CB 8th Edition by Babin – Test Bank

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Complete Test Bank With Answers

 

 

 

Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

 

1. Consumer emotions influence how marketing messages are processed.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

2. Consumers are more likely to recall autobiographical memories characterized by specific moods when the same mood occurs again in the future.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

3. Research shows that consumers who are in bad moods are more likely to be generous to others.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

4. Consumers act to maintain things the way they are, and their wants are a function of the need driven by homeostasis.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

5. Schemata are developed and reinforced through actual experience.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

6. Consumers seem to be most receptive to an employee with a matching mood rather than to an employee who always has a positive mood.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

7. One advantage of using autonomic measures to assess emotions is that they are less intrusive because they do not involve physical contraptions.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

8. A consumer’s mood can serve as a type of frame that can transfer into product value judgments.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

9. A consumer needs some degree of involvement to have an ability to evaluate multiple brands effectively.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

10. Jamie bought a new book. He found it so interesting that he forgot to have his dinner. Jamie achieved a state of flow with the book.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

11. Utilitarian motivation is a drive to experience something personally gratifying.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

12. Consumers who perceive other consumers or employees around them as either happy or sad may experience a corresponding change in actual happiness or sadness themselves.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

13. In the context of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the most basic needs are addressed with hedonic value.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

14. In a marketing context, salespeople and service providers with high emotional intelligence often are considered less effective.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

15. The behaviors that result from hedonic motivation are usually emotionally satisfying.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

16. In the context of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, as needs become more elaborate, utilitarian value is often needed to satiate the need state.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

17. Product involvement represents the temporary involvement associated with some imminent purchase situation.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

18. The behaviors that are aimed at changing one’s current state to a level that is more ideal result from a disturbance in homeostasis.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

19. Consumers experiencing negative self-conscious emotions can perceive not only the need to rectify some problem, but also the need to restore their self-esteem.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

20. Regulatory focus theory describes consumers as addressing a finite set of prioritized needs.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

21. Consumers in bad moods tend to make decisions faster than consumers in good moods.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

22. According to the pleasure–arousal–dominance (PAD) approach, when consumers feel lower control, situational influences play a greater role in shaping their behavior.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

23. Autonomic measures automatically record visceral body reactions or neurological activity.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

24. According to Maslow’s theory, consumers first seek value by satisfying the safety and security needs.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

25. Emotional involvement drives one to consume generally through repeated experiences of relatively strong utilitarian motivations.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

26. Enduring involvement is not temporary but rather represents a continuing interest in some product or activity.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

27. From a utilitarian value perspective, highly involved shoppers are less likely to react to price reductions because they are too involved with the product to care about the price.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

28. Self-improvement leads consumers to perform acts that cause emotions that help create utilitarian value.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

29. Marketing communications that present product information in a way that evokes mild levels of emotions will tend to be more effective in producing recall than communications that are affectively neutral.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

30. In the context of measuring emotion, self-report affect measures require the attachment of some type of device to the consumer.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

31. In the context of regulatory focus theory, a promotion focus orients consumers toward avoiding negative consequences.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

32. In the context of measuring emotion, self-report measures are more obtrusive than biological measures.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

33. Autonomic measures of assessing emotional activity require a volitional response from the consumer.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

34. Research shows that a product’s value decreases after a consumer sees the product handled by an attractive member of the opposite sex.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

35. Situational involvement represents how emotional a consumer gets during some specific consumption activity.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

36. When Janice went on a holiday to a tropical island, she felt hot and thirsty all the time. To keep herself hydrated, she frequently drank water and other beverages. Janice was driven to drink water and beverages because of _____.

  a. mood-congruent judgment
  b. hedonic motivation
  c. tropism
  d. homeostasis

 

ANSWER:   d

 

37. Henry considers himself a cheese connoisseur and subscribes to the Wine & Cheese magazine. He spends many of his weekends visiting the farmers’ market to try out different kinds of cheeses. In the context of the given scenario, Henry _____.

