COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY THEORY PROCESS AND METHODOLOGY 1ST EDITION BY DAWN M – TEST BANK

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Chapter 5:       Memory Structures and Processes

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Clive Wearing lost his ability to form new memories due to damage to his _____, resulting from encephalitis.
  1. hippocampus
  2. parietal cortex
  3. frontal lobe
  4. insular cortex

 

Cognitive domain: Knowledge

Answer location: Introduction: The Pervasiveness of Memory

Question type: MS

Ans:  A

 

 

 

  1. Memory has been described as all of the following EXCEPT:
  1. A wax tablet that can be molded, melted, and remolded
  2. A filing system for information organized in different ways
  3. A collection of independent processes
  4. A storage unit or structure where information is held

 

Cognitive domain: Analysis

Answer location: Memory as a Structure or Process

Question type: MS

Ans:  C

 

 

 

  1. Imagine that you are sitting in class, listening to your professor lecture, viewing slides on the projector that he is flipping through. Your brain understands these slides as varying forms of light. This translation is an example of _____.
  1. storage
  2. encoding
  3. retrieval
  4. a translator

 

Cognitive domain: Comprehension

Answer location: Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval

Question type: MS

Ans:  B

 

 

 

  1. You spent several days studying very hard for your psychology final exam and are confident you are going to perform well. However, in the middle of taking the exam, you are stuck on a question and find yourself struggling to remember a topic that you are being questioned on. This is most likely a problem with _____.
  1. Encoding
  2. Your studying habits
  3. Storage
  4. Retrieval

 

Cognitive domain: Comprehension

Answer location: Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval

Question type: MS

Ans:  D

 

 

 

  1. Which of these is NOT a component of memory formation?
  1. encoding
  2. storage
  3. retrieval
  4. forgetting

 

Cognitive domain: Analysis

Answer location: Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval

Question type: MS

Ans:  C

 

 

 

  1. You arrive at the local shopping mall to pick up a few things. The parking lot is crowded, but you find a spot towards the back. While in the mall, you find that you do not think of your parking spot, but have no trouble remembering where you parked when it is time to leave. This particularly illustrates your brain’s ability to _____ information.
  2. forget
  3. store
  4. change
  5. encode

 

Cognitive domain: Comprehension

Answer location: Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval

Question type: MS

Ans:  B

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is the correct order of memory formation?
  1. Encoding, storage, retrieval
  2. Storage, retrieval, encoding
  3. Storage, encoding, retrieval
  4. Encoding, retrieval, storage

 

Cognitive domain: Analysis

Answer location: Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval

Question type: MS

Ans:  A

 

 

 

  1. Encoding the color of a stimulus is to the _____ as encoding the smell of that stimulus is to the _____.
  1. Temporal cortex; visual cortex
  2. Visual cortex; temporal cortex
  3. Visual cortex; frontal lobe
  4. Parietal lobe; temporal cortex

 

Cognitive domain: Comprehension

Answer location: Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval

Question type: MS

Ans:  B

 

 

 

  1. Very brief memories are to _____ as fairly brief memories are to _____ as longer-held memories are to _____.
  1. Long-term memory; sensory memory; short-term memory
  2. Sensory memory; long-term memory; short-term memory
  3. Short-term memory; sensory memory; long-term memory
  4. Sensory memory; short-term memory; long-term memory

 

Cognitive domain: Analysis

Answer location: Modal Model of Memory

Question type: MS

Ans:  D

 

 

 

  1. _____ is the briefest form of memory.
  1. Sensory memory
  2. Short-term memory
  3. Working memory
  4. Long-term memory

 

Cognitive domain: Knowledge

Answer location: Sensory Memory

Question type: MS

Ans:  A

 

 

 

  1. You are at a professional football game. You look across from your seat, and notice the other side of the stadium and all of the people in their seats. You close your eyes, and for a brief second, you see an accurate afterimage of that view in your mind. This is an example of _____.
  1. Echoic memory
  2. Working memory
  3. Sensory memory
  4. Short-term memory

 

Cognitive domain: Comprehension

Answer location: Sensory Memory

Question type: MS

Ans:  C

 

 

 

  1. You are participating in a study in which you are presented with an array of letters. However, you are only asked to report the top line of 5 rows (much like an eye exam). This best illustrates _____.
  1. A full-report method
  2. A delayed-report method
  3. A varied-report method
  4. A partial-report method

 

Cognitive domain: Knowledge

Answer location: Sensory Memory

Question type: MS

Ans:  D

 

 

 

  1. Visual sensory memories last for approximately _____.
  1. 1 second
  2. 1 minute
  3. 5 seconds
  4. 3 seconds

 

