Chapter 17 The Nervous System

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Chapter 17  The Nervous System

 

 

Complete Chapter Questions And Answers
 

Sample Questions

 

Multiple Choice

 

1. A 28-year-old book editor comes to your clinic, complaining of strange episodes. He states that about once a week for the last 3 months his left hand and arm will stiffen and then start jerking. He says that after a few seconds his whole left arm and then his left leg will also start to jerk. He denies any loss of consciousness or loss of bowel or bladder control. When the symptoms resolve, his arm and leg feel tired but otherwise he feels fine. His past medical history is significant for a cyst in his brain that was removed 6 months ago. He is married and has two children. His parents are both healthy. On examination you see a scar over the right side of his head but otherwise his neurologic examination is unremarkable.
What type of seizure disorder is he most likely to have?
A) Generalized tonic–clonic seizure
B) Generalized absence seizure
C) Simple partial seizure (Jacksonian)
D) Complex partial seizure

Ans: C
Chapter: 17
Page and Header: 718, Table 17-3
Feedback: Simple partial seizures start with a unilateral symptom, involve no loss of consciousness, and have a normal postictal state. In a Jacksonian seizure the symptoms start with one body part and “march” along the same side of the body.

 

2. A 7-year-old child is brought to your clinic by her mother. The mother states that her daughter is doing poorly in school because she has some kind of “ADD” (attention deficit disorder). You ask the mother what makes her think the child has ADD. The mother tells you that both at home and at school her daughter will just zone out for several seconds and lick her lips. She states it happens at least four to six times an hour. She says this has been happening for about a year. After several seconds of lip-licking her daughter seems normal again. She states her daughter has been generally healthy with just normal childhood colds and ear infections. The patient’s parents are both healthy and no other family members have had these symptoms.
What type of seizure disorder is she most likely to have?
A) Generalized tonic–clonic seizure
B) Generalized absence seizure
C) Simple partial seizure (Jacksonian)
D) Complex partial seizure

Ans: B
Chapter: 17
Page and Header: 718, Table 17-3
Feedback: In an absence seizure there is no tonic–clonic activity. There is a sudden, brief lapse of consciousness with blinking, staring, lip-smacking, or hand movements that resolve quickly to full consciousness. It is easily mistaken for daydreaming or ADD. Some will try to induce these episodes with hyperventilation.

 

3. A 37-year-old insurance agent comes to your office, complaining of trembling hands. She says that for the past 3 months when she tries to use her hands to fix her hair or cook they shake badly. She says she doesn’t feel particularly nervous when this occurs but she worries that other people will think she has an anxiety disorder or that she’s a drinker. She admits to having some recent fatigue, trouble with vision, and difficulty maintaining bladder control. Her past medical history is remarkable for hypothyroidism. Her mother has lupus and her father is healthy. She has an older brother with type 1 diabetes. She is married and has three children. She denies tobacco, alcohol, or drug use. On examination, when she tries to reach for a pencil to fill out the health form she has obvious tremors in her dominant hand.
What type of tremor is she most likely to have?
A) Resting tremor
B) Postural tremor
C) Intention tremor

Ans: C
Chapter: 17
Page and Header: 720, Table 17-4
Feedback: Intention tremors are absent at rest or in a postural position and occur only with intentional movement of the hands. This is seen in cerebellar disease (stroke or alcohol use) or in multiple sclerosis. This patient’s tremor, fatigue, bladder problems, and visual problems are suggestive of multiple sclerosis.

 

4. A 77-year-old retired school superintendent comes to your office, complaining of unsteady hands. He says that for the past 6 months, when his hands are resting in his lap they shake uncontrollably. He says when he holds them out in front of his body the shaking diminishes, and when he uses his hands the shaking is also better. He also complains of some difficulty getting up out of his chair and walking around. He denies any recent illnesses or injuries. His past medical history is significant for high blood pressure and coronary artery disease, requiring a stent in the past. He has been married for over 50 years and has five children and 12 grandchildren. He denies any tobacco, alcohol, or drug use. His mother died of a stroke in her 70s and his father died of a heart attack in his 60s. He has a younger sister who has arthritis problems. His children are all essentially healthy. On examination you see a fine, pill-rolling tremor of his left hand. His right shows less movement. His cranial nerve examination is normal. He has some difficulty rising from his chair, his gait is slow, and it takes him time to turn around to walk back toward you. He has almost no “arm swing” with his gait.
What type of tremor is he most likely to have?
A) Resting tremor
B) Postural tremor
C) Intention tremor

Ans: A
Chapter: 17
Page and Header: 720, Table 17-4
Feedback: Resting tremors occur when the hands are literally at rest, such as sitting in the lap. These are slow, fine tremors, such as the pill-rolling seen in Parkinson’s disease, which this patient most likely has. Decreased arm swing with ambulation is one of the earliest objective findings of Parkinson’s disease.

 

5. A 48-year-old grocery store manager comes to your clinic, complaining of her head being “stuck” to one side. She says that today she was doing her normal routine when it suddenly felt like her head was being moved to her left and then it just stuck that way. She says it is somewhat painful because she cannot get it moved back to normal. She denies any recent neck trauma. Her past medical history consists of type 2 diabetes and gastroparesis (slow-moving peristalsis in the digestive tract, seen in diabetes). She is on oral medication for each. She is married and has three children. She denies tobacco, alcohol, or drug use. Her father has diabetes and her mother passed away from breast cancer. Her children are healthy. On examination you see a slightly overweight Hispanic woman appearing her stated age. Her head is twisted grotesquely to her left but otherwise her examination is normal.
What form of involuntary movement does she have?
A) Chorea
B) Asbestosis
C) Tic
D) Dystonia

Ans: D
Chapter: 17
Page and Header: 720, Table 17-4
Feedback: Dystonia involves large movements of the body, such as with the head or trunk, leading to grotesque twisted postures. Some medications (such as one commonly used for gastroparesis) often cause dystonia.

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