Canadian Politics Critical Approaches 8th Edition by Christopher Cochrane – Test Bank

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CHAPTER 5: FRENCH CANADA AND THE QUEBEC QUESTION

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following was NOT a major crisis in French–English relations?
a. the Riel Rebellions
b. Ontario Regulation 17
c. Conscription in World War I
d. the King–Byng Affair

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Historical Overview of French–English Relations

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which statement best describes Quebec nationalism before 1960?
a. French nationalism was largely subconscious.
b. French nationalism was inward looking and defensive.
c. French nationalism was loosely connected with the Roman Catholic Church.
d. French nationalism had strong ties to France.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Historical Overview of French–English Relations

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What did the federal Official Languages Act do?
a. It allowed the public to deal with government offices in Ottawa in either English or French.
b. It allowed the public to deal with federal government offices anywhere in Canada in English or French.
c. It required all new federal employees to be bilingual.
d. It required all federal employees to receive language training in either French or English.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   The Quiet Revolution: Quebec in the 1960s

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Whose government established the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism?
a. Pearson
b. Trudeau
c. Duplessis
d. King

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   The Quiet Revolution: Quebec in the 1960s

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What was Pierre Trudeau’s intention in passing the Official Languages Act?
a. to create an environment where Quebec’s demands could be heard
b. to undercut Quebec’s demands for special status or independence
c. to strengthen the position of French in Quebec
d. to undermine English demands in French-speaking regions of the country

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   The Quiet Revolution: Quebec in the 1960s

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Known as the Charter of the French Language, what law made French the predominant language in the province of Quebec?
a. Bill 7
b. Bill 8
c. Bill 101
d. the Official Languages Act

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Quebec and French Canada Since 1970

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is la francophonie?
a. an organization of French-speaking states
b. a Canadian pressure group representing all francophones
c. an association representing the interests of francophones outside Quebec
d. the satellite carrying French-language communications

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Quebec and French Canada Since 1970

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which statement does NOT describe the Quebec new middle class?
a. It suddenly appeared in the early 1960s.
b. It promoted the growth of the public sector.
c. It promoted the autonomy of the province.
d. It had close ties to the Roman Catholic Church.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Quebec and French Canada Since 1970

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following was NOT a provision of the Meech Lake Accord?
a. recognition of Quebec as distinct society
b. provincial nominations of senators
c. Aboriginal self-government initiatives
d. constitutionalization of Quebec’s rights in immigration

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Quebec and French Canada Since 1970

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. According to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which province is officially bilingual?
a. Ontario
b. Newfoundland and Labrador
c. New Brunswick
d. Manitoba

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Quebec and French Canada Since 1970

BLM:  Remember

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Quebec has had two referendums on sovereignty issues.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Quebec and French Canada Since 1970

 

  1. Only two of the four clauses in Bill 101 were eventually deemed unconstitutional.

 

ANS:  F

All four clauses of Bill 101 were deemed unconstitutional.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Quebec and French Canada Since 1970

 

  1. New Brunswick constitutionalized Bill 88 to further protect the right of English and French communities in the province.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Quebec and French Canada Since 1970

 

  1. In terms of mother tongue, francophones constitute about 35 percent of the Canadian population.

 

ANS:  F

In terms of mother tongue, francophones constitute about 22 percent of the Canadian population.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   The French–English Demographic Profile Today

 

  1. The limit on Bill 178 was five years.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   1980s

 

  1. The Supreme Court of Canada imposed official bilingualism in British Columbia.

 

ANS:  F

The Supreme Court of Canada imposed official bilingualism in Manitoba.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Quebec and French Canada Since 1970

 

  1. When the votes were counted, 56.7 percent of Quebeckers voted for the Charlottetown Accord.

 

ANS:  F

56.7 percent of Quebeckers voted against the accord.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Quebec and French Canada Since 1970

 

  1. Pierre Trudeau opposed the “special status” or “distinct society” approach for Quebec.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Quebec and French Canada Since 1970

 

  1. The failure of the Meech Lake Accord sparked the creation of the Bloc Québécois.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Quebec and French Canada Since 1970

 

  1. The sponsorship scandal of the federal Liberal party led to an increase in support for sovereignty within Quebec.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Quebec and French Canada Since 1970

