Biology Life on Earth with Physiology 10th Edition By Audesirk – Test Bank

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Biology: Life on Earth with Physiology, 10e (Audesirk)

Chapter 5   Cell Membrane Structure and Function

 

5.1   Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) The substances in cell membranes that form a barrier to the movement of materials across the membrane are

  1. A) internal proteins.
  2. B) carbohydrates.
  3. C) lipids.
  4. D) nucleic acids.
  5. E) external proteins.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) The ________ portion of the cell membrane is responsible for the isolating function of the membrane, whereas the ________ portion regulates exchange and communication with the environment.

  1. A) lipid; protein
  2. B) cholesterol; lipid
  3. C) protein; cholesterol
  4. D) carbohydrate; lipid
  5. E) nucleic acid; lipid

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

3) When a mouse cell and a human cell are fused, the membrane proteins of the two cells become uniformly distributed over the surface of the hybrid cell. This occurs because

  1. A) many proteins can move around within the bilayer.
  2. B) all proteins are anchored within the membrane.
  3. C) proteins are asymmetrically distributed within the membrane.
  4. D) all proteins in the plasma membrane are extrinsic.
  5. E) different membranes contain different proteins.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

4) Phospholipids spontaneously form a bilayer in an aqueous solution. Why do the heads of the phospholipids point out and the tails point toward one another?

  1. A) The tails are nonpolar and form hydrogen bonds with one another.
  2. B) The tails are repelled by the aqueous environment.
  3. C) The heads are repelled by the water inside and outside the cell.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

5) Plasma membranes are best described as a

  1. A) double layer of phospholipids with hydrophobic tails directed toward the cytoplasm of the cell.
  2. B) single layer of phospholipids with water molecules attached along one side.
  3. C) double layer of phospholipids with hydrophilic heads directed toward one another.
  4. D) double layer of phospholipids with hydrophobic tails oriented toward one another.
  5. E) single layer of phospholipids with tails pointed toward the inside of the cell.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

6) The hydrophobic tails of a phospholipid bilayer are oriented toward the

  1. A) interior of the plasma membrane (i.e., toward one another).
  2. B) extracellular fluid surrounding the cell.
  3. C) cytoplasm of the cell.
  4. D) interstitial fluid.
  5. E) both the extracellular fluid and cytoplasm.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

7) Which of the following accounts for the fluid aspect of the fluid mosaic model of plasma membranes?

  1. A) The individual phospholipid molecules are not bonded to one another, so the movement of certain proteins and lipids is possible within the bilayer.
  2. B) The plasma membrane is “fluid” because of the movement of substances across the membrane.
  3. C) The bilayer permits diffusion of certain lipid-soluble substances.
  4. D) The membrane is water soluble.
  5. E) One of the components of the membrane is water.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

8) According to the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes, which of the following is a true statement about membrane phospholipids?

  1. A) They form a viscous fluid through which proteins shift and flow.
  2. B) They frequently flip-flop from one side of the membrane to the other.
  3. C) They occur in an uninterrupted bilayer, with membrane proteins restricted to the surface of the membrane.
  4. D) They are free to depart from the membrane and are dissolved in the surrounding solution.
  5. E) They have hydrophilic tails in the interior of the membrane.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

9) In biological membranes, the phospholipids are arranged in a

  1. A) bilayer, with the fatty acids pointing toward one another.
  2. B) bilayer, with the fatty acids facing outward.
  3. C) single layer, with the fatty acids facing the interior of the cell.
  4. D) single layer, with the phosphorus-containing region facing the interior of the cell.
  5. E) bilayer, with the phosphorus groups in the interior of the membrane.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

10) The hydrophilic regions of a membrane protein are most likely to be found

  1. A) only in muscle cell membranes.
  2. B) associated with the fatty acid region of the lipids.
  3. C) in the interior of the membrane.
  4. D) exposed on the surface of the membrane.
  5. E) attached to carbohydrates and facing the interior of a cell.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

11) Suppose that plasma membranes were single layers of phospholipids rather than double layers, and the heads faced the extracellular fluid. The interior of this hypothetical cell would have to be

  1. A) hydrophilic only.
  2. B) hydrophobic only.
  3. C) polar only.
  4. D) nonpolar only.
  5. E) hydrophobic and nonpolar.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

12) What would happen if the plasma membrane were composed solely of phospholipids and no proteins?

  1. A) All movement of molecules across the membrane would cease.
  2. B) Simple diffusion and osmosis would continue to occur.
  3. C) Facilitated diffusion, active transport, and osmosis would not occur.
  4. D) The movement of molecules across the membrane would not be affected.
  5. E) Immune reactions would not be affected.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

13) ISO membranes are inside-out membrane vesicles used by researchers in membrane studies. As a molecule diffuses into the vesicle, it will encounter the layers of the membrane in the following order:

  1. A) head-tail-head-tail.
  2. B) tail-head-head-tail.
  3. C) head-tail-tail-head.
  4. D) tail-head-tail-head.
  5. E) head-head-tail-tail.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

14) What structure in the membrane causes plasma membranes to resist freezing?

  1. A) Polar heads of the phospholipids
  2. B) Channel proteins
  3. C) Cholesterol
  4. D) Saturated fatty acid tails
  5. E) Unsaturated fatty acid tails

Answer:  E

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

15) Within the fluid mosaic of a plasma membrane, what is the role of transport and channel proteins?

