Changing Families Relationships in Context Canadian 3rd Edition By Ambert – Test Bank

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CHAPTER 5

Impacts of Neighbourhoods and Housing Conditions on Family Life

TRUE-FALSE

 

  1. Suburbs are conceptualized as strictly residential urban areas.

 

Answer:   False      Difficulty:     easy                Page:    123                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. The Quebecois have the most interaction with their neighbours, when compared to the rest of Canada.

 

Answer:   False      Difficulty:     easy                Page:    124                 Skill: factual

 

  1. Children raised in affluent families may feel isolated if their parents are highly involved in their careers.

 

Answer:   True       Difficulty:     easy                Page;    124                 Skill: factual

 

  1. Research shows that a higher proportion of affluent suburban teens use alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs more often than disadvantaged inner-city teens do.

 

Answer:   False      Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    125                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. Low-income areas have a negative effect on family life and on individuals’opportunities, even when families are well functioning and not poor.

 

Answer:   True       Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    125                 Skill: factual

 

  1. An area is defined as low-income when at least three of every five households, or 60 percent, fall under the poverty level.

 

Answer:   False      Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    125                 Skill: applied

 

  1. Communities in which parents are involved in school activities, supervise their children’s association with peers, and know other children’s parents, are referred to as caring communities.

 

Answer:   True       Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    130                 Skill: applied

 

  1. Statistics Canada defines a visible minority neighbourhood as one in which 10 % of the neighbourhood consists of a particular group other than white or Aboriginal.

 

Answer:   False      Difficulty:     easy                Page:    132                 Skill: factual

 

  1. When buying a house, black families are more likely to leave their ethnic enclaves than are Chinese families.

 

Answer:   True       Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    132                 Skill: applied

 

  1. Rural areas offer families a better chance of being members of a true community.

 

Answer:   True       Difficulty:     easy                Page:    135                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. Farm families tend to be patrilineally oriented rather than matrilineally oriented.

 

Answer:   True       Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    137                 Skill: applied

 

  1. The state of maintenance or deterioration of a dwelling basically has no impact on family atmosphere.

 

Answer:   False      Difficulty:     easy                Page:    140                 Skill: factual

 

  1. Condo living is perceived to be ideal for extended families that do not want to live

together but would want to be close to one another.

 

Answer:   True       Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    141                 Skill: applied

 

  1. Family life is more open or public than it used to be.

 

Answer:   False      Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    143                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. Tolerance of overcrowding in households is a function of cultural background and

expectations.

 

Answer:   True       Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    144                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. For children in two-parent families moving residence will negatively affect their school performance.

 

Answer:   False      Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    145                 Skill: conceptual

 

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE

 

  1. What is one consequence of the intense income segregation for poor families?
  2. Low-income families will have increased access to social capital.
  3. Low-income families will have no access to the same services enjoyed by affluent families.
  4. Low-income families will suffer extreme poverty and deprivation.

 

  1. Low-income families will have a greater influence to advocate for the services they require.
  2. Low-income families will be forced to commute to affluent areas to access various services.

 

Answer:   b             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    123                 Skill: factual

 

  1. Families living in _________ have the most interaction with neighbours.
  2. Quebec and Saskatchewan
  3. Quebec and the Maritimes
  4. Saskatchewan and Manitoba
  5. the Maritimes and Manitoba
  6. Saskatchewan and the Maritimes

 

Answer:   e             Difficulty:     easy                Page:    124                 Skill: factual

 

  1. What is a major characteristic or feature of lower-upper class families?
  2. They are descended from the upper-upper class.
  3. Their heads are top executives of large corporations.
  4. They own or manage a majority of the means of production in society.
  5. They are highly educated persons working at the top positions of the civil service
  6. They hold assets in the form of real estate, stocks, bonds, and businesses.

 

Answer:   d            Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    124                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. Affluent families represent approximately
  2. 5 % of the families in Canada.
  3. 15 % of the families in Canada.
  4. 25 % of the families in Canada.
  5. 40 % of the families in Canada.
  6. 45 % of the families in Canada.

 

Answer:   b             Difficulty:     easy                Page:    124                 Skill: factual

 

  1. The few studies that have been done on adolescents in affluent families indicate that
  2. they have higher rates of anxiety, depression and drug use than adolescents from disadvantaged families living in the inner city.
  3. they have lower rates of anxiety, depression and drug use than adolescents from disadvantaged families living in the inner city.
  4. they have a higher involvement in their neighbourhood communities than adolescents from disadvantaged families living in the inner city.
  5. they have the same level of involvement in their neighbourhood communities as adolescents from disadvantaged families living in the inner city.
  6. they tend to reside outside of their neighbourhoods most of the time as the majority of them are educated in private boarding schools.