Cognitive domain: Knowledge

Answer location: Sensory Memory

Question type: MS

Ans:  A

 

 

 

  1. _____ is an intermediate memory storage that begins processing of perceptual information transferred from _____.
  1. Short-term memory; working memory
  2. Working memory; short-term memory
  3. Long-term memory; short-term memory
  4. Short-term memory; sensory memory

 

Cognitive domain: Knowledge

Answer location: Short-Term Memory

Question type: MS

Ans:  D

 

 

 

  1. When you were young, your teacher likely had you write your name, phone number, and address out repeatedly in order to help you remember them. This rehearsal helped get the information from _____ to _____.
  1. Working memory; sensory memory
  2. Sensory memory; working memory
  3. Short-term memory; long-term memory
  4. Sensory memory; short-term memory

 

Cognitive domain: Comprehension

Answer location: Short-Term Memory

Question type: MS

Ans:  C

 

 

 

  1. The capacity of short-term memory is _____.
  1. 7 +/- 2 bits of information
  2. 5 +/- 2 bits of information
  3. 7 +/- 2 words
  4. 5 +/- 2 words

 

Cognitive domain: Knowledge

Answer location: Short-Term Memory

Question type: MS

Ans:  A

 

 

 

  1. Remember your phone number in sequences such as xxx-xxx-xxxx, and your social security number in sequences such as xxx-xx-xxxx is an example of _____.
  1. encoding
  2. sensory memory
  3. chunking
  4. short-term memory

 

Cognitive domain: Application

Answer location: Short-Term Memory

Question type: MS

Ans:  C

 

 

 

  1. You are about to take a final exam, and you are spending the last few minutes in class going over your notes before the professor hands out the test. There are certain topics you studied very well, but others you are not so sure about. As soon as the professor hands out the test, you scribble down those few terms you are not very confident about, before you forget them. These terms are likely stored in _____.
  1. Short-term memory
  2. Long-term memory
  3. Sensory memory
  4. Echoic memory

 

Cognitive domain: Application

Answer location: Duration of STM

Question type: MS

Ans:  A

 

 

 

  1. You just recently bought a new cell phone and had to change your phone number. However, your old phone number keeps interfering with your ability to remember your new phone number. This is an example of _____.
  1. Retroactive interference
  2. Proactive interference

 

Cognitive domain: Application

Answer location: Duration of STM

Question type: MS

Ans:  B

 

 

 

  1. You have been working at a bank for the last 4 years, but they recently changed systems and you had to relearn how to perform every task. However, after a while, you notice that you cannot remember how you used to perform these tasks using the old system. This is an example of _____.
  1. Retroactive interference
  2. Proactive interference

 

Cognitive domain: Application

Answer location: Duration of STM

Question type: MS

Ans:  A

 

 

 

  1. Old information interfering with the storage or retrieval of new information is to _____, as new information interfering with the storage of retrieval of old information is to _____.
  1. Retroactive interference; proactive interference
  2. Proactive interference; retroactive interference

 

Cognitive domain: Knowledge

Answer location: Duration of STM

Question type: MS

Ans:  B

 

 

 

  1. Being able to recall what you had for breakfast yesterday illustrates your _____.
  1. Short-term memory
  2. Long-term memory
  3. Sensory memory
  4. Working memory

 

Cognitive domain: Comprehension

Answer location: Long-Term Memory (LTM)

Question type: MS

Ans:  B

 

 

 

  1. Remembering your 5th birthday party is an example of _____.
  1. Semantic memory
  2. Procedural memory
  3. Episodic memory
  4. Working memory

 

Cognitive domain: Application

Answer location: Types of LTM Memories

Question type: MS

Ans:  C

 

 

 

  1. Your memory for cognitive psychology terms is an example of _____
  1. Semantic memory
  2. Procedural memory
  3. Episodic memory
  4. Working memory

 

Cognitive domain: Application

Answer location: Types of LTM Memories

Question type: MS

Ans:  A

 

 

 

  1. Remembering how to drive a car is an example of _____.
  1. Semantic memory
  2. Procedural memory
  3. Episodic memory
  4. Working memory

 

Cognitive domain: Application

Answer location: Types of LTM Memories

Question type: MS

Ans:  B

 

 

 

  1. When you took your introductory psychology course, you likely learned a little bit about many different areas of psychology. However, as you began taking other psychology courses, you likely found that your professors would elaborate on information you already learned in your introductory psychology course. Essentially, you were adding new information onto existing information that you already knew. This is an example of your _____.
  1. Working memory
  2. Long-term memory
  3. Short-term memory
  4. Procedural memory