  a. has a high degree of situational involvement
  b. is a product enthusiast
  c. is a shopping enthusiast
  d. has a high degree of emotional involvement

 

ANSWER:   b

 

38. Anne is meticulous when it comes to planning her weekly grocery store visits. Before buying anything, she makes sure that she is well-informed about the best deals. Anne exhibits high level of _____.

  a. shopping involvement
  b. product involvement
  c. situational involvement
  d. enduring involvement

 

ANSWER:   a

 

39. In the context of regulatory focus theory, a promotion focus shares similarity with _____.

  a. homeostasis
  b. self-improvement
  c. physiological motivation
  d. utilitarian motivation

 

ANSWER:   b

 

40. Kyra is so engrossed in window shopping that she does not realize that it is way past eight in the night, and she needs to head home now. In the context of emotional behavior, Kyra’s engrossment in window shopping exemplifies _____.

  a. an emotional contagion
  b. consumer affect
  c. a state of flow
  d. homeostasis

 

ANSWER:   c

 

41. Which of the following terms refers to the effort put forth by service workers who have to overtly manage their own emotional displays as part of the requirements of the job?

  a. Emotional branding
  b. Emotional expressiveness
  c. Emotional contagion
  d. Emotional labor

 

ANSWER:   d

 

42. Utilitarian motivation bears much in common with:

  a. a promotion focus.
  b. the idea of self-improvement.
  c. the idea of maintaining behavior.
  d. the idea of experiencing something personally gratifying.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

43. In the context of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which of the following needs is a self-actualization need?

  a. The need to be secure
  b. The need to feel like a member of a family or community
  c. The need to be recognized as a person of worth
  d. The need for personal fulfillment

 

ANSWER:   d

 

44. Ed used to buy his clothing from affordable fashion retail chain stores. He recently got promoted at work, and now he prefers to shop at premium men’s clothing stores that sell exclusive designs. In this scenario, the change in Ed’s buying behavior is driven by _____.

  a. temporal factors
  b. ecological factors
  c. utilitarian motivation
  d. self-improvement motivation

 

ANSWER:   d

 

45. Alice regularly visits her dentist even though she dreads dental visits. She wants to prevent any dental issues and maintain dental hygiene. In the context of regulatory focus theory, Alice’s behavior is driven by _____.

  a. hedonic motivation
  b. a promotion focus
  c. a prevention focus
  d. self-improvement motivation

 

ANSWER:   c

 

46. Daniel was very hungry when he got home from work. He was too tired to cook, so he ate a whole pint of chocolate fudge ice cream. As soon as the ice cream was finished, he felt guilty for not making an effort to eat healthy food. In the given scenario, Daniel experienced _____.

  a. emotional contagion
  b. mood-congruent recall
  c. self-conscious emotions
  d. schema-based affect

 

ANSWER:   c

 

47. James likes to learn about the latest technologies in smartphones. He finds it gratifying to learn more about new models in the market, and he changes his phone every few months. In the given scenario, which of the following types of involvement exemplifies James’s interest in phones?

  a. Product involvement
  b. Situational involvement
  c. Shopping involvement
  d. Visceral involvement

 

ANSWER:   a

 

48. Andy recently went to his favorite restaurant for dinner. The service was slow because the waiters were busy serving a celebrity customer. Andy was angry that the celebrity customer got preferential treatment at the expense of the other diners. This is an example of _____.

  a. anticipation appraisal
  b. outcomes appraisal
  c. agency appraisal
  d. equity appraisal

 

ANSWER:   d

 

49. Jason is buying a new car. He does not know much about automobiles. However, because of the high price of the car, he gets involved in the shopping process by visiting showrooms, searching for information on the Internet, and looking at other sources of information. Which type of involvement does the given scenario represent?

  a. Shopping involvement
  b. Emotional involvement
  c. Situational involvement
  d. Product involvement

 

ANSWER:   c

 

50. Whenever Robert watches an ad for a charitable cause, he feels moved. He feels that he should do his share to help that cause and donates to the charity. This is an example of _____.