 

Answer:   a             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    125                 Skill: factual

  1. In affluent families, parents who tend to be materialistic, heavily involved in their careers, permissive, and often absent
  2. also monitor their children’s activities to a high degree.
  3. have the resources to hire non-family members to supervise their children.
  4. do not engage in collective socialization of children.
  5. isolate their children from potentially dysfunctional peers.
  6. enrol their children in numerous activities outside the home and neighbourhood.

 

Answer:   c             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    125                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. Low-income families who move into a low-income neighbourhood tend to remain locked in for an average of ___ years.
  2. 3
  3. 5
  4. 10
  5. 15
  6. 25

 

Answer:   b             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    125                 Skill: applied

 

  1. Statistics Canada defines a neighbourhood as low-income when
  2. at least 4 out of every 5 families has an income which falls under the poverty level.
  3. at least 3 out of every 5 families has an income which falls under the poverty level.
  4. at least 2 out of every 5 families has an income which falls under the poverty level.
  5. at least 1 out of every 5 families has an income which falls under the poverty level.
  6. the majority of families have incomes under the poverty level.

 

Answer:   d            Difficulty:     easy                Page:    125                 Skill: factual

 

  1. Studies have shown that there is a correlation between juvenile delinquency and
  2. low supervision.
  3. two-parent families.
  4. affluent neighbourhoods.
  5. availability of disposable income.
  6. the availability of social services in the neighbourhood.

 

Answer:   a             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    12                   Skill: conceptual

 

  1. The basic risk factor of high-poverty areas for children is
  2. unemployment.
  3. lack of a functional community.
  4. criminal victimization.

 

  1. visible differences among peers.
  2. inadequate socialization.

 

Answer:   e             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    129                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. What specifically are Steinberg and colleagues referring to when they state that “parenting appears to be more than the individualistic process that contemporary society makes it out to be,” they are directing our attention to
  2. single parenting.
  3. schools.
  4. the necessity for collective socialization.
  5. the possibility of mainstream socialization.
  6. the involvement of peer groups in socialization.

 

Answer:   c             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    129                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. _____ refers to those social ties within the community that make possible the collective supervision and socialization of children according to shared norms and behaviours.
  2. social control.
  3. collective efficacy.
  4. caring community.
  5. social order.
  6. nosy neighbour syndrome.

 

Answer:   b             Difficulty:     challenging     Page:    129                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. An example of _____ is when a certain percentage of affluent neighbours raises a child’s chances of doing better in school.
  2. functional community.
  3. social acceptability.
  4. critical mass.
  5. mainstream socialization.
  6. collective socialization.

 

Answer:   c             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    130                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. In well-functioning families in high-risk areas
  2. there is a higher level of parent–child conflict.
  3. children are given more freedom to go out.
  4. parents have only one child.
  5. parents monitor their children very closely.
  6. there is a high degree of involvement of extended kin.

 

Answer:   d            Difficulty:     easy                Page:    130                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. When the income of black families increase, they
  2. move out of minority neighbourhoods.
  3. stay in minority neighbourhoods.
  4. move to primarily black neighbourhoods.
  5. move to neighbourhoods which have a high proportion of minority groups.
  6. develop ethnic enclaves.

 

Answer:   a             Difficulty:     easy                Page:    132                 Skill: factual

 

  1. Under what conditions is segregation by choice among ethnic groups most likely to

occur?

  1. When they have higher levels of economic capital.
  2. When they have lower levels of economic capital.
  3. When unemployment rates are higher than usual.
  4. When their cultural differences outweigh their cultural similarities.
  5. When they mingle in dense urban centres.

 

Answer:   e             Difficulty:     easy                Page:    132                 Skill: factual

 

  1. At the social level, homelessness is largely the result of
  2. segregation.
  3. alcoholism.
  4. a lack of affordable housing.
  5. lack of schools.
  6. unemployment.

 

Answer:   c             Difficulty:     easy                Page:    133                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. At the personal level, one of the main causes of homelessness is
  2. addiction to drugs and/or alcohol.
  3. divorce.
  4. minority-group membership.
  5. criminality.
  6. unemployment.

 

Answer:   a             Difficulty:     challenging     Page:    133                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. Women and their children most often become homeless as a result of
  2. substance abuse on the part of the mothers.
  3. psychiatric problems.
  4. unemployment.
  5. domestic violence.
  6. divorce or separation.

 

Answer:   d            Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    134                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. Deinstitutionalization refers to
  2. the lack of shelters available to the homeless.
  3. the trend towards not caring for the mentally ill in institutions but leaving them within the community.
  4. the institutionalization of poverty whereby poverty is normalized.
  5. the lack of social policy on the provision of affordable housing.
  6. the creation of shelters for the poor.