 

Cognitive domain: Comprehension

Answer location: The Working-Memory (WM) System

Question type: MS

Ans:  A

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of Baddeley’s proposed components of his working memory model?
  1. Episodic buffer
  2. Visuospatial sketchpad
  3. Phonological loop
  4. Central loop

 

Cognitive domain: Analysis

Answer location: Baddeley’s Model

Question type: MS

Ans:  D

 

 

 

  1. The phonological loop is to _____ as the visuospatial sketchpad is to _____.
  1. Verbal information; visual information
  2. Visual information; verbal information

 

Cognitive domain: Comprehension

Answer location: Baddeley’s Model

Question type: MS

Ans:  A

 

 

 

  1. The _____ controls the flow of information between the _____, the _____, and the _____.
  1. Central executive; episodic buffer; phonological loop; visuospatial sketchpad
  2. Central executive; short-term memory; phonological loop; visuospatial sketchpad
  3. Episodic buffer; central executive; phonological loop; visuospatial sketchpad
  4. Phonological loop; central executive; episodic buffer; visuospatial sketchpad

 

Cognitive domain: Knowledge

Answer location: Central Executive

Question type: MS

Ans:  A

 

 

 

  1. Multiple choice questions are to _____ as essay questions are to _____.
  1. Recall; recognition
  2. Recognition; recall

 

Cognitive domain: Comprehension

Answer location: Retrieval from Long-Term Memory

Question type: MS

Ans:  B

 

 

 

  1. _____ memory is unconscious memory.
  1. Explicit
  2. Implicit
  3. Sensory
  4. Long-term memory

 

Cognitive domain: Knowledge

Answer location: Implicit-Memory Tasks

Question type: MS

Ans:  B

 

 

 

  1. You remember that you need to stop at the store on the way home from school. This is an example of _____.
  1. Explicit memory
  2. Implicit memory
  3. Procedural memory
  4. Prospective memory

 

Cognitive domain: Application

Answer location: Implicit-Memory Tasks

Question type: MS

Ans:  D

 

 

 

 

True or False

 

 

 

  1. True or False. Clive Wearing’s hippocampus was damaged due to meningitis.

 

Cognitive domain: Knowledge

Answer location: Introduction: The Pervasiveness of Memory

Question type: TF

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. True or False. The correct order of memory processes is as follows: storage, encoding, and retrieval.

 

Cognitive domain: Knowledge

Answer location: Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval

Question type: TF

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. True or False. Memories have been classified according to duration.

 

Cognitive domain: Knowledge

Answer location: Modal Model of Memory

Question type: TF

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. True or False. The briefest form of memory is short-term memory.

 

Cognitive domain: Comprehension

Answer location: Sensory Memory

Question type: TF

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. True or False. An example of sensory memory would be remembering your phone number from childhood.

 

Cognitive domain: Comprehension

Answer location: Sensory Memory

Question type: TF

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. True or False. Short-term memory has a limited capacity and unlimited duration.

 

Cognitive domain: Knowledge

Answer location: Short-Term Memory (STM)

Question type: TF

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. True or False. Chunking is a method used to increase the number of pieces of information one can remember.

 

Cognitive domain: Knowledge

Answer location: Short-Term Memory (STM)

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. True or False. Retroactive interference in when old information interferes with the storage or retrieval of new information.

 

Cognitive domain: Knowledge

Answer location: Duration of STM

Question type: TF

Ans: False

 

 

 

  1. True or False. An example of a procedural memory would be how to ride your bicycle.

 

Cognitive domain: Comprehension

Answer location: Types of LTM Memories

Question type: TF

Ans: True

 

 

 

  1. True or False. Proactive interference is when new information interferes with the storage or retrieval of old information.

 

Cognitive domain: Knowledge

Answer location: Duration of STM

Question type: TF

Ans: False

 

 

 

Short Essay

 

 

 

  1. Discuss the process that a memory goes through during formation. Include neuroanatomical considerations.

Ans: A correct answer would include detailed descriptions of encoding, storage, and retrieval. Students should also include brain areas involved in each step.

 

 

 

  1. Discuss three[or the?] types of long-term memories, and give an example of each.

Ans: Students should name and define episodic memories, semantic memories, and procedural memories. A correct answer would also give an example of each kind of memory.

 

 

 

  1. Define working memory and discuss Baddeley’s model of working memory.

Ans:  Students should first define what working memory is, and its purpose. They should then go on to name the different stages of Baddeley’s model (phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, episodic buffer, and the central executive) and define each term.

 

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