  a. anticipation appraisal
  b. outcomes appraisal
  c. agency appraisal
  d. equity appraisal

 

ANSWER:   c

 

51. Consumers in bad moods tend to:

  a. make decisions faster.
  b. be unaffected by environmental factors.
  c. outspend their good-mood counterparts.
  d. react better to service providers who are in bad moods.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

52. When Lily shops for clothes at a retail store, she picks up clothes that are at the back of the racks. She avoids buying clothes that may have been tried by other customers. Lily’s actions imply that she is worried about _____.

  a. product involvement
  b. product quality
  c. product differentiation
  d. product contamination

 

ANSWER:   d

 

53. Raul steps out to meet his friends for a drink. As it is cold outside, he dresses in layers of warm clothing to protect himself from the sub-zero temperatures. Raul feels the need to dress warmly because of _____.

  a. tropism
  b. homeostasis
  c. self-improvement motivation
  d. an outcomes appraisal

 

ANSWER:   b

 

54. Holly is a flight attendant for an international airline. Sometimes, despite being tired and grumpy, she needs to stay cheerful and friendly on her job. Being a flight attendant requires her to not give vent to her emotions. Holly’s efforts at managing her emotions are an example of _____.

  a. emotional consistency
  b. emotional detachment
  c. emotional contagion
  d. emotional labor

 

ANSWER:   d

 

55. In the context of regulatory focus theory, a prevention focus captures the motivation to _____.

  a. maintain homeostasis
  b. make self-improvement
  c. achieve self-actualization
  d. achieve hedonic value

 

ANSWER:   a

 

56. Miranda has bought an expensive pair of exquisite pearl earrings to gift her mother on Mother’s Day. Her mother is quite selective about the jewelry she wears. Miranda feels that she has found the perfect pair for her mother and is hopeful that her mother will like them. Miranda’s hopefulness is an example of _____.

  a. equity appraisal
  b. outcomes appraisal
  c. anticipation appraisal
  d. agency appraisal

 

ANSWER:   c

 

57. Electronic products can be satisfying as well as frustrating for consumers. For example, a consumer may be highly satisfied with the applications available on his new smartphone but becomes frustrated when he is unable to operate the phone with ease because of the presence of many applications. Which of the following approaches will best suit consumer researchers who want to measure these emotional reactions?

  a. The predictive analysis approach
  b. The sentiment analysis approach
  c. The positive-affect-negative-affect scale (PANAS) approach
  d. The pleasure–arousal–dominance (PAD) approach

 

ANSWER:   c

 

58. Rochelle Cosmetics launches a television commercial featuring a popular actress for its new line of lip colors. Bianca, who usually buys cosmetics of another brand, is quite excited to see her favorite actress as the brand ambassador of Rochelle Cosmetics. She immediately places an online order for two shades of lip color and also talks her friend into trying them out. In this scenario, Bianca is exhibiting a high degree of _____.

  a. emotional intelligence
  b. emotional expressiveness
  c. equity appraisal
  d. product appraisal

 

ANSWER:   b

 

59. _____ are memories of previous meaningful events in one’s life.

  a. Iconic memories
  b. Autobiographical memories
  c. Implicit memories
  d. Procedural memories

 

ANSWER:   b

 

60. Which of the following is true of aesthetic labor?

  a. It refers to the spatial layout of a business environment.
  b. It helps manage the emotions of customers.
  c. It is something that employees perform to enhance their confidence.
  d. It helps induce impulse buying through attractive product display.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

61. _____ refers to the state of equilibrium wherein the body naturally reacts in a way so as to maintain a constant, normal bloodstream.

  a. Flow state
  b. Homeostasis
  c. Self-actualization
  d. Touchpoint

 

ANSWER:   b

 

62. Florence often recalls the time when her children were young. While browsing through a store, she notices a cream-colored satin dress, edged with hand-made lace. It reminds her of a dress her daughter used to wear when she was little. She decides to buy the dress as a gift for her granddaughter. This is an example of _____.