 

ESSAY

 

  1. What are some of the characteristics that make Quebec distinct?

 

ANS:

Quebec feels it is distinct from the rest of Canada for several reasons. First, some 86 percent of Canadian francophones are located in Quebec, 81 percent of Quebeckers are French-speaking, and over 90 percent of Canadians who use French at home live in that province. Second, Quebec’s political institutions are distinctive in many ways: the civil law system; the downplaying of symbols of the Crown; and the plethora of state enterprises, many of them protecting or regulating cultural activities. Third, Quebec has pursued many policy differences from other provinces: laws that are more labour friendly; multifunctional public clinics that combine health and social services; a more important role for the provincial government in immigration; and a distinctive form of collaboration among the state, capital, and labour. Fourth, Quebec is distinct in the separateness of its sources of news and entertainment and in many of the institutions of its civil society, such as interest groups and political parties. Quebeckers see Quebec as the heartland of French Canada, a province that needs special constitutional recognition and has the responsibility to protect itself in the North American English linguistic environment.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Compare and contrast the values, attitudes, and demands of the Québécois before and after the Quiet Revolution.

 

ANS:

Before 1960, Quebec nationalism was largely inward looking and defensive, primarily concerned with ensuring that the federal government kept out of that province’s affairs. It was a nationalism of “survival,” and closely tied to the Roman Catholic Church. Both the Church and the provincial government were quite authoritarian, and neither was overly concerned that most of the economy was in anglophone control.

 

Quite a different kind of nationalism has characterized Quebec since its Quiet Revolution began about 1960. Since that time, Quebec nationalism has been characterized by a new collective self-confidence; it is urban, modern, secular, democratic, and bureaucratic. Rather than having an inward-looking obsession with survival, it became outward looking and aggressive, and focused on expansion and growth. Post-1960 Quebec nationalism sought to protect and promote the French language and culture, to increase the powers of the provincial government, and to reverse the dominance of Anglo and external economic power in the province.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Explain the evolution of linguistic conflicts in Canada. How did these conflicts progress?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. How can one apply the pluralist and state-based approaches to the discussion of French–English relations in Canada?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Outline French–English relations within two of the following provinces: New Brunswick, Ontario, and Manitoba.

 

ANS:

Answers may vary, but students should show an understanding of the existence of French-speaking groups outside Quebec.

 

New Brunswick has the largest French-speaking population in Canada, outside Quebec. To protect this significant minority, New Brunswick implemented its own Official Languages Act in 1969, which was constitutionalized at provincial request in 1982. New Brunswick also improved the Acadian educational system at all levels and provided provincial government services in both languages. The Richard Hatfield government embarked on a policy of cultural equality based on a “separate but equal” strategy rather than individual or institutional bilingualism, with parallel unilingual school boards and other public bodies (Bill 88).

 

Ontario, with the second-largest French speaking population in Canada, outside Quebec, has employed a somewhat similar strategy. Recognizing the importance of French voters, Ontario began to provide public French-language secondary schools in 1968, and later established the right of every Franco-Ontarian to go to a French-language school. Ontario then guaranteed French trials in the provincial courts and gradually extended French-language provincial services. Premier David Peterson passed Bill 8, which became effective in 1989, and provided for the translation of laws as well as for provincial government services in French in 22 designated regions of the province. Unfortunately, in response to the passage of Bill 178 in Quebec and Bill 8 in Ontario, some 70 municipalities symbolically declared themselves officially unilingual in 1989–90. This animosity seems to have subsided, however.

 

Manitoba moved very slowly on French-language initiatives, but was pushed by a series of Supreme Court of Canada decisions beginning in 1979. The 1890 Official Language Act was declared unconstitutional (a violation of the 1870 Manitoba Act), all laws had to be passed in both languages, trials had to be available in French, and most government documents had to be published in a bilingual format.

