Chapter 1 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

 

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The anatomic term ____ means toward the midline.

a.

anterior

b.

posterior

c.

medial

d.

cranial

ANS: C

The term medial indicates an anatomic direction toward the midline.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 1 OBJ: 2

TOP: Anatomic terminology KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

2. What are the smallest living components in our body?

a.

Cells

b.

Organs

c.

Electrons

d.

Osmosis

ANS:

Cells are considered to be the smallest living units of structure and function in our body.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 4 OBJ: 6

TOP: Structural levels of organization KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

3. What is the largest organelle, responsible for cell reproduction and control of other organelles?

a.

Nucleus

b.

Ribosome

c.

Mitochondrion

d.

Golgi apparatus

ANS: A

The nucleus is the largest organelle within the cell.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 5 OBJ: 8

TOP: Parts of the cell KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

4. When the patient complains of pain in the bladder, the patient will indicate discomfort in which body cavity?

a.

Pelvic

b.

Mediastinum

c.

Dorsal

d.

Abdominal

ANS:

A subdivision called the pelvic cavity contains the lower portion of the large intestine (lower sigmoid colon, rectum), urinary bladder, and internal structures of the reproductive system.

DIF:Cognitive Level: ComprehensionREF:Page 3, Figure 1-4

OBJ: 5 TOP: Body cavity KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

5. The four phases of cell division all occur in:

a.

diffusion.

b.

mitosis.

c.

osmosis.

d.

filtration.

ANS: B

During mitosis, the cell goes through four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 7 OBJ: 9

TOP:Cell divisionKEY:Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

6. Telophase is which phase of cell reproduction during mitosis?

a.

First phase

b.

Latent phase

c.

Final phase

d.

Spindle phase

ANS:

During mitosis, the cell goes through four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 7 OBJ: 9

TOP:Cell divisionKEY:Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

7. The nurse is aware that which muscle group is both striated and involuntary?

a.

Skeletal

b.

Glial

c.

Cardiac

d.

Visceral

ANS: C

The cardiac muscle is both striated and involuntary.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 9-10, Figure 1-12

OBJ: 11 TOP: Tissues KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

8. What is a group of several different kinds of tissues arranged so that together they can perform a more complex function than any tissue alone?

a.

Organ

b.

System

c.

Cell

d.

Endoplasmic reticulum

ANS: A

When several kinds of tissues are united to perform a more complex function than any tissue alone, they are called organs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 11 OBJ: 7

TOP:OrgansKEY:Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

9. What traits describe visceral muscles?

a.

Smooth and voluntary

b.

Smooth and involuntary

c.

Striated and voluntary

d.

Striated and involuntary

ANS: B

Visceral (smooth) muscles will not function at will; thus, they act involuntarily.

DIF:Cognitive Level: KnowledgeREF:Page 9, Figure 1-12

OBJ: 7 TOP: Tissues KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

10. How are the thoracic and abdominal cavities separated?

a.

By the pleura

b.

By the diaphragm

c.

By the sagittal plane

d.

By the peritoneum

ANS: B

The diaphragm (a muscle directly beneath the lungs) separates the ventral cavity into the thoracic (chest) and abdominal cavities.

DIF:Cognitive Level: KnowledgeREF:Page 10, Figure 1-3

OBJ:3TOP:Ventral cavity

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

11. What is the broad section of biology dealing with the description of human structure?

a.

Hematology

b.

Anatomy

c.

Kinesiology

d.

Physiology

ANS: B

Anatomy is the study, classification, and description of the structure and organs of the body.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 1 OBJ: 1

TOP: Terminology KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

12. ____ explains the processes and functions of many structures of the body and how they interact with one another.

a.

Anatomy

b.

Mitosis

c.

Filtration

d.

Physiology

ANS: D

Physiology explains the processes and functions of the various structures and how they interrelate with one another.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 1 OBJ: 1

TOP: Terminology KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

13. The anatomic structure that is not in the thoracic cavity is/are the _____.

a.

Heart

b.

Lungs

c.

Blood vessels

d.

Transverse colon

ANS: D

The transverse colon is located in the abdominal cavity.

DIF:Cognitive Level: ComprehensionREF:Page 2, Figure 1-3

OBJ:5TOP:Thoracic cavity

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

14. When several organs and parts are grouped together for certain functions, they form:

a.

tissues.

b.

systems.

c.

cells.

d.

membranes.

ANS: B

A system is an organization of varying numbers and kinds of organs arranged so that together they can perform complex functions for the body.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 4 OBJ: 7

TOP:SystemsKEY:Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

15. What are the distinct surface proteins of the plasma membrane essential in determining?

a.

Tissue typing

b.

Blood count

c.

Effectiveness of a drug

d.

Sexual maturity

ANS: A

The plasma membrane has distinct surface proteins as coming from one individual.  This is the basis for the procedure of tissue typing to determine compatibility before an organ transplant.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 5 OBJ: 12

TOP:CellsKEY:Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

16. In anatomic terminology, posterior means toward the:

a.

tail.

b.

head.

c.

back.

d.

trunk.

ANS: C

The posterior is toward the back.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 1 OBJ: 2

TOP: Anatomic terminology KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

17. What does the transverse body plane divide?

a.

The front and back (coronal) of the body

b.

The body lengthwise (two equal halves)

c.

The superior and inferior portions of the body

d.

The body into axial and appendicular

ANS: C

The transverse plane cuts the body horizontally into the sagittal and the frontal planes, dividing the body into caudal and cranial portions.

DIF:Cognitive Level: KnowledgeREF:Page 2, Figure 1-2

OBJ: 3 TOP: Body planes KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

18. Caudal is defined as toward the ____.

a.

head

b.

feet

c.

tail

d.

chest

ANS: C

Caudal is a directional word that indicates toward the “tail,” the distal portion of the spine.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 1 OBJ: 3

TOP: Anatomic terminology KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

19. What is the term for movement of water from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration?

a.

Absorption

b.

Filtration

c.

Diffusion

d.

Osmosis

ANS: D

Osmosis is the passage of water from less concentrated solution to more concentrated solution.

DIF:Cognitive Level: KnowledgeREF:Page 8, Table 1-4

OBJ:10TOP:Transport processes

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

20. What is the type of tissue composed of cells that contract in response to a message from the brain or spinal cord?

a.

Epithelial

b.

Connective

c.

Membrane

d.

Muscle

ANS: D

Muscle tissue is composed of cells that contract in response to a message from the brain or spinal cord.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 9 OBJ: 7

TOP:TissuesKEY:Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

21. What is the type of tissue associated with the storage of fat?

a.

Areolar tissue

b.

Adipose tissue

c.

Osseous tissue

d.

Muscle tissue

ANS: B

Adipose tissue is associated with the important function of storing fat.

DIF:Cognitive Level: KnowledgeREF:Page 9-10, Table 1-5

OBJ: 11 TOP: Tissues KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

22. What are the thin sheets of tissue that lubricate and line the body surfaces that open to the outside environment?

a.

Mucous membranes

b.

Serous membranes

c.

Cytoplasm

d.

Involuntary visceral muscles

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