  a. product involvement
  b. a state of flow
  c. an autobiographical memory
  d. sentiment analysis

 

ANSWER:   c

 

63. Which of the following is true of self-report measures?

  a. They do not require consumers to indicate how much they feel a certain emotion.
  b. They require the attachment of measuring devices like imaging machines or lie detectors to consumers.
  c. They do not give results that are valid enough to be useful to consumer and marketing researchers.
  d. They are considered to be less obtrusive than biological measures.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

64. Maria notices a price reduction on a makeup kit she has wanted for a long time. She buys it, but when she gets home and begins to take it out of the box, she notices that the kit has already been opened. This makes her feel that it might have been used by somebody else earlier, and she feels uneasy. The given scenario exemplifies _____.

  a. product contamination
  b. cognitive dissonance
  c. product differentiation
  d. emotional contagion

 

ANSWER:   a

 

65. Which of the following is true of autonomic measures?

  a. Their results are reflected on the positive-affect-negative-affect scale.
  b. They do not involve physical contraptions like imaging machines or lie detectors.
  c. Their results correspond fairly well to introspective self-reports of emotional experience.
  d. They cannot measure things like facial reactions without a volitional response from the consumer.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

66. Many people do not go to the dentist regularly as they nurture deep-rooted fears. They prefer to go only when they have a problem such as a toothache or a broken tooth, which needs immediate attention. Which of the following drives people to visit the dentist for dental problems that require immediate attention?

  a. Self-improvement motivation
  b. Promotional motivation
  c. A need to maintain homeostasis
  d. A need to achieve hedonic value

 

ANSWER:   c

 

67. Which of the following is true of self-improvement motivation?

  a. It aims at maintaining a perceived current state.
  b. It is a function of a need driven by homeostasis.
  c. It orients consumers toward avoiding negative consequences and maintaining homeostasis.
  d. It leads consumers to perform acts that cause emotions that help create hedonic value.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

68. Which of the following statements is true in the context of research conducted on product contagion?

  a. Consumers prefer buying things that others have previously touched as it shows that they are buying something that is a popular choice.
  b. Consumers at supermarkets can be seen searching for items in the front of the shelves.
  c. A product’s value can increase when a consumer sees it being handled by an attractive member of the opposite sex.
  d. A product’s value can increase when a consumer finds it on a crowded shelf as it shows that the product is in demand.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

69. _____ refers to the fact that consumers feel uneasy about buying things that others have previously touched.

  a. Emotional labor
  b. Product differentiation
  c. Emotional dissonance
  d. Product contamination

 

ANSWER:   d

 

70. Sara is waiting for the result of the blood sugar test she took at a doctor’s clinic. She is very anxious and worried. Sara’s anxiousness is an example of _____.

  a. anticipation appraisal
  b. outcomes appraisal
  c. agency appraisal
  d. equity appraisal

 

ANSWER:   a

 

71. John likes to dine out frequently. However, he gets very upset if the service at the restaurant is not to his liking. He loses his temper with the servers and rebukes them. Although he regrets his behavior later, he ends up repeating his behavior. His fellow diners usually avoid going out with him again. John’s lack of control on his emotions suggests that:

  a. he has low emotional expressiveness.
  b. he has low emotional intelligence.
  c. he has high emotional contagion susceptibility.
  d. he has heightened awareness of his emotions.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

72. In the context of regulatory focus theory, which of the following orients consumers toward the pursuit of their aspirations or ideals?

  a. A utilitarian focus
  b. A promotion focus
  c. An equity appraisal
  d. An outcomes appraisal

 

ANSWER:   b

 

73. Isabella has retired recently. She is excited to finally have the time and the money to travel and see the world. She joins a women’s travel group and starts making a list of all the places she wants to visit. In the context of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which of the following needs is Isabella trying to address?

  a. Physiological needs
  b. Esteem needs
  c. Security needs
  d. Self-actualization needs