  1. A) They prevent the passage of amino acids.
  2. B) They permit salts and sugars to move through the plasma membrane.
  3. C) They may set off cellular changes such as cell division or hormone secretion.
  4. D) They are cell-surface connection sites.
  5. E) They identify the cell.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

16) Recognition proteins are most important for

  1. A) facilitated diffusion of molecules.
  2. B) active transport of molecules.
  3. C) maintaining membrane integrity.
  4. D) maintaining membrane fluidity.
  5. E) distinguishing foreign cells from “self” cells.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

17) In general, which of the following is (are) largely responsible for moving substances across the plasma membrane, communicating with other cells, and identifying the cell?

  1. A) Phospholipids
  2. B) Carbohydrates
  3. C) Proteins
  4. D) Nucleic acids
  5. E) Cytoskeleton

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

18) What prevents your immune system from attacking your own cells?

  1. A) Inadequate enzymes
  2. B) Fever
  3. C) Cholesterol
  4. D) Recognition proteins
  5. E) Receptor proteins

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

19) The main lipids found in cell membranes are

  1. A) steroids.
  2. B) triglycerides.
  3. C) phospholipids.
  4. D) glycerol.
  5. E) waxes.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

20) Which of the following groups includes carrier and channel proteins?

  1. A) Receptor proteins
  2. B) Recognition proteins
  3. C) Connection proteins
  4. D) Transport proteins

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

21) Some of the most important molecules that are embedded within the bilayer membrane of a cell, such as the molecules that allow for transport and cell recognition, are

  1. A) steroids.
  2. B) glycoproteins.
  3. C) nucleic acids.
  4. D) phospholipases.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

22) Which of the following would NOT be found in a membrane?

  1. A) Cellulose
  2. B) Cholesterol
  3. C) Phospholipid
  4. D) Channel protein
  5. E) Receptor protein

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

23) Cell membranes do all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. A) isolate the cell’s contents from the external environment.
  2. B) allow communication between cells.
  3. C) regulate the movement of substances between the cell and the interstitial fluid.
  4. D) provide attachments between cells.
  5. E) provide shape and structure to a cell.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

24) Which of the following types of membrane proteins are responsible for facilitated diffusion?

  1. A) Transport proteins
  2. B) Recognition proteins
  3. C) Enzymes
  4. D) Receptor proteins
  5. E) Connection proteins

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  5.1, 5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

25) Which of the following types of membrane proteins are responsible for maintaining cell shape by linking the membrane protein with the cytoskeleton?

  1. A) Transport proteins
  2. B) Recognition proteins
  3. C) Enzymes
  4. D) Receptor proteins
  5. E) Connection proteins

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

26) Which of the following types of membrane proteins are responsible for conveying external messages such as those sent by a hormone signal?

  1. A) Transport proteins
  2. B) Recognition proteins
  3. C) Enzymes
  4. D) Receptor proteins
  5. E) Connection proteins

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

27) The net movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration is best described by which of the following?

  1. A) Simple diffusion
  2. B) Active transport
  3. C) Osmosis
  4. D) Facilitated diffusion
  5. E) Exocytosis

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

28) For diffusion to occur, there must be

  1. A) a membrane.
  2. B) a gradient.
  3. C) water.
  4. D) ATP.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

29) The bacterium Vibrio cholerae releases a toxin that blocks a channel protein in the membranes of cells that line the intestine. This toxin prevents the movement of sodium ions from the inside of the intestine into cells. If the sodium ions could not move into the cells, how would this affect the movement of water between the inside of the intestine and the cells?

  1. A) Water would leave the intestines and enter the cells by facilitated diffusion.
  2. B) Water would leave the intestines and enter the cells by osmosis.
  3. C) Water would leave the cells and enter the intestines by facilitated diffusion.
  4. D) Water would leave the cells and enter the intestines by osmosis.
  5. E) The movement of water would not be affected.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

30) Which of the following is an energy-requiring mode of transport that brings substances into a cell?

  1. A) Facilitated diffusion
  2. B) Osmosis
  3. C) Receptor-mediated endocytosis
  4. D) Simple diffusion

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

31) In reference to diffusion, “passive” really means

  1. A) without a membrane.
  2. B) in the air.
  3. C) no gradient.
  4. D) very slowly.
  5. E) no energy required.

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

32) Imagine that you fill a shallow tray with water and place a drop of red ink in one end of the tray and a drop of green ink in the other end. Which of the following is true at equilibrium?

  1. A) The red ink is uniformly distributed in one half of the tray, and the green ink is uniformly distributed in the other half of the tray.
  2. B) The red and green inks are both uniformly distributed throughout the tray.
  3. C) Each ink is moving down its concentration gradient.
  4. D) The concentration of each ink is higher at one end of the tray than at the other end.
  5. E) No predictions can be made without knowing the size of the ink molecules.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

33) Carbon dioxide crosses the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. The rate at which carbon dioxide enters the cell is determined by the

  1. A) concentration of carbon dioxide on each side of the membrane.
  2. B) amount of energy being produced by the cell.
  3. C) amount of transport protein in the membrane.
  4. D) amount of carbon dioxide outside of the cell.
  5. E) amount of oxygen being exported from the cell.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

34) What is active transport?

  1. A) Diffusion of molecules within a cell
  2. B) Movement of molecules into or out of a cell against a concentration gradient
  3. C) Movement of molecules into or out of a cell down a concentration gradient
  4. D) Movement of molecules into or out of a cell using special proteins and not requiring an expenditure of energy
  5. E) Rapid movement of molecules in a solution

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

35) When substances move through a plasma membrane and down gradients of concentration, this is called

  1. A) active transport.
  2. B) passive transport.
  3. C) pinocytosis.
  4. D) exocytosis.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

36) To say that a cell is “selectively permeable” means

  1. A) it has different-sized perforations in the membrane.
  2. B) it is permeable to different substances than other cells.
  3. C) only certain molecules can pass through.
  4. D) sometimes water passes through, and sometimes it can’t.
  5. E) permeability depends on gradient differences.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

37) What happens when diffusion moves molecules across the plasma membrane?

