Chapter 34 Clients Coping with Acquired Immunodeficiency

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Chapter 34  Clients Coping with Acquired Immunodeficiency

 

 

Complete Chapter Questions And Answers
 

Sample Questions

 

 

Which of the following best describes the etiology of AIDS?
A)
It first appeared in the chimpanzee population in Africa and was first recognized as a human disease in 1981. In humans, it is transmitted by blood, blood products, and body fluids.
B)
It was discovered in the 1990s and is transmitted by sexual intercourse in humans.
C)
It is actually HIV and is transmitted only by oral contact and sexual intercourse in humans.
D)
It was first discovered in 1882 in Europe and was brought to the Americas via prostitutes. It is transmitted only by sexual intercourse in humans.
Ans:
A

Feedback:

Extensive research has led to the discovery of the virus that is believed to cause AIDS. Beginning as a benign simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) found in the African chimpanzee population, AIDS evolved into a human killer in the early 1930s, long before it was recognized as a disease in 1981. The virus was originally named HTLV-III (human T-cell lymphotropic virus), then renamed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV is carried in the blood, blood products, and body fluids such as semen. It is primarily transmitted through intimate sexual contact or the sharing of needles by IV drug users.

2.
All except which of the following are groups of individuals who are at highest risk for AIDS?
A)
Preschool-aged children
B)
African American and Hispanic populations
C)
Homosexual and bisexual men who do not practice safe sex
D)
Persons who are occupationally exposed, such as nurses
Ans:
A

Feedback:

Young children are not at risk unless their mothers carry the AIDS virus and transmit it during delivery. Other groups at higher risk for contracting the AIDS virus are as follows:
• African American and Hispanic populations
• Homosexual and bisexual men who do not practice safe sex
• Heterosexual IV drug users
• Homosexual and bisexual men who also use IV drugs
• Heterosexual men and women who have had sex with a person from one of the previously mentioned groups
• Persons with hemophilia and others who have received blood transfusions
• Infants born to mothers carrying the AIDS virus
• Persons who are occupationally exposed (CDC, 2001)

3.
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Kaposi’s sarcoma both occur in individuals with the AIDS virus. These diseases are considered what?
A)
Secondary opportunistic infectious diseases
B)
Secondary neuropsychiatric syndromes
C)
AIDS-related complex
D)
Secondary neuropsychological disorders
Ans:
A

Feedback:

The two most common secondary or opportunistic infectious diseases of AIDS clients are Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Kaposi’s sarcoma, a rare form of skin cancer. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is characterized by a chronic, nonproductive cough and dyspnea that may be severe enough to result in hypoxemia and cognitive impairment. Kaposi’s sarcoma presents with a blue-purple–tinted skin lesion.

4.
Individuals diagnosed with AIDS often have a wide variety of emotional and psychological responses to the diagnosis, including all except which of the following?
A)
A loss of self-esteem
B)
A fear of the loss of physical attractiveness
C)
A potential for forming a closer family relationship
D)
An overwhelming sense of hopelessness and helplessness
Ans:
C

Feedback:

The most serious psychosocial problems occur for those clients who actually have the disease. Most people with AIDS are relatively young, were previously healthy, and had not experienced a major medical illness. The confirmation of this diagnosis can be catastrophic for the client, eliciting a series of emotional and social reactions, including the following:
• A loss of self-esteem
• Fear of the loss of physical attractiveness and rapid changes in body image
• Feelings of isolation and stigmatization
• An overwhelming sense of hopelessness and helplessness
• A loss of control over their lives

5.
When a family member is diagnosed with AIDS, the family is forced to undergo a process of adjusting and responding to the diagnosis and providing support for the diagnosed individual. Family dynamics are often stressed and may include which of the following elements?
A)
Older parents may have to adapt to having a previously independent adult who has now become dependent on them.
B)
Younger parents may have difficulty incorporating the diagnosed family member at a time when they are having more children.
C)
Families rarely need to make financial adjustments because health care coverage for AIDS is very well established.
D)
Families usually adjust very well due to the overwhelming community and social support they typically receive when others hear of their difficulties.
Ans:
A

Feedback:

Usually, those diagnosed with AIDS have already been independent from their families of origin and their parents are typically retirement age. Finances are a large concern because much of AIDS care is not supported by insurance companies. In addition, families are often isolated due to the stigma that a diagnosis of AIDS carries with it in the American culture. Coleman (1988) describes the diagnosis of AIDS as creating major challenges to the fragile balance of roles in the family system.

 

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