 

Answers:  b             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    134                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. Mothers experience a great deal of difficulty parenting effectively when they experience homelessness. This is primarily because
  2. of psychiatric problems.
  3. of drug and alcohol addictions.
  4. they have no control over daily routines of family life when living in shelters.
  5. of learned helplessness.
  6. their children lose respect for them and they cannot control them.

 

Answer:   c             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    135                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. For children, the two consistent consequences of homelessness are
  2. emotional and behavioural problems.
  3. drug and alcohol addictions.
  4. ill health and school problems.
  5. poverty and parental unemployment.
  6. isolation from peers and criminality.

 

Answer:   c             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    135                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. What health problems are homeless children most susceptible to?
  2. Respiratory illnesses
  3. Flues and viruses
  4. Accidents
  5. Malnutrition
  6. Depression and anxiety

 

Answer:   a             Difficulty:     easy                Page:    135                 Skill: factual

 

  1. What are two reasons for why homeless children find it difficult to do well in school?
  2. Changing schools frequently and a lack of supportive peer relationships
  3. Changing schools frequently and a lack of resources for school supplies
  4. A lack of peer relationships and a lack of resources for school supplies
  5. A lack of interest and a need to work at odd jobs
  6. A lack of nutrition and a need to work at odd jobs

 

Answer:   a             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    135                 Skill: conceptual

25.Which extended family members play an important role in rural families?

  1. siblings
  2. uncles and aunts
  3. maternal grandparents
  4. paternal grandparents
  5. first cousins

 

Answer:   d            Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    137                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. The daily activities of farm families differ according to
  2. their proximity to urban areas.
  3. their economic circumstances, the crops produced, and the level of technology used.
  4. the size of the farm and the number of family members it supports.
  5. the level of technology used and the crops produced.
  6. the number of generations farming the same land.

 

Answer:   b             Difficulty:     easy                Page:    137                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. Which adult functions may children as young as 12 perform on a farm?
  2. managing the farm budget
  3. purchasing large farm equipment
  4. purchasing livestock at auction
  5. purchasing land for the farm
  6. operating large farm machinery

 

Answer:   e             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    138                 Skill: factual

 

  1. Approximately ___percent of Canadian households own a vacation home.
  2. 2
  3. 5
  4. 7
  5. 10
  6. 15

 

Answer:   c             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    139                 Skill: factual

 

  1. Which type of housing arrangements would most likely result in less sharing of familial space and feelings of loneliness?
  2. A mansion
  3. A mobile home.
  4. A vacation home.
  5. A farm house.
  6. A. condo.

 

Answer:   a             Difficulty:     easy                Page:    141                 Skill: applied

 

  1. Families in which members struggle to maintain personal hygiene and often contract contagious illnesses are probably experiencing
  2. poverty.
  3. depression and anxiety.
  4. overcrowded housing.
  5. educational deficiencies.
  6. lack of appropriate socialization.

 

Answer:   c             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    143                 Skill: applied

 

  1. _____ describes when families move from one home to another.
  2. Downward mobility
  3. Upward mobility
  4. Regional mobility
  5. Residential mobility
  6. Social mobility

 

Answer:   d            Difficulty:     easy                Page:    144                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following family descriptions would be typical for Canadian families who live in mobile homes?
  2. a small, low-income family where the couple each has less than a high school diploma.
  3. a large low-income family with parents who have a high school diploma.
  4. a low-income single parent family.
  5. a large middle class family who has migrated from the city to a rural town.
  6. a small, middle class family with parents who have a university degree.

 

Answer:   a             Difficulty:     easy                Page:    142                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. When divorced families relocate, they tend to
  2. go from being owners to renters.
  3. leave their children at their school.
  4. remain in the same neighbourhood.
  5. move into a comparable home.
  6. move from houses to apartments.

 

Answer:   a             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    145                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. When families relocate after divorce, children incur four primary losses. What are these losses?
  2. the family home, the neighbourhood to which they are accustomed, and their

friends

  1. the old family structure, the family home, and their friends
  2. a secure family income, their friends, and the family home

 

  1. the familiar neighbourhood, the family home, and a secure family income
  2. the familiar neighbourhood, the family home, and a sense of security

 

Answer:   b             Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    145                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. When relocating, the children’s experience is less problematic if
  2. both parents are actively involved in their children’s adjustment.
  3. mothers are actively involved in their children’s adjustment.
  4. fathers are actively involved in their children’s adjustment.
  5. they have siblings.
  6. they move within the same city.

 

Answer:   a             Difficulty:     easy                Page:    145                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. During residential moves for career purposes, what might be an advantage for a mother or father becomes a _______________in the children’s lives.
  2. excitement
  3. trauma
  4. benefit
  5. restriction
  6. dislocation

 

Answer:   e             Difficulty:     easy                Page:    145                 Skill: conceptual

 

  1. Neighbourhood structure and housing conditions reflect a society’s values concerning
  2. curfews.
  3. educational and career aspirations.
  4. norms around family structure.
  5. social diversity.
  6. poverty and unemployment.