  1. A) The cell gains needed materials and gets rid of excess materials very quickly.
  2. B) Most molecules are capable of crossing the phospholipid bilayer at any location and at basically the same rate.
  3. C) Energy input is required to transport molecules.
  4. D) The rate of diffusion cannot be influenced by the cell.
  5. E) The process is relatively slow and is driven by concentration gradients.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

38) All of the following may influence the rate of simple diffusion across a selectively permeable membrane, EXCEPT the

  1. A) size of the molecule.
  2. B) lipid solubility of the molecule.
  3. C) concentration gradient.
  4. D) temperature.
  5. E) size of the transport protein.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

39) Molecules that permeate a plasma membrane by facilitated diffusion

  1. A) require an expenditure of energy.
  2. B) require the aid of transport proteins.
  3. C) move from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration.
  4. D) do so much more quickly than those crossing by simple diffusion.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

40) Which of the following occurs as an enzyme produced by a cell is secreted from the cell?

  1. A) Endocytosis
  2. B) Phagocytosis
  3. C) Pinocytosis
  4. D) Receptor-mediated endocytosis
  5. E) Exocytosis

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

41) Molecules assisted by carrier proteins may cross a selectively permeable membrane by

  1. A) facilitated diffusion.
  2. B) active transport.
  3. C) osmosis.
  4. D) endocytosis.
  5. E) simple diffusion.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

42) The diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane is called

  1. A) facilitated diffusion.
  2. B) hydrolysis.
  3. C) active transport.
  4. D) exocytosis.
  5. E) osmosis.

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

43) If red blood cells are taken from the body and placed in a hypertonic solution, what happens to the cells?

  1. A) The cells swell and burst because water moves into them.
  2. B) The cells shrivel up because water leaves them.
  3. C) The cells remain unchanged due to equal solute concentrations inside and outside the cells.
  4. D) The cells remain unchanged due to equal water concentrations inside and outside the cells.
  5. E) They become white blood cells.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

44) Imagine an artificial cell made with a selectively permeable membrane that allows water to pass through but does not allow sugar to pass. If the artificial cell contains a 1% sugar solution and then you place the cell in a 2% sugar solution, what happens?

  1. A) Water enters the cell because the solution is hypotonic to the cell.
  2. B) Water leaves the cell because the solution is hypertonic to the cell.
  3. C) There is no movement of water.
  4. D) Sugar diffuses in and water diffuses out until equilibrium is reached.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

45) A freshwater protozoan, such as Paramecium, tends to ________ because it lives in a ________ environment.

  1. A) gain water; hypotonic
  2. B) lose water; hypertonic
  3. C) gain water; hypertonic
  4. D) lose water; hypotonic
  5. E) gain water; isotonic

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

46) Solutions that cause water to enter cells by osmosis are called

  1. A) hypertonic.
  2. B) isotonic.
  3. C) hypotonic.
  4. D) permeable.
  5. E) hydrophilic.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

47) The blood plasma of a man who drinks salt water will become ________ to his red blood cells, whereas the red blood cells will be ________ to the blood plasma.

  1. A) isotonic; isotonic
  2. B) hypertonic; isotonic
  3. C) hypotonic; hypertonic
  4. D) hypertonic; hypotonic
  5. E) isotonic; hypertonic

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

48) The slowest rate of diffusion of dye particles in water will occur at

  1. A) 10°C.
  2. B) 20°C.
  3. C) 30°C.
  4. D) 60°C.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

49) Suppose you have two glucose solutions separated by a selectively permeable membrane. If there is a concentration gradient of glucose across the membrane, then one of the solutions cannot be

  1. A) hypotonic.
  2. B) isotonic.
  3. C) hypertonic.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

50) Imagine that beaker A has a 10% sucrose solution, and beaker B has an 8% sucrose solution. This means that

  1. A) beaker A is isotonic relative to beaker B.
  2. B) beaker A is hypertonic relative to beaker B.
  3. C) beaker A is hypotonic relative to beaker B.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

 

51) More than half a century ago, two cell biologists published details of their research involving isolated membrane vesicles from chloroplasts. Normally, the fluid inside these vesicles is near neutral. In an experiment, these membrane vesicles were soaked in an acidic solution (pH 4) until the inside of the vesicle also became pH 4.

Based on the details provided in this scenario, by what mechanism could hydrogen ions have crossed the vesicle membrane, and what do you think happened at the molecular level?

  1. A) Facilitated diffusion; hydrogen ions moved into the vesicle through a channel protein.
  2. B) Osmosis; water moved from inside the vesicle to outside.
  3. C) Simple diffusion; hydrogen ions moved into the vesicle through a channel protein.
  4. D) Active transport; hydrogen ions moved out of the vesicle with the help of ATP energy.
  5. E) Pinocytosis; water moved from outside the vesicle to inside.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

52) The secretion of excess water via a vesicle of a Paramecium cell is an example of

  1. A) facilitated diffusion.
  2. B) active transport.
  3. C) osmosis.
  4. D) exocytosis.
  5. E) simple diffusion.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

53) Two aqueous solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane that allows water to pass through but does not allow starch to pass through. Solution A is 10% starch and solution B is 5% starch. What will occur?