 

ANSWER:   d

 

74. Susan, a single parent, is very close to her friends and relatives. She tries to visit her parents and grandparents frequently as that makes her feel that she is a vital part of her extended family. In the context of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the given scenario reflects Susan’s _____.

  a. basic needs
  b. esteem needs
  c. need for belongingness
  d. need for self-actualization

 

ANSWER:   c

 

75. Which of the following types of cognitive appraisals focuses on the future and elicits emotions like hopefulness or anxiety?

  a. Agency appraisal
  b. Outcomes appraisal
  c. Equity appraisal
  d. Anticipation appraisal

 

ANSWER:   d

 

76. Susan has an extensive collection of dolls from all over the world. She has had this interest from a very long time and finds it personally gratifying whenever she adds to her collection. Which of the following exemplifies Susan’s interest in dolls?

  a. Enduring involvement
  b. Situational involvement
  c. Shopping involvement
  d. Visceral involvement

 

ANSWER:   a

 

77. In the context of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which of the following needs represents the need to be recognized as a person of worth?

  a. Esteem needs
  b. Need for security
  c. Physiological needs
  d. Need for belongingness

 

ANSWER:   a

 

78. Harry spends his weekends visiting automobile stores and going for test drives. He enjoys trying out new cars though he is not looking to buy a car. Harry’s behavior is most likely driven by _____.

  a. physiological motivation
  b. preventive motivation
  c. hedonic motivation
  d. utilitarian motivation

 

ANSWER:   c

 

79. Which of the following is true in the context of consumer emotions?

  a. Marketers like to create appraisals leading to emotions that evoke avoidance behaviors in consumers.
  b. Actions bring value to a consumer to the extent that desirable emotional states can be created.
  c. Appraisals do not involve conflicting behavioral responses.
  d. Emotions do not influence how marketing messages are processed.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

80. Joana has been wanting to buy a dress that she had seen in the display window of her favorite store. After considering it for a couple of weeks, she finally makes up her mind to buy it. When she tries it out in the store, she is ecstatic to find out that it is a perfect fit and looks wonderful on her. In the given scenario, Joana has made an _____.

  a. anticipation appraisal
  b. outcomes appraisal
  c. agency appraisal
  d. equity appraisal

 

ANSWER:   b

 

81. In the sense that utilitarian motivation helps a consumer maintain his or her state, these motivations work much like _____.

  a. homeostasis
  b. self-improvement
  c. self-actualization
  d. promotion focus

 

ANSWER:   a

 

82. Emotions that result from some evaluation or reflection of one’s own behavior—which can include both actions and failures to act—are known as _____.

  a. self-conscious emotions
  b. emotional contagions
  c. visceral responses
  d. reflex responses

 

ANSWER:   a

 

83. Chelsea has vivid childhood memories of Saturday mornings when her father used to take her out to a restaurant for breakfast. It was their special time together as she got her father all to herself. Chelsea’s memories are an example of _____.

  a. procedural memories
  b. echoic memories
  c. sensory memories
  d. autobiographical memories

 

ANSWER:   d

 

84. Michelle is shopping for a wedding gift for her friend. While looking around the store, she comes across a pair of designer sunglasses that are on sale. She tries them on and makes an impulsive decision to buy them for herself. She feels that her old sunglasses are not of the latest style. Michelle’s decision is driven by _____.

  a. physiological motivation
  b. mood-congruent judgment
  c. self-improvement motivation
  d. equity judgment

 

ANSWER:   c

 

85. Megan and her friends are in a mall for Christmas shopping. Megan is not in a good mood as she had an argument with her sister in the morning. As they enter a store, they are greeted by an employee dressed as Santa Claus. There is a general feeling of excitement and festivity among her friends and other shoppers in the store. After a while, Megan realizes that she is not upset any more. In fact, she becomes excited about shopping and even finds a lovely scarf for her sister. In the given scenario, Megan’s changing mood is an example of _____.