 

PTS:   1

 

 

 

CHAPTER 17: THE CANADIAN CONSTITUTION AND CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. What province was NOT part of the new Dominion of Canada formed through the Constitution Act of 1867?
a. Nova Scotia
b. Prince Edward Island
c. New Brunswick
d. Ontario

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Components of the Canadian Constitution

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What was the 1982 British statute that officially terminated all British authority over Canada?
a. British North America Act, 1982
b. Statute of Westminster
c. Canada Act
d. Charter of Rights and Freedoms

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Components of the Canadian Constitution

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following declared Canada to be totally independent of Britain?
a. Constitution Act 1907
b. The Parliament of Canada Act
c. The British Parliament Act
d. Statute of Westminster

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Components of the Canadian Constitution

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What makes up the formal, legal documents of the Canadian Constitution?
a. the Constitution Act, 1867; the Constitution Act, 1982; and certain British and Canadian Statutes
b. the Constitution Act, 1867; the Statute of Westminster; and the Constitution Act, 1982
c. the Constitution Act, 1867; the Constitution Act, 1982; and the Bill of Rights
d. the Constitution Act, 1867; the Constitution Act, 1982; and the Charter

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Components of the Canadian Constitution

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which section of the Charter ensures that Aboriginal and treaty rights are not diminished by the Charter?
a. Section 20
b. Section 25
c. Section 30
d. Section 35

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Components of the Canadian Constitution

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following requires unanimous federal and provincial consent in order to amend?
a. the use of English or French languages at the federal level
b. the principle of proportionate representation of the provinces in the House of Commons
c. the powers of the Senate
d. the method of selecting Senators

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   The Pre-1960 Quest for Constitutional Change

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which Prime Minister had a vision of a centralized, symmetrical, and bilingual federation?
a. Brian Mulroney
b. Paul Martin
c. Pierre Trudeau
d. Jean Chretien

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Mega-Constitutional Change, 1960–2000

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What province refused to accept the Constitution Act, 1982?
a. Ontario
b. Prince Edward island
c. Quebec
d. Alberta

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Mega-Constitutional Change, 1960–2000

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following contained guaranteed equalization payments, constitutionalized bill of rights, and provincial consultations on Supreme Court appointments?
a. the Fulton–Favreau formula
b. the Victoria Charter
c. the Meech Lake Accord
d. the Charlottetown Accord

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Mega-Constitutional Change, 1960–2000

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is NOT a means of circumventing formal constitutional change?
a. referendums
b. parliamentary resolutions
c. Aboriginal treaties
d. judicial decisions

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Single Issue Constitutional Change

BLM:  Remember

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. A distinct society clause was NOT part of the Canada clause.

 

ANS:  F

A distinct society clause was part of the Canada clause.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Mega-Constitutional Change, 1960–2000

 

  1. Opponents of the Meech Lake Accord included women’s, labour, and left-wing groups.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Mega-Constitutional Change, 1960–2000

 

  1. The JCPC was Canada’s final court of appeal until 1949.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Components of the Canadian Constitution

 

  1. The Supreme Court ruled that Quebec had a right to a unilateral declaration of independence based on both international law and the Canadian Constitution.

 

ANS:  F

The Supreme Court ruled that Quebec did not have a right to a unilateral declaration of independence based on both international law and the Canadian Constitution.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Mega-Constitutional Change, 1960–2000

 

  1. The Canada clause was part of the Charlottetown Accord.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Mega-Constitutional Change, 1960–2000

 

  1. A unanimous federal and provincial consent is required to amend the use of English or the French language at the federal level.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   The Pre-1960 Quest for Constitutional Change

 

  1. The 1982 constitutional amending formula requires that Parliament and provincial voters approve amendments.

 

ANS:  F

The 1982 constitutional amending formula requires that Parliament and provincial legislatures approve amendments.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   The Pre-1960 Quest for Constitutional Change

 

  1. The unwritten parts of the Canadian Constitution are referred to as oral interpretations.

 

ANS:  F

The unwritten parts of the Canadian Constitution are referred to as constitutional conventions.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Components of the Canadian Constitution

 

  1. In 1993, Chrétien’s liberal party was elected not because of constitutional issues, but rather on the promise of improving the economy.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Mega-Constitutional Change, 1960–2000

 

  1. The Supreme Court ruled that the rest of Canada would be obliged to negotiate with Quebec if 50 percent + 1 voted in favour of a clear question.