  1. A) Water will diffuse from solution A to solution B.
  2. B) Water will diffuse from solution B to solution A.
  3. C) Starch will diffuse from solution A to solution B.
  4. D) Starch will diffuse from solution B to solution A.
  5. E) Both water and starch will diffuse from solution B to solution A.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

54) The rate of facilitated diffusion of a molecule across a membrane will increase as the concentration gradient of the molecule across the membrane increases to a certain point. Eventually, an increase in the concentration of the molecule will not cause any further increase in facilitated diffusion. Thus, there is a maximal rate of facilitated diffusion. This is because

  1. A) facilitated diffusion requires ATP energy.
  2. B) as the concentration gradient increases, molecules interfere with one another.
  3. C) there are a limited number of carrier proteins in the membrane.
  4. D) the increased concentration gradient causes a situation far from equilibrium.
  5. E) the diffusion constant depends on the concentration gradient.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

55) Osmosis moves water from a region of

  1. A) high solute concentration to a region of low solute concentration.
  2. B) low solute concentration of to a region of high solute concentration.
  3. C) hypertonic solution to a region of hypotonic solution.
  4. D) negative osmotic potential to a region of positive osmotic potential.
  5. E) low concentration of water to a region of high concentration of water.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

56) Glucose is a six-carbon sugar that diffuses slowly through artificial phospholipid bilayers. The cells lining the small intestine, however, rapidly move large quantities of glucose from the glucose-rich food into their glucose-poor cytoplasm. Given this information, which transport mechanism is most probably functioning in the intestinal cells?

  1. A) Simple diffusion
  2. B) Exocytosis
  3. C) Aquaporin transport
  4. D) Facilitated diffusion
  5. E) Osmosis

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

57) Two similar-sized animal cells are placed in a 0.5% sucrose solution. Cell A enlarges for a while and then stops; cell B continues to enlarge and finally ruptures. Which of the following must have been true at the beginning of the experiment?

  1. A) Cell A was hypotonic to the solution, and cell B was hypertonic.
  2. B) Cell A was hypertonic to the solution, and cell B was hypotonic.
  3. C) Cell A has a higher concentration of sucrose than cell B.
  4. D) Cell B has a higher concentration of sucrose than cell A.
  5. E) Cells A and B were isotonic to each other.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

58) The cytoplasm of a certain cell, such as a neuron, already has a high concentration of K+ ions. How can K+ ions continue to enter the cell?

  1. A) Active transport
  2. B) Facilitated diffusion
  3. C) Osmosis
  4. D) Endocytosis
  5. E) Infusion

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

59) The gases O2 and CO2 enter or leave a plant cell by

  1. A) osmosis.
  2. B) simple diffusion.
  3. C) facilitated diffusion.
  4. D) active transport.
  5. E) facilitated transport.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

60) Active transport requires all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. A) transport proteins.
  2. B) ATP.
  3. C) a membrane.
  4. D) a gradient.
  5. E) aquaporins.

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

61) The process in which white blood cells engulf bacteria is termed

  1. A) recognition.
  2. B) exocytosis.
  3. C) pinocytosis.
  4. D) phagocytosis.
  5. E) reception.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

62) Which process accounts for the movement of solids into some animal cells?

  1. A) Active transport
  2. B) Facilitated diffusion
  3. C) Simple diffusion
  4. D) Osmosis
  5. E) Phagocytosis

Answer:  E

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

63) Cells use exocytosis to

  1. A) move away from danger.
  2. B) release substances from the cell.
  3. C) ingest nutrients.
  4. D) pump hydrogen molecules across the membrane.
  5. E) create new cells.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

64) If you forget to water your favorite plant, all of the following will occur at a cellular level EXCEPT:

  1. A) water will move out of the cytosol by osmosis.
  2. B) water will move out of the vacuoles by osmosis.
  3. C) turgor pressure will build up in the cell.
  4. D) the plasma membrane will shrink away from the cell wall.
  5. E) osmosis will occur.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

65) If a frog egg cell is placed into a hypotonic solution, it will

  1. A) shrivel via osmosis.
  2. B) swell via osmosis.
  3. C) shrivel via facilitated diffusion.
  4. D) swell via facilitated diffusion.
  5. E) shrivel via active transport.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

66) Which of the following requires adenosine triphosphate?

  1. A) Simple diffusion
  2. B) Facilitated diffusion
  3. C) Active transport
  4. D) Osmosis

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

67) Specialized cell junctions include all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. A) gap junctions.
  2. B) tight junctions.
  3. C) desmosomes.
  4. D) phospholipases.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  5.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

68) The electrical signal for a muscle to contract passes rapidly from one cell to the next via

  1. A) tight junctions.
  2. B) desmosomes.
  3. C) gap junctions.
  4. D) internal proteins.
  5. E) external proteins.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

69) Adhesion of cells within animal tissues is accomplished by cell-to-cell junctions called

  1. A) desmosomes.
  2. B) tight junctions.
  3. C) gap junctions.
  4. D) plasmodesmata.
  5. E) cell plates.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  5.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

70) The urinary bladder is protected from leaking due to cell-to-cell junctions called

  1. A) desmosomes.
  2. B) tight junctions.
  3. C) gap junctions.
  4. D) plasmodesmata.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  5.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

71) Protein channels that provide passage for hormones and nutrients between animal cells are termed

  1. A) desmosomes.
  2. B) tight junctions.
  3. C) gap junctions.
  4. D) plasmodesmata.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

72) You observe a cell under a microscope and you can clearly see a cell wall, a vacuole, and cytoplasmic connections. These cytoplasmic connections must be

  1. A) gap junctions.
  2. B) desmosomes.
  3. C) plasmodesmata.
  4. D) tight junctions.
  5. E) osmotic channels.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

5.2   True/False Questions

 

1) Carrier molecules in the plasma membrane are required only for active transport. True or False?

