membranes by restricting the movement of their integral proteins. Gap junctions function in intercellular communication, zonulae and fasciae adherentes assist in the maintenance of intercellular adhesion, and fasciae occludentes restrict the movement of materials in and out of a lumen.

 

  1. In Fig. Img_005, the cell at the tip of the pointer manufactures and releases

 

  1. mucinogen
  2. mucinase
  3. mucus
  4. mucilage
  5. mucin

 

Explanation:

The answer is a. This image is from the duodenum and the arrow is pointing to a goblet cell that manufactures and releases mucinogen. When mucinogen contacts water, it becomes hydrated to form mucin, a substance that is intermingled with other substances in the digestive canal and becomes known as mucus. Mucinase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes mucins, whereas mucilage is a substance manufactured from plant material that is applied to mucous membranes for its soothing properties.

 

  1. In Fig. Img_006, this is a healthy region in a patient suffering from cancer of the

 

 

  1. esophagus
  2. skin
  3. urinary bladder
  4. gallbladder
  5. cervix

 

Explanation:

The answer is c. The specimen depicted in this photomicrograph is composed of transitional epithelium overlying dense irregular collagenous connective tissue. Therefore, this is from the urinary bladder. The esophagus is lined by stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium, whereas the cervix and the gallbladder are both lined by simple columnar epithelium. The intravaginal portion of the cervix is covered by stratified squamous epithelium. The epidermis of the skin is composed of stratified squamous keratinized epithelium.

 

  1. In Fig. Img_008, the tissue at the tip of the pointer is classified as

 

 

  1. stratified squamous epithelium
  2. loose connective tissue
  3. dense irregular collagenous connective tissue
  4. simple squamous epithelium
  5. stratified cuboidal epithelium

 

Explanation:

The answer is d. The specimen depicted in this photomicrograph is from the medulla of the kidney, and the various tubules located in that region are sectioned in a random fashion. The arrow points to flat nuclei of the simple squamous epithelium. Note that the stem of the arrow, located in the lumen of a thin limb of Henle’s loop, is near the flat nuclei of the simple squamous epithelium of the opposite side of the wall of the thin loop.

 

  1. An elderly patient is seen by her physician because of a dry mouth. It appears that her parotid glands no longer produce saliva. Which is the correct classification of the parotid glands?

 

  1. apocrine
  2. holocrine
  3. sebaceous
  4. mixed
  5. serous

 

Explanation:

The answer is e. The parotid glands produce a purely serous  (watery) saliva. The term apocrine refers to glands that release a part of their cytoplasm with their secretory product (some consider the mammary glands to be apocrine glands), whereas cells of the holocrine glands die and become the secretory product. Sebaceous glands (oil glands of the skin) are holocrine glands. Mixed glands, such as the submandibular and sublingual glands, produce a secretion composed of both serous and mucous components.

 

  1. The urinary bladder needs to stretch (distend) and then return to its original shape. Which of the following epithelia are associated with that organ?

 

  1. transitional
  2. simple cuboidal
  3. simple columnar
  4. simple squamous
  5. pseudostratified columnar

 

Explanation:

The answer is a. The urinary bladder expands as it becomes filled with urine, and it is the transitional epithelium that maintains the integrity of its lining.

 

  1. A 10-year-old boy presents with peroneal muscular atrophy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome). He has weakness in his legs and atrophied calf and hand muscles. Additionally, he lost some heat, pain, and cold sensation in his feet and hands. This common hereditary neuropathy is the result of a mutation in the gene coding for

 

  1. cadherins
  2. integrins
  3. dystroglycans
  4. connexins
  5. occludins

 

Explanation:

The answer is d. Mutations in the connexin 32 gene results in the development of Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome. Fortunately, this condition is not life threatening. Other structures listed as distractors are not affected by this mutation.

