Chapter 13 Inflammation, Infection, and the Use of Antimicrobial Agents


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Chapter 13  Inflammation, Infection, and the Use of Antimicrobial Agents



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Sample Questions



  1. A female patient has been treated for strep throat with ampicillin by mouth. She visits the occupational health nurse and states she has vaginal itching. What organism is the cause of the vaginal itching?
    1. A)  Klebsiella
    2. B)  Enterobacter
    3. C)  Candida albicans
    4. D)  Proteus

    Ans: C
    The yeast Candida albicans is a normal resident of the vagina and the intestinal tract. An antibacterial drug may destroy the normal bacterial flora without affecting the fungal organism. Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Proteus will not contribute to the development of a yeast infection.

  2. An elderly patient is treated for pneumonia with clindamycin (Cleocin). One week after the completion of the medication, she develops diarrhea. What is the most probable

cause of the diarrhea?

  1. A)  Change in normal flora
  2. B)  Food-borne illness
  3. C)  Crohn’s disease
  4. D)  Incontinence

Ans: A


Much of the normal flora can cause disease under certain conditions, especially in the elderly, debilitated, or immunosuppressed people. The development of infectious diarrhea is related to the change in the normal flora of the bowel. Food-borne illness, Crohn’s disease, and incontinence do not contribute to this particular development of diarrhea.

3. A patient with burns has developed a wound infection. This patient is experiencing what type of wound infection?

  1. A)  Fungal infection
  2. B)  Opportunistic infection
  3. C)  Nosocomial infection
  4. D)  Food-borne infection

Ans: B Feedback:

Opportunistic infections are likely to occur in people with severe burns, cancer, human immunodeficiency virus, and indwelling catheters and are often caused by drug-resistant microorganisms, are usually serious, and may be life threatening. The patient may be at risk for a fungal, nosocomial, or food-borne infection, but the risk for all infections is high due to the patient’s opportunistic nature of the burn.

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4. An elderly man who is a resident of a skilled nursing facility develops methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. What type of infection has this man developed?

  1. A)  Community acquired
  2. B)  Postoperative
  3. C)  Sustained infection
  4. D)  Nosocomial infection

Ans: D
Nosocomial infections are infections acquired from microorganisms in hospitals and other health care facilities. The patient’s infection is not community acquired, postoperative, or sustained.

5. A nurse is instructing a patient on the antibiotic regimen for the treatment of pneumonia. Which of the following is most important to teach the patient?

  1. A)  Take the medication with orange juice.
  2. B)  Supplement the medication with multivitamins.
  3. C)  Complete the entire prescription of medication.
  4. D)  Administer the medication with dairy products.

Ans: C Feedback:

Interruption or inadequate antimicrobial treatment of infections may also contribute to the emergences of antibiotic-resistant organisms. The administration of an antibiotic with orange juice is not recommended in all instances. The medication does not need to be supplemented with vitamins. Antibiotics need not be administered with dairy products.

6. A patient is to be started on an antibiotic. Which of the following is most important to take into consideration before beginning the antibiotic regimen?

  1. A)  Duration of symptoms
  2. B)  Culture and sensitivity
  3. C)  The patient’s hydration status
  4. D)  The patient’s age and weight

Ans: B Feedback:

Culture identifies the causative organism, and susceptibility tests determine which drugs are likely to be effective against the organism. The duration of symptoms and the patient’s hydration status, age, and weight are important, but not imperative, in determining the antibiotic of choice.

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