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules across selectively permeable membranes. True or False?

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

3) After a dye diffuses uniformly throughout a glass of water, the dye molecules are no longer moving. True or False?

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

5.3   Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

1) The most common lipids in biological membranes are ________.

Answer:  phospholipids

Diff: 1

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) Phospholipids contain two different parts: a ________ head and a pair of ________ tails.

Answer:  polar and/or hydrophilic; nonpolar and/or hydrophobic

Diff: 2

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

3) The movement of molecules across a cell membrane via a transport protein in which no energy is required is called ________ diffusion, and the movement of molecules across a cell membrane via a protein in which energy (i.e., ATP) is required is called ________ transport.

Answer:  facilitated; active

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

4) Facilitated diffusion and active transport both require ________ ________ for the movement of molecules across the membrane.

Answer:  transport proteins

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

5) ________ is used by white blood cells to consume large particles such as bacteria.

Answer:  Phagocytosis

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

6) Communication between cells occurs via ________ in plant cells and via ________ in animal cells.

Answer:  plasmodesmata; gap junctions

Diff: 2

Section:  5.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

7) The cells of the intestinal epithelium (lining) are joined to one another by ________ that prevent substances from passing between the cells of this tissue.

Answer:  tight junctions

Diff: 2

Section:  5.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

5.4   Short Answers Questions

 

1) The antibiotic polymyxin B attaches itself to the phospholipids in the phospholipid bilayer and increases the permeability of the membrane. Describe what will occur as a result.

Answer:  The plasma membrane will lose its ability to be a selectively permeable barrier. Substances will leak out of the cell, and some previously excluded substances may enter. Eventually, the cell will die.

Diff: 3

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

2) How does the cell membrane act as a “gatekeeper” for the cell?

Answer:  It separates the internal and external cell environments, it regulates the exchange of substances between the external environment and the cytoplasm, and it allows for communication between cells.

Diff: 3

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

3) Compare and contrast facilitated diffusion and active transport.

Answer:  Both require membrane transport proteins. However, facilitated diffusion does not require energy and moves substances down a concentration gradient. Active transport requires energy and moves substances against a concentration gradient.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

4) Compare and contrast osmosis and simple diffusion.

Answer:  Both are passive processes. However, osmosis refers to the movement of water down its concentration gradient across a selectively permeable membrane. No membrane or membrane protein is required for simple diffusion.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

5) Why is the biological membrane said to be selectively permeable?

Answer:  It allows only some molecules to pass through while barring others.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

6) Suppose a bag made of a selectively permeable membrane was filled with a 5% solution of glucose and sealed. What would happen if the bag was placed in pure water or in a 10% glucose solution?

Answer:  In pure water, the bag would swell as water moves in. In the glucose solution, the bag would shrink as water moves out.

Diff: 3

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

7) Why does the cell perform endocytosis in addition to active and passive transport?

Answer:  Endocytosis is required for the transport of proteins, microbes, extracellular fluid, and specific molecules that are all larger than the molecule size transported by active and passive transport.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

8) Distinguish among the three types of endocytosis: pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and phagocytosis.

Answer:  Pinocytosis is for fluid intake, receptor-mediated endocytosis is for the uptake of specific molecules, and phagocytosis is used to move large particles into the cell.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

9) Both plant cells and animal cells will swell if placed in a hypotonic solution. However, only the animal cell will burst. Why?

Answer:  Water will enter both cells due to osmosis. In the animal cell, water will continue to enter as long as the extracellular solution is hypotonic, causing the pliable animal cell membrane to eventually break and the cell to burst. The stiff cell wall found in plant cells but not animal cells will not expand indefinitely. At some point, as the cytoplasm of the plant cell expands, the cell wall will exert a back pressure on the cell. Further water uptake will be prevented and the plant cell will not burst.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

10) When very small viruses infect a plant cell by crossing its membrane, the viruses often spread rapidly throughout the entire plant without crossing additional membranes. Explain how this occurs.

Answer:  The viruses spread travel cell to cell via the plasmodesmata junctions.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.3

Skill:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

 

11) Compare and contrast the intercellular junctions that allow communication between plant and animal cells.

Answer:  Gap junctions in animal cells and plasmodesmata in plant cells are both involved in coordinating the actions of adjacent cells.

Diff: 2

Section:  5.3

Skill:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

5.5   Art Questions

 

1) Based on these four illustrations of diffusion, which mode would most likely be used to transport oxidized zinc (which has a charge of +2) through the cell membrane?

 

 

  1. A) Simple diffusion through the bilayer
  2. B) Facilitated diffusion through channel proteins
  3. C) Facilitated diffusion through carrier proteins
  4. D) Osmosis through aquaporins

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

2) If the radius of one cell were twice as large as the radius of another cell, how much higher or lower would its surface-area-to-volume ratio be?

 

  1. A) 2 times higher
  2. B) 2 times lower
  3. C) Half (lower)
  4. D) 10 times higher

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  5.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

5.6   Scenario Questions

 

1) Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease that leads to the production of excessive, thick mucus in the respiratory tract, causing frequent and serious respiratory infections. The defect is due to the production of a faulty membrane protein for the transport of the chloride ion. The protein exists in membranes, but it doesn’t function normally.

 

Based on this scenario, what is occurring at the molecular level in a person with cystic fibrosis?

  1. A) A recognition protein is being adversely affected.
  2. B) A carrier protein is being adversely affected.
  3. C) A receptor protein is being adversely affected.
  4. D) A channel protein is being adversely affected.
  5. E) Protein filaments in the cytoplasm are being adversely affected.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Section:  5.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

 

 

Biology: Life on Earth with Physiology, 10e (Audesirk)

Chapter 31   Homeostasis and the Organization of the Animal Body

 

31.1   Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) Most body systems maintain homeostasis through ________ systems.