 

  1. The principal product manufactured by goblet cells is known as

 

  1. mucin
  2. mucus
  3. mucinogen
  4. theca
  5. mucosa

 

Explanation:

The answer is c. Goblet cells manufacture a glycoprotein known as mucinogen which, when released into an aqueous environment, becomes hydrated and is known as mucin. When mucin is mixed with other substances such as dust particles in the respiratory system lumina, it is known as mucus. The theca is the expanded portion of the goblet cell that is filled with mucinogen-containing secretory granules. Mucosa is the region that lines the lumen of an organ.

 

  1. Which of the following glycoproteins is manufactured by epithelial cells?

 

  1. laminin
  2. chondronectin
  3. osteonectin
  4. fibronectin
  5. tenascin

 

Explanation:

The answer is a. Laminin, a glycoprotein manufactured by epithelial cells and deposited into the lamina lucida of the basal lamina, assists these cells in adhering to the basal lamina. Chondronectin and osteonectin assist cartilage and bone cells in adhering to their respective matrices. Osteonectin also participates in mineralization of bone. Fibronectin assists fibroblasts in adhering to the connective tissue matrix and also in forming a path for cell migration during embryonic development as well as during wound healing. Tenascin also marks migratory pathways during embryonic development.

 

  1. In Fig. Img_018, the epithelium lining the lumen of this organ is classified as

 

  1. simple squamous
  2. simple cuboidal
  3. stratified squamous nonkeratinized
  4. stratified cuboidal
  5. transitional

 

Explanation:

The answer is c. This is a many-layered epithelium whose free surface is composed of squamous cells; therefore, stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium lines the lumen of this organ, namely the esophagus. Stratified cuboidal epithelium would have cuboidal cells at its free surface, and transitional epithelium would have large, dome-shaped cells at the free surface. Simple epithelia are composed of only a single layer of epithelial cells.

 

  1. In Fig. Img_021, a large percentage of the epithelial cells of this organ appear to possess an empty region. In life, that region was filled with secretory granules housing

 

 

  1. mucus
  2. mucinogen
  3. mucin
  4. trypsinogen
  5. trypsin

 

Explanation:

The answer is b. This photomicrograph is of the colon; the cells that possess an empty

region are known as goblet cells, and the expanded empty region is the theca. In life, the theca housed numerous secretory granules containing mucinogen. When mucinogen is released into the lumen of the colon it becomes hydrated and is known as mucin. Once mucin is mixed with material in the lumen of the colon, it becomes known as mucus. Trypsinogen is the precursor of the enzyme trypsin and is released by chief cells of the stomach, not by goblet cells of the colon.

 

  1. In Fig. Img_022, the epithelium at the free surface is classified as

 

 

  1. simple squamous
  2. simple cuboidal
  3. stratified squamous keratinized
  4. stratified cuboidal
  5. transitional

 

Explanation:

The answer is c. This is a many-layered epithelium whose free surface is composed of keratinized squames; therefore, this is stratified squamous keratinized epithelium composing the epidermis of the skin. Stratified cuboidal epithelium would have cuboidal cells at its free surface, and transitional epithelium would have large, dome-shaped cells at the free surface. Simple epithelia are composed of only a single layer of epithelial cells.

 

  1. In Fig. Img_023, the epithelium at the free surface is classified as

 

 

  1. simple squamous
  2. simple cuboidal
  3. stratified squamous keratinized
  4. stratified cuboidal
  5. transitional

 

Explanation:

The answer is a. This is a single-layered epithelium whose free surface is composed of simple squamous cells; therefore, this is simple squamous epithelium composing the endothelial lining of a muscular artery. Stratified cuboidal epithelium would have two or more layers of epithelial cells with cuboidal cells at its free surface, and transitional epithelium would also have many layers of epithelial cells with large, dome-shaped cells at the free surface. Simple cuboidal epithelium is composed of only a single layer of cuboidal cells.