  a. self-actualization
  b. mood-congruent recall
  c. emotional labor
  d. emotional contagion

 

ANSWER:   d

 

86. The type of deep personal interest that evokes strongly felt feelings associated with some object or activity is known as _____.

  a. emotional involvement
  b. emotional dissonance
  c. emotional consistency
  d. emotional contagion

 

ANSWER:   a

 

87. Which of the following is true of consumers with high shopping involvement?

  a. They care most about the things that will eventually create highly emotional responses.
  b. They typically find hedonic value in learning more about a particular product or activity.
  c. They are more likely to process information about deals and are more likely to react to price reductions.
  d. They have a continuing interest in a particular product and passion for activities in which they are enduringly involved.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

88. Which of the following statements is true in the context of emotional behavior?

  a. Highly involved shoppers cannot achieve a flow experience.
  b. Salespeople with high emotional intelligence are not considered effective.
  c. Humor creates value-added experiences and can serve more utilitarian functions such as reducing stress.
  d. Emotional involvement decreases when the consumer receives something extra with products purchased.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

89. Which of the following statements is true in the context of emotional expressiveness?

  a. Negative emotions decrease value and loyalty more strongly among male than female consumers.
  b. When male and female consumers react with similar emotions, men express the emotions more noticeably.
  c. Female consumers may prove more valuable in signaling poor or outstanding service than would male consumers.
  d. The consumer with high emotional expressiveness is less likely to react to unexpected outcomes.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

90. Which of the following terms refers to one’s awareness of the emotions experienced in a situation, and an ability to control reactions to these emotions?

  a. Emotional expressiveness
  b. Emotional detachment
  c. Emotional consistency
  d. Emotional intelligence

 

ANSWER:   d

 

91. Briefly describe the impact of product contamination on a product’s value as perceived by consumers.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary. Product contamination refers to the fact that consumers feel uneasy about buying things that others have previously touched. Supermarket consumers can be seen searching the back of the shelf for an untouched package or avoiding produce that they have seen others handling. Even subtle cues of others touching products such as disorganized shelving can lead to perceived contamination. However, in an interesting twist, research shows that through a type of emotional contagion process, a product’s value can actually increase after a consumer sees the product handled by an attractive member of the opposite sex. Instead of avoiding that product, the consumer will actually seek it out.

 

92. Describe the two key groups of behavior around which human motivations are oriented.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary. Human motivations are oriented around two key groups of behavior. The first is homeostasis, where behavior is aimed at maintaining one in a current acceptable state. Homeostasis refers to the fact that the body naturally reacts in a way to maintain a constant, normal bloodstream. Shivering motivates consumers to wear coats to keep their blood from becoming too cold. Thus, consumers act to maintain things the way they are, and their wants are a function of the need driven by homeostasis.The second group of behavior results from self-improvement motivation. These behaviors are aimed at changing one’s current state to a level that is more ideal—not simply maintaining the current state of existence. Self-improvement leads consumers to perform acts that cause emotions that help create hedonic value.

 

93. Briefly describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and give an example of each type of need.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs describes consumers as addressing a finite set of prioritized needs. According to this theory, people first seek value by satisfying the most basic needs. The following list displays the set of needs, starting with the most basic.

  • Physiological: Basic survival (food, drink, shelter, etc.)
  • Safety and security: The need to be secure and protected
  • Belongingness and love: The need to feel like a member of a family or community
  • Esteem: The need to be recognized as a person of worth
  • Self-actualization: The need for personal fulfillment

 

94. List eight signs that might indicate social networking addiction.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary. Following are eight signs that might indicate social networking addiction:

  • Ignoring work to continue surfing social media sites
  • A need to continually refresh your Facebook news page
  • Feeling more attached to the group of virtual friends than the real kindReplacing sleep with online social networking
  • Interacting with social media while using the bathroom
  • Becoming nervous or depressed when facing an extended period away from online social networking (more than a day)
  • Checking Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, etc. while driving or walking across a street
  • Getting irritated when a real friend interrupts your use of Facebook