 

Answer:   d            Difficulty:     moderate        Page:    146                 Skill: conceptual

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Describe the challenges faced by children who grow up in affluent households.

 

Answer:  In affluent families, the parents may be highly involved in their careers and spend little time with their children. They may be minimally involved in their upbringing. The children may experience isolation in particular if they live in a very large home or mansion, where there is great separation between family members. Because these well-to-do areas are more “private” and there is a greater distance between houses, children and parents are also less likely to exchange services with friends or to feel connected to a social community in their neighbourhood ( Myers, 2000 ). Luthar and Becker (2002 ) have found that a higher proportion of these affluent suburban teens suffer from anxiety and depression, and use alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs more than disadvantaged inner-city students do. They are also less supervised in their home, as young as age 10 to 12, perhaps because parents rely on the relative safety of their neighbourhoods ( Luthar, 2003 ; Tough, 2012 ). Thus, a segment of relatively affluent adolescents spends their time in cars, at various “hot spots,” or partying with drugs in otherwise empty homes, and even engages in gang activities leading to break-ins and thefts.

 

Difficulty:    moderate                     Page:   124-125                   Skill:    conceptual

 

  1. Many high-poverty neighbourhoods are characterized by social disorganization. What does this mean?

 

Answer:  This means that these neighbourhoods often experience a number of disadvantages such as poverty, deteriorated housing, criminality, and single-parent households. Social disorganization is seen to develop when a community is no longer able to maintain social control over youth peer groups who have too much time on their hands and few responsibilities. These youth often engage in delinquent acts in the absence of supervision.

 

Difficulty:    moderate                     Page:   126                          Skill:    conceptual

 

  1. Briefly explain how the concept of ‘multiple concentration of disadvantages’ affects families in low-income areas.

 

Answer:  Many low-income neighbourhoods experience a multiple concentration of disadvantages, each feeding on the other: poverty, deteriorated housing, violent criminality, as well as drug trafficking, and single-parent households with absent fathers (Pougnet et al., 2012). The predominant factor related to high rates of violent crime in cities across Canada, as is the case in the U.S. and European countries, is low income, that is, when a high proportion of residents living in a neighbourhood are disadvantaged Charron, 2009; Fitzgerald et al., 2004; Savoie, 2008).

 

Difficulty:    easy                             Page:   126                          Skill:    conceptual

 

  1. Link the concept of critical mass to that of collective socialization.

 

Answer:  A certain percentage of low-income neighbours increases the likelihood of behavioural problems and school difficulties. This ‘critical mass’ decreases the possibility that children will be well supervised by both their own families and by neighbours. Neighbourhoods with a critical mass of affluent families tend to engage in more collective socialization in that these neighbourhood members will not tolerate street and school aggressiveness. When there is a critical mass of affluent families in a neighbourhood, collective socialization seems to operate to encourage low-income children to complete school and they also engage in less criminality, and have fewer health problems.

 

Difficulty:    moderate                     Page:   130                          Skill:    conceptual

 

  1. What are the effects of homelessness on mothers and children?

 

Answer:  Homeless mothers have little control over the daily routines of family life as the staff in shelters often interfere with these routines or the shelter’s rules make it difficult to maintain them. They often experience depression and suffer from mental disorders. Children experience deficits in health and educational achievement. In terms of health, homeless children are ill more often than other children. They get more respiratory illnesses and other viral infections as a result of overcrowded conditions in shelters and sharing inadequate sanitary facilities. The noise, overcrowding, and parental depression depresses their immune systems. As a result of these factors, children often miss more school, which impacts negatively on their ability to do well. They may also be over-tired or hungry when going to school and often change schools more than other children. Mothers may not have the emotional resources to help them with schoolwork or with their circumstances.

 

Difficulty:    easy                             Page:   134                          Skill:    conceptual

 

  1. Describe the advantages and disadvantages faced by families living in rural and farming communities.

 

Answer:  Some advantages include the following: it is easier to raise a family away from the hectic pace of the big cities; lower real-estate prices; less chance of family and marital conflict; rural areas offer families a better chance of being members of a true community; more egalitarian gender roles; greater family cohesiveness and inter-dependence; and children and adolescents living on farms are far more familialized than urban children. Some disadvantages are: longer commutes to work; long working days; few options and not much choice regarding health care and care for the elderly; alternative employment opportunities for farmers are difficult to find; and, inheritance issues regarding to whom to pass on the farm may create conflict in farm families..

 

Difficulty:    moderate                     Page:   135-140                   Skill:    conceptual

 

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