  1. A) positive feedback
  2. B) negative feedback
  3. C) monitoring
  4. D) alternating
  5. E) redundant

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) Hypertension damages the lining of the arterioles of the kidneys, which results in the release of molecules that further raise blood pressure. This is an example of a(n)

  1. A) negative feedback loop.
  2. B) positive feedback loop.
  3. C) controlling mechanism.
  4. D) uncontrolled mechanism.
  5. E) electrochemical mechanism.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

3) What is the primary reason internal homeostasis must be maintained?

  1. A) Wide swings in the internal environment interfere with normal metabolic reactions.
  2. B) Homeostasis prevents the wasting of stockpiles of coenzymes.
  3. C) Enzymes must retain their correct three-dimensional structure.
  4. D) Unregulated variations cause the cells’ DNA to mutate.
  5. E) Most organisms have not evolved mechanisms to control positive feedback systems.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

4) In the description of homeostasis, the term “dynamic constancy” refers to

  1. A) the fact that even though physical and chemical changes do occur, conditions are kept within a range.
  2. B) a constant movement toward equilibrium.
  3. C) the direct interaction of each positive feedback system with its corresponding negative feedback system.
  4. D) the use of ATP to initiate a cascade effect.
  5. E) a disregarded theory that suggested there were no external energy requirements to maintain cell homeostasis.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

5) Which of the following is an example of a positive feedback loop?

  1. A) A hummingbird maintaining a constant internal body temperature
  2. B) A person altering her breathing rate to keep blood pH between 7.35 and 7.45
  3. C) Stress altering the normal menstrual cycle, which delays menstruation, which causes more stress
  4. D) The kidney retaining water when the organism becomes dehydrated

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

6) After eating a large meal of pasta, an individual’s blood sugar levels are elevated. In response to this, the pancreas secretes a hormone called insulin, which acts to lower blood sugar levels. Once the blood sugar levels drop to the normal level, the pancreas stops secreting insulin. This is an example of

  1. A) acid—base imbalance.
  2. B) reactions between carbon monoxide and acids.
  3. C) a positive feedback loop.
  4. D) a negative feedback loop.
  5. E) energy being made into proteins.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

7) Which of the following controls the temperature in endothermic animals?

  1. A) Autonomic nervous system
  2. B) Hypothalamus
  3. C) Positive feedback systems
  4. D) Reflexive skeletal muscles
  5. E) Cerebral cortex

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

8) One biological example of a positive feedback system is

  1. A) heatstroke.
  2. B) temperature regulation.
  3. C) blood pH levels.
  4. D) water balance.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

9) What happens if homeostasis is not maintained?

  1. A) Organisms function better.
  2. B) Cellular metabolism is unchanged.
  3. C) Cells begin dividing uncontrollably.
  4. D) Cells lose the ability to carry out normal functions.
  5. E) Organisms stop using negative feedback loops.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

10) In humans, the body needs to maintain oxygen levels within narrow homeostatic ranges. If the blood oxygen level drops below that range, the body responds by

  1. A) using negative feedback loops to further lower the oxygen level.
  2. B) using positive feedback to raise the oxygen level.
  3. C) using negative feedback loops to return the oxygen level to normal.
  4. D) using positive feedback to further lower the oxygen level.
  5. E) setting this lower oxygen level as the new normal.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

11) Groups of tissues that function together form a(n)

  1. A) organ.
  2. B) organ system.
  3. C) system.
  4. D) individual.
  5. E) gland.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

12) Similar cells that perform a particular function are known as

  1. A) tissues.
  2. B) organs.
  3. C) organ systems.
  4. D) organisms.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

13) What is a gland?

  1. A) A cluster of epithelial or nervous cells that release a secretion
  2. B) A type of tissue that makes cartilage
  3. C) A special connection between muscle cells
  4. D) A group of cells that replaces the stomach lining every few days
  5. E) The functional unit of the skeletal system

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

14) The lining of the trachea is formed from ________ tissue.

  1. A) epithelial
  2. B) connective
  3. C) muscle
  4. D) nerve
  5. E) undifferentiated

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

15) Which tissue is characterized by a basement membrane and a single layer of flattened cells with a free surface?

  1. A) Simple epithelium
  2. B) Connective tissue
  3. C) Muscle tissue
  4. D) Stratified epithelium
  5. E) Undifferentiated tissue

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

16) Blood is a type of ________ tissue.

  1. A) epithelial
  2. B) connective
  3. C) muscle
  4. D) nerve
  5. E) endothelial

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

17) The mucus-secreting glands of the respiratory system are composed of ________ tissue.

  1. A) adipose
  2. B) muscle
  3. C) epithelial
  4. D) connective
  5. E) nerve

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

18) In stratified epithelium, cell division occurs

  1. A) in the surface cell layer only.
  2. B) in the cells at the base layer only.
  3. C) in the basement membrane only.
  4. D) throughout all the layers.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

19) The basement membrane in epithelial tissue

  1. A) provides strength and support.
  2. B) is the layer that contains the dividing cells.
  3. C) transmits nervous stimuli.
  4. D) contracts to move the skin.
  5. E) waterproofs the epithelium.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

20) The mucus that traps dust particles in the lungs is produced by

  1. A) adipose tissue.
  2. B) connective tissue.
  3. C) muscle tissue.
  4. D) endocrine glands.
  5. E) epithelial tissue.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

21) The pads that cushion the vertebrae are made of

  1. A) bone.
  2. B) cartilage.
  3. C) matrix.
  4. D) fat.
  5. E) smooth muscle tissue.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

22) Large amounts of extracellular material are characteristic of

  1. A) simple epithelium.
  2. B) stratified epithelium.
  3. C) loose connective tissue.
  4. D) nervous tissue.
  5. E) smooth muscle.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

23) Widely scattered cells embedded in large amounts of extracellular material composed of randomly arranged collagen fibers make up

  1. A) loose connective tissue.
  2. B) cardiac muscle.
  3. C) adipose tissue.
  4. D) dense connective tissue.
  5. E) stratified epithelial tissue.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

24) Cartilage, bone, and blood are examples of ________ tissue.