 

 

 

 

  1. A patient who was a long-time heavy smoker was seen by a physician for a persistent cough. A biopsy of the bronchial lining displayed a change in the epithelium from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to stratified squamous. The patient decided to quit smoking, and a second biopsy 6 months later showed that a reversal had occurred in the epithelium; it was back to the normal pseudostratified ciliated columnar. This patient had

 

  1. carcinoma
  2. adenocarcinoma
  3. squamous metaplasia
  4. bronchitis
  5. pneumonia

 

Explanation:

The answer is c. Because the patient’s epithelial alteration was temporary and reversed after he quit smoking, the diagnosis was squamous metaplasia. Carcinoma is a cancer arising from epithelium, and adenocarcinoma is a cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial lining and is not accompanied by metaplasia. Pneumonia is an infection involving the alveoli and interalveolar septa of the lung and is not accompanied by metaplasia of the bronchial lining.

 

  1. The statement that subunit A has 13 protofilaments and subunit B has 10 protofilaments refers to the core of a

 

  1. microvillus
  2. cilium
  3. stereocilium
  4. villus
  5. brush border

 

Explanation:

The answer is b. The core of a cilium is composed of an axoneme, composed of nine doublet microtubules surrounding a pair of singlet microtubules. Each singlet microtubule is composed of 13 protofilaments consisting of a and b tubulins positioned head to tail, arranged in a cylindrical configuration. The protofilaments that make up a doublet are composed of two adjoining cylinders: a complete cylinder of 13 protofilaments (known as subunit A) and an incomplete cylinder composed of only 10 protofilaments (subunit B). The core of a microvillus is composed of a bundle of actin filaments, not microtubules. Brush borders are composed of microvilli, and stereocilia are merely modified microvilli. A villus is an epithelially covered finger-like extension of the lamina propria.

 

  1. Which of the following substances is manufactured by epithelial cells?

 

  1. procollagen
  2. type II collagen
  3. elastin
  4. heparin
  5. chondroitin sulfate

 

Explanation:

The answer is a. Procollagen, the precursor of tropocollagen, is released without alteration by epithelial cells to form type IV collagen of the lamina densa region of the basal lamina.  Most other forms of collagen require enzymatic cleavage of the telopeptides by procollagen peptidase upon the release of procollagen from the cell into the extracellular matrix. Type II collagen is manufactured by chondroblasts and chondrocytes. Elastin and chondroitin sulfate are synthesized by chondroblasts, chondrocytes, and fibroblasts. Heparin is manufactured by mast cells.

 

  1. Which of the following substances is manufactured by epithelial cells and is not calcium-dependent?

 

  1. connexons
  2. integrins
  3. microfibrils
  4. cadherins
  5. claudins

 

Explanation:

The answer is e. Claudins are transmembrane proteins that participate in the formation of occluding junctions between adjacent epithelial cells and function to prevent material from passing across the epithelial membrane via the paracellular route. Claudins are not calcium dependent. Connexons and cadherins are both calcium-dependent transmembrane proteins that function in the establishment of calcium-dependent intercellular communicating and adhering junctions, respectively. Integrins are also transmembrane proteins, but they function in a calcium-dependent fashion and assist in cell-matrix adherence.

 

  1. A patient presents with a swelling on the external aspect of his cheek just anterior to the pinna of his ear. The region is tender, and upon examination it is evident that there is a blockage of salivary flow into the vestibule near the second maxillary molar, indicating a possible blockage of the duct (Stensen duct) of the parotid gland. Which of the following is a correct statement about the parotid? It is a

 

  1. simple serous gland
  2. simple mucous gland
  3. compound serous gland
  4. compound mucous gland
  5. compound mixed gland

 

Explanation:

The answer is c. The parotid gland, the largest of the three pairs of major salivary glands, is a multicellular, compound serous acinar gland because its duct branches. It produces a thin, watery fluid. The ducts of simple glands do not branch.

 

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