Chapter 15 The Anus, Rectum, and Prostate

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Chapter 15  The Anus, Rectum, and Prostate

 

 

Complete Chapter Questions And Answers
 

Sample Questions

 

Multiple Choice

 

1. A 36-year-old married bank teller comes to your office, complaining of pain with defecation and occasional blood on the toilet paper. She states that last week she had food poisoning with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. She had runny stools but no black or bloody stools. Ever since her illness, she has continued to have severe pain with bowel movements. She now tries to put off defecation as long as possible. Although she is having constipation she denies any further diarrhea or leakage of stool. She has a past medical history of hypothyroidism and two spontaneous vaginal deliveries. She has had no other chronic illnesses or surgeries. She does not smoke and rarely drinks. She has two children. There is no family history of breast or colon cancer. She has had no weight gain, weight loss, fever, or night sweats. On examination she is afebrile, with a blood pressure of 115/70 and a pulse of 80. On abdominal examination she has active bowel sounds, is nontender in all quadrants, and has no hepatosplenomegaly. Inspection of the anus reveals inflammation on the posterior side with erythema. Digital rectal examination is painful for the patient but no abnormalities are palpated. Anoscopic examination reveals no inflammation or bleeding. What is the anal disorder that best describes her symptoms?
A) Anorectal fistula
B) External hemorrhoids
C) Anal fissure
D) Anorectal cancer

Ans: C
Chapter: 15
Page and Header: 561, Techniques of Examination
Feedback: Anal fissures often occur after severe diarrhea or constipation. They cause bright blood on the toilet paper and are extremely painful during defecation. A small ulceration or fissure is observed proximal to the anus.

 

2. A 42-year-old house painter comes to your clinic, complaining of pain with defecation and profuse bleeding in the toilet after a bowel movement. He was in his usual state of health until 2 weeks ago, when he was injured in a car accident. After the accident he began taking prescription narcotics for the pain in his shoulder. Since then he has had very few bowel movements. His stool is hard and pebble-like. He states he has always been “regular” in the past, with easy bowel movements. His diet has not changed but he states that he is exercising less since the accident. His past medical history includes hypertension and he is on a low-dose diuretic. He has had no other chronic illnesses or surgeries. He has a family history of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes but no cancer. He is divorced and has three children. He smokes two packs of cigarettes per day and quit drinking more than 10 years ago. He has had no recent weight loss, weight gain, fever, or night sweats. On examination he appears muscular and healthy; he is afebrile. His blood pressure is 135/90 with a pulse of 80. His cardiac, lung, and abdominal examinations are normal. He is wearing a sling on his left arm. On observation of his anus you find a swollen bluish ovoid mass that appears to contain a blood clot. Digital rectal examination is extremely painful for the patient. No other mass is palpated within the anus or rectum.
What disorder of the anus is this patient likely to have?
A) Anal fissure
B) External hemorrhoid
C) Anorectal cancer
D) Internal hemorrhoid

Ans: B
Chapter: 15
Page and Header: 568, Table 15–2
Feedback: A swollen, bluish ovoid mass is most likely a thrombosed external hemorrhoid. These can cause brisk bleeding with defecation. Hemorrhoids are often caused by low-fiber diets, dehydration, lack of exercise, and anything that causes constipation leading to increased straining with defecation. Narcotics can cause severe constipation, leading to this disorder.

 

3. A 75-year-old retired construction worker comes to your clinic, complaining of bright red blood in the toilet for the last several months. He has no pain with defecation but has occasional constipation. He states he eats a healthy diet with fruits and vegetables and walks 2 miles a day. He has had a 10-pound weight loss over the last 3 months. He denies fever or night sweats. His medical history includes high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, and arthritis. He has also had an appendectomy. He smoked for 40 years, two packs a day, but quit 15 years ago. He used to drink alcohol but doesn’t now. His father died in his 60s of a heart attack and his mother had breast cancer in her 70s. On examination he appears his stated age and sits comfortably on the examining table. His blood pressure is 150/85 and his pulse is 88. He is afebrile. His cardiac, lung, and abdominal examinations are normal. Visualization of the anus shows no erythema, masses, or inflammation. Digital rectal examination elicits an irregular, firm mass on the posterior side of the rectum. After you remove your finger you notice frank blood on your glove.
What anal or rectal disorder is this patient most likely to have?
A) Anal fissure
B) Internal hemorrhoid
C) Prostate cancer
D) Anorectal cancer

Ans: D
Chapter: 15
Page and Header: 568, Table 15-2
Feedback: This patient has the common symptom of bright red blood in the toilet over time. He also has had weight loss and has an irregular hard mass in the rectum. It is not uncommon for these masses to be friable (bleed easily), even with gentle manipulation.

 

4. A 60-year-old coach comes to your clinic, complaining of difficulty starting to urinate for the last several months. He believes the problem is steadily getting worse. When asked he says he has a very weak stream and it feels like it takes 10 minutes to empty his bladder. He also has the urge to go to the bathroom more often than he used to. He denies any blood or sediment in his urine and any pain with urination. He has had no fever, weight gain, weight loss, or night sweats. His medical history includes type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure treated with medications. He does not smoke but drinks a six pack of beer weekly. He has been married for 35 years. His mother died of a myocardial infarction in her 70s and his father is currently in his 80s with high blood pressure and arthritis. On examination you see a mildly obese male who is alert and cooperative. His blood pressure is 130/70 with a heart rate of 80. He is afebrile and his cardiac, lung, and abdominal examinations are normal. On visualization of the anus you see no inflammation, masses, or fissures. Digital rectal examination reveals a smooth, enlarged prostate. No discrete masses are felt. There is no blood on the glove or on guaiac testing. An analysis of the urine shows no red blood cells, white blood cells, or bacteria.
What disorder of the anus, rectum, or prostate is this most likely to be?
A) Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
B) Prostatitis
C) Prostate cancer
D) Anorectal cancer

Ans: A
Chapter: 15
Page and Header: 570, Table 15–3
Feedback: BPH becomes more prevalent during the fifth decade and is often associated with the urinary symptoms of hesitancy in starting a stream, decreased strength of stream, nocturia, and leaking of urine. On examination an enlarged, symmetric, firm prostate is palpated. The anterior lobe cannot be felt. These patients may also develop UTIs secondary to the obstruction.

 

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