  1. A) muscle
  2. B) nerve
  3. C) connective
  4. D) epithelial
  5. E) undifferentiated

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

25) Which of the following tissues is used for energy storage?

  1. A) Adipose
  2. B) Blood
  3. C) Cartilage
  4. D) Dense connective
  5. E) Epithelial

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

26) Which tissue helps endotherms maintain body temperature?

  1. A) Adipose
  2. B) Bone
  3. C) Cartilage
  4. D) Dense connective
  5. E) Simple epithelium

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

27) How are cardiac and smooth muscles similar?

  1. A) Both have only thin protein filaments.
  2. B) Both are typically under conscious control.
  3. C) Both are involuntary.
  4. D) Both are connected to bones.
  5. E) Both use cAMP as an energy source.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

28) Which type of muscle is under voluntary control?

  1. A) Smooth
  2. B) Cardiac
  3. C) Epithelial
  4. D) Skeletal
  5. E) Oxygen enriched

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

29) Which tissue contains large amounts of densely packed collagen fibers that run parallel to each other?

  1. A) Nerve
  2. B) Adipose
  3. C) Blood
  4. D) Lymph
  5. E) Tendons

Answer:  E

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

30) Which tissue is in direct contact with the external environment of an animal?

  1. A) Connective
  2. B) Epithelial
  3. C) Muscle
  4. D) Nerve
  5. E) Endothelial

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

31) Connective tissues include lymph, ligaments, tendons, and

  1. A) cardiac muscle.
  2. B) exocrine glands.
  3. C) skin cells.
  4. D) cartilage.
  5. E) vessel linings.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

32) When you move your fingers to turn the page, you are using the nervous system and

  1. A) skeletal muscle.
  2. B) adipose tissue.
  3. C) cardiac muscle.
  4. D) simple epithelium.
  5. E) endocrine glands.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

33) Which cells are designed to conduct electrical impulses?

  1. A) Glial cells
  2. B) Skeletal muscle cells
  3. C) Nerve tissue
  4. D) Connective tissue
  5. E) Adipose cells

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

34) The retina of the eye responds to light, converting it into electrical impulses. The retina is made up of

  1. A) bone.
  2. B) cartilage.
  3. C) smooth muscle.
  4. D) neurons.
  5. E) simple epithelium.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

35) Hair follicles are a variation of ________ tissue.

  1. A) epithelial
  2. B) dense connective
  3. C) muscle
  4. D) loose connective
  5. E) nerve

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

36) The skin is an example of a(n)

  1. A) cell.
  2. B) tissue.
  3. C) organ.
  4. D) organ system.
  5. E) undifferentiated mass.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

37) Together, the stomach, intestines, mouth, and esophagus form a(n)

  1. A) organ.
  2. B) tissue.
  3. C) cell.
  4. D) organ system.
  5. E) ectotherm.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

38) The ________ system is composed of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

  1. A) digestive
  2. B) reproductive
  3. C) respiratory
  4. D) circulatory
  5. E) urinary

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

39) In addition to the nervous system, which vertebrate organ system controls physiological processes in animals?

  1. A) Reproductive
  2. B) Skeletal
  3. C) Muscular
  4. D) Endocrine
  5. E) Respiratory

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

40) Which tissue type is most suited to areas of the body in which the cells need continuous replacement to repair damage from daily wear and tear?

  1. A) Epithelial
  2. B) Connective
  3. C) Nerve
  4. D) Muscle

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

31.2   True/False Questions

 

1) The maintenance of internal conditions within narrow ranges is known as homeostasis. True or False?

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) Due to the freezing temperatures of the deep ocean, all deep-sea fish must be endotherms. True or False?

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

3) Most of the homeostatic functions in the body are regulated by positive feedback loops. True or False?

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

4) Maintaining homeostasis requires the coordinated efforts of multiple negative feedback loops. True or False?

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

5) When an animal’s body temperature drops below normal, the body responds to raise the temperature using positive feedback loops. True or False?

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

6) The integumentary system plays a role in temperature regulation. True or False?

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

7) Cardiac muscle requires input from the nervous system to contract. True or False?

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

8) Hormones are secreted by exocrine glands directly into a body cavity or onto a body surface, rather than being transported by the blood. True or False?

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

9) The extracellular matrix in dense connective tissue contains large amounts of calcium, which causes the tissue to harden and become solid. True or False?

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

10) The basement membrane of epithelial tissues produces a waterproof barrier of cells to protect the tissue above it. True or False?

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

11) Connective tissues are made up of cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix, the consistency of which can vary from a liquid to a solid. True or False?

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

12) Glial cells provide structural and chemical support to neurons. True or False?

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

13) The dermis of the skin is composed of stratified epithelium. True or False?

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

14) The outer layer of the skin is the dermis. True or False?

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

15) The blood vessels that provide nourishment for the skin cells are located in the dermis only. True or False?

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

31.3   Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

1) The ability to maintain an internal environment within specific ranges is referred to as ________.