 

95. Briefly discuss the importance of aesthetic labor from a marketing standpoint.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary. Aesthetic labor deals specifically with employees who most carefully manage their own personal appearance as a requisite to performing their job well, and fitting what managers see as the stereotype for their particular company’s service. From a marketing standpoint, aesthetic labor helps set the mood for an effective service environment. Some companies use aesthetic labor practices to create a uniform look. Thus, by creating a known and identifiable look, companies can affect the feelings of their customers, which in turn, drives value. In this sense, aesthetic labor is a form of emotional labor, meaning that part of the job of many service providers is to manage the emotions of the customers. In many service situations where consumers may be nervous, such as on an airplane or in a health-related circumstance, emotional labor can be a big part of the way the services create value.

 

96. Discuss the implications of “emotional effect on memory” for marketing.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary. The general expression “emotional effect on memory” refers to relatively superior recall for information presented with mild affective content compared to similar information presented in an affectively neutral way. The implications for marketing are fairly direct.Marketing communications that present product information in a way that evokes mild levels of emotions will tend to be more effective in producing recall than communications that are affectively neutral. Caution is needed in executing such communications, because intense emotions are more complicated to deal with and can sometimes even distract consumers from the task of actually processing information.

 

97. Describe the importance of consumer self-construal in consumer decision making.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary. Moods, feelings, and the manner in which a person thinks about him-/herself affects consumer decision-making in general. Consumer self-construal, which represents whether a consumer is thinking about the self as an independent person or construing the self as an interdependent person within a network of others, determines how much mood influences consumer choice. When a person construes him-/herself independently, thinking about self rather than others, mood plays a bigger role in decisions. In fact, an independent mindset allows feelings to play a bigger role in decisions relative to cognition. Thus, advertisements that focus on independence from rather dependence on others may do better when they make an emotional appeal rather than a cognitive appeal.

 

98. How does mood-congruent recall affect consumer behavior?

ANSWER:   Answers will vary. Mood-congruent recall means that to the extent that a consumer’s mood can be controlled, his or her memories and evaluations can be influenced. Music is one tool useful in inducing moods. When music sets a mood, consumers will recall products associated with that mood more readily. In addition, consumers in good moods tend to evaluate products positively compared to consumers in bad moods, and vice versa. When students have a fun spring break, the products associated with it may experience increased favorability over a short time period.

 

99. Briefly explain regulatory focus theory.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary. Regulatory focus theory puts forward the notion that consumers orient their behavior either through a prevention focus or a promotion focus. A prevention focus orients consumers toward avoiding negative consequences, while a promotion focus orients consumers toward the opportunistic pursuit of aspirations or ideals. The prevention terminology captures the motivation to maintain homeostasis, and the promotion focus shares similarity with self-improvement goals.

 

100. Explain the cognitive appraisal theory and its significance for marketers.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary. Cognitive appraisal theory describes how specific types of thoughts can serve as a basis for specific emotions. When consumers make an appraisal, they are assessing some past, present, or future situation. Following are the four types of cognitive appraisals that are especially relevant for consumer behavior:

  • Anticipation appraisal: Focuses on the future and can elicit anticipatory emotions like hopefulness or anxiety
  • Agency appraisal: Reviews responsibility for events and can evoke consequential emotions like gratefulness, frustration, guilt, or sadness
  • Equity appraisal: Considers how fair some event is and can evoke emotions like warmth or anger
  • Outcomes appraisal: Considers how something turned out relative to one’s goals and can evoke emotions like joyfulness, satisfaction, sadness, or pride

A basic behavioral response is to either approach or avoid. Marketers generally benefit from approach responses; thus, they would like to create appraisals leading to emotions that evoke approach behaviors, and avoid appraisals and emotions evoking avoidance. Appraisals are often complicated enough to involve more than one type of appraisal and sometimes conflicting behavioral responses. Cognitive appraisal theory emphasizes the fact that emotions result from appraisals.

 

 

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