 

ANS:  F

The Supreme Court ruled that the rest of Canada would be obliged to negotiate with Quebec if a clear majority voted in favour of a clear question.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Mega-Constitutional Change, 1960–2000

 

ESSAY

 

  1. How have the constitutional changes affected Aboriginal Canadians?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. How does a written constitution differ from an unwritten one?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. What concerns were raised regarding the Meech Lake Accord, 1982?

 

ANS:

 

The Meech Lake Accord generated much controversy. Many critics did not approve of the designation of Quebec as a distinct society within Canada, and especially objected to the phrase that it was the role of the government and legislature of Quebec to “preserve and promote” that distinctiveness. No one was sure what implications the distinct society clause would have for the federal–provincial division of powers, leaving it for judicial clarification on an issue-by-issue basis. Some felt that in a federation all provinces had to have exactly equal status, and many argued that, armed with the distinct society clause, Quebec would immediately begin to challenge federal powers in a variety of fields. Others worried about the status of the anglophone and Aboriginal minorities within Quebec, as well as the francophone minorities in other provinces, and some women’s groups argued that the distinct society clause might be used to override the gender equality provisions of section 28 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

 

A second objection to the accord was that it enlarged the list of subjects that required unanimous provincial consent in the constitutional amending formula, such as changes to most aspects of the Senate and the creation of new provinces. Many critics felt that Senate reform and the transformation of the northern territories into provinces would be virtually impossible if such amendments required agreement of all ten provinces instead of only seven. Those opposed to increases in provincial power also raised objections to Quebec’s expanded role in immigration and to provincial involvement in the nomination of judges to the Supreme Court of Canada. Many concerns were also articulated relating to the provisions allowing provinces to opt out of national programs within provincial jurisdiction and be compensated by Ottawa. Fears were expressed that satisfactory new national social programs (such as a national daycare program) would never materialize because provinces would be compensated for programs that merely met national objectives, not national standards. Apart from criticizing what was in the accord, many opponents faulted it for what was left out. The North was not allowed to nominate senators or Supreme Court judges, Aboriginal rights were not strengthened, and multiculturalism was ignored.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. What were the major reforms proposed by the Charlottetown Accord, 1992?

 

ANS:

The Charlottetown accord proposed four main reforms: the Canada clause, a Triple-E Senate, Aboriginal self-government, and changes to the division of powers.

 

The Canada clause proposed to recognize Quebec as a distinct society within Canada as well as enumerate the other fundamental values and characteristics of the country: democracy, the rule of law, a parliamentary and federal system, the Aboriginal peoples of Canada and their enhanced rights, official-language minorities, cultural and racial diversity, individual and collective rights, gender equality, and the equality and diversity of the provinces.

 

The Triple-E Senate proposed to make the Senate chamber equal, elected, and effective for all the provinces.

 

Aboriginal self-government proposed Aboriginal governments would constitute a third order of government, analogous to Ottawa and the provinces. Federal and provincial governments committed themselves to negotiate Aboriginal self-government agreements and their laws would continue to apply until displaced.

 

The fourth main issue was the federal–provincial division of powers. As in the Meech Lake Accord, provinces could opt out of new national shared-cost programs set up within provincial jurisdiction and receive federal financial compensation if the programs met national objectives. In addition, Ottawa offered to withdraw from six fields at provincial request: forestry, mining, tourism, recreation, housing, and municipal and urban affairs, again with financial compensation. Culture and labour-market training would essentially become provincial powers, and the two levels would share jurisdiction in immigration, telecommunications, and regional development.

 

PTS:   1

 

  1. Explain the significance of the Clarity Act.

 

ANS:

The Clarity Act, passed in 2000, essentially translated into law the Supreme Court decision denying Quebec’s right to a unilateral declaration of independence. Although the bill stopped short of articulating what a “clear majority” would be in numerical terms, it did specify that the federal government would not recognize a Quebec referendum result that did not involve a clear expression of the will of the population that the province should cease to be part of Canada. The federal government would not tolerate a question that involved continuing economic or political arrangements with Canada, nor support a constitutional amendment that did not address the division of assets and liabilities; border changes; the rights, interests, and territorial claims of Aboriginal peoples; and the protection of minority rights. In response, Quebec passed an “Act respecting the exercise of the fundamental rights and prerogatives of the Quebec people and the Quebec state.” It declared that Quebec would determine its own referendum question without intervention from Ottawa.

 

PTS:   1

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