Chapter 21 Growth and Development

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Chapter 21  Growth and Development

 

 

Complete Chapter Questions And Answers
 

Sample Questions

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A student nurse who works in a pediatric clinic is assisting with an assessment on a young child who is not yet walking. She knows that it is considered a delayed gross motor ability if the child does not walk by _____ months.
A.
16
B.
18
C.
20
D.
22

ANS: C
A critical period of development refers to a specific phase or period when the presence of a function or reasoning has its greatest effect on a specific aspect of development. For example, if a child does not walk by the age of 20 months, there is delayed gross motor ability, which slows exploration and manipulation of the environment. The success or failure experienced within a phase affects the child’s ability to complete the next phases.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 572
OBJ: Describe the growth and development changes that occur in individuals from conception through old age TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. According to one growth and development theorist, individuals need to accomplish a particular task before successfully completing the stage of growth and development. Each task is framed with opposing conflicts, such as trust versus mistrust. Who developed this theory?
A.
Sigmund Freud
B.
Jean Piaget
C.
Eric Erikson
D.
Lawrence Kohlberg

ANS: C
Erik Erikson divided life into eight stages, known as Erikson’s eight stages of development. According to this theory, individuals need to accomplish a particular task before successfully completing the stage. Each task is framed with opposing conflicts, such as trust versus mistrust. Each stage builds upon the successful attainment of the previous developmental conflict.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 572
OBJ: Compare the frameworks for growth and development as described by major developmental theorists TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. This model of personality development is grounded in the belief that two internal biological forces drive the psychological change in a child: sexual (libido) and aggressive energies. Who is responsible for developing this theory?
A.
Sigmund Freud
B.
Jean Piaget
C.
Eric Erikson
D.
Lawrence Kohlberg

ANS: A
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) provided the first formal structured theory of personality development. Freud’s psychoanalytic model of personality development is grounded in the belief that two internal biological forces drive the psychological change in a child: sexual (libido) and aggressive energies.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 572
OBJ: Compare the frameworks for growth and development as described by major developmental theorists TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. Which of the following people developed the theory of cognitive development, which describes children’s intellectual organization and how they think, reason, and perceive the world?
A.
Sigmund Freud
B.
Jean Piaget
C.
Eric Erikson
D.
Lawrence Kohlberg

ANS: B
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) developed the theory of cognitive development, which describes children’s intellectual organization and how they think, reason, and perceive the world.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 573
OBJ: Compare the frameworks for growth and development as described by major developmental theorists TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. According to one theorist, moral development depends on the child’s ability to accept social responsibility and to integrate personal principles of justice and fairness. Which of the following individuals is responsible for the theory of moral development?
A.
Sigmund Freud
B.
Jean Piaget
C.
Eric Erikson
D.
Lawrence Kohlberg

ANS: D
According to Kohlberg (1964), moral development is one component of psychosocial development. It involves the reasons an individual makes a decision about right and wrong behaviors within a culture. Moral development depends on the child’s ability to accept social responsibility and to integrate personal principles of justice and fairness.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 573
OBJ: Compare the frameworks for growth and development as described by major developmental theorists TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

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