Answer:  homeostasis

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) Organisms that can maintain a fairly consistent internal body temperature through metabolic reactions are known as ________.

Answer:  endotherms

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

3) Regardless of the temperature of the environment they find themselves in, endotherms maintain a nearly consistent ________ ________.

Answer:  body temperature

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

4) The body temperature of an ________ changes to match the temperature of the external environment.

Answer:  ectotherm

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

5) An endotherm uses ________ feedback loops to maintain homeostasis.

Answer:  negative

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

6) When the body’s response to swelling caused by an insect bite is to release histamine, which causes more swelling and releases more histamine, the organism is using a ________ feedback loop.

Answer:  positive

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

7) While sitting in a hot car, your body begins to sweat, which cools the body back down. This illustrates a ________ feedback loop.

Answer:  negative

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

8) A(n) ________ is made up of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out body functions.

Answer:  organ

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

9) Epithelial tissues are attached to the underlying tissue by a noncellular protein layer called the ________ membrane.

Answer:  basement

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

10) Glands that lack ducts and use the bloodstream to transport their products are called ________ glands.

Answer:  endocrine

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

11) Bones are connected to other bones by ________.

Answer:  ligaments

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

12) Blood is a type of connective tissue that contains fibers and cells suspended in a ________ matrix.

Answer:  fluid

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

13) The matrix in cartilage is made of protein fibers called ________.

Answer:  collagen

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

14) A calcium phosphate matrix is characteristic of ________, a specialized connective tissue.

Answer:  bone

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

15) Cells that store lipids (fats) for long-term energy are found in ________ tissue.

Answer:  adipose

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

16) ________ glands are a form of epithelial tissue that secretes substances through a duct.

Answer:  Exocrine

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

17) ________ epithelium is several cell layers thick and is specialized to withstand wear and tear.

Answer:  Stratified

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

18) Tightly packed collagen fibers arranged in either parallel rows or an irregular meshwork are characteristic of ________ connective tissue.

Answer:  dense

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

19) The digestive and respiratory tracts contain ________ muscle.

Answer:  smooth

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

20) Cells that generate electrical impulses form ________ tissue.

Answer:  nerve

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

31.4   Short Answer Questions

 

1) Compare the mechanisms endotherms and ectotherms use to regulate body temperature.

Answer:  Endotherms produce heat through metabolic reactions, whereas ectotherms derive heat from the environment.

Diff: 2

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) Why are negative feedback loops more effective at maintaining homeostasis than positive feedback loops?

Answer:  Negative loops counteract a stimulus to return the body to homeostatic levels. For example, when an animal’s body temperature increases, blood vessels dilate and sweat is produced to help lower the temperature back to normal. Positive loops respond to a stimulus by moving the body further from the homeostatic normal.

Diff: 2

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

3) Why do organisms need to maintain homeostasis?

Answer:  Metabolic reactions work at optimal levels within limited ranges of temperature, pH, and other factors. When the body is outside those ranges, metabolism functions at less-than-optimal levels, which may cause illness or even death.

Diff: 2

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

4) What are the four major types of tissues?

Answer:  The four major types are epithelial tissue, connective tissue, nerve tissue, and muscle tissue.

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

5) How do exocrine glands differ from endocrine glands?

Answer:  Exocrine glands secrete substances through ducts. Endocrine glands lack ducts and secrete substances (hormones) directly into the extracellular fluid.

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

6) What characteristics of stratified epithelium make it suitable as an external covering?

Answer:  Stratified epithelium has the ability to continuously produce new cells to repair damaged cells. The new cells are produced at the base layer and move toward the surface. By the time the cells reach the surface, they are dead and form the water-resistant layer that provides additional protection.

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

7) What characteristic defines muscle tissue?

Answer:  All muscle tissue has the ability to contract and then relax to return to its original condition.

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

8) Why do neurons need glial cells?

Answer:  Glial cells provide insulation for neurons, help regulate metabolism, provide structural support, and help maintain the normal metabolic functioning of neurons.

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

9) For an organism to maintain proper neurological function, sodium and potassium levels must be maintained within narrow ranges. How would the body respond if a person took in excessive amounts of potassium?

Answer:  The body would use negative feedback mechanisms to return to homeostasis. This involves the endocrine, digestive, circulatory, and urinary systems.

Diff: 3

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

10) Which tissues are found in a sample of skin?

Answer:  Skin is a complex organ that contains epithelium, smooth muscle, nerve tissue, and several types of connective tissues.

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

31.5   Art Questions

 

1) This feedback loop is an example of ________ feedback.

 

 

  1. A) positive
  2. B) negative

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

 

2) The tissue shown in the figure is

  1. A) adipose tissue.
  2. B) loose connective tissue.
  3. C) skeletal muscle.
  4. D) stratified epithelium.
  5. E) nerve tissue.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

3) The tissue shown in the figure forms

  1. A) bone.
  2. B) blood.
  3. C) skin.
  4. D) fat.
  5. E) the digestive system.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

4) The tissue shown in the photograph forms

 

 

  1. A) bone.
  2. B) skeletal muscle.
  3. C) nerves.
  4. D) dense connective tissue.
  5. E) smooth muscle.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

5) The tissue in the photograph is an example of ________ tissue.

 

 

  1. A) connective
  2. B) muscle
  3. C) nerve
  4. D) epithelial

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

6) This tissue is

 

 

  1. A) adipose tissue.
  2. B) cardiac muscle.
  3. C) nerve tissue.
  4. D) simple epithelium.
  5. E) smooth muscle.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

7) The tissue in the photograph is

 

 

  1. A) skeletal muscle.
  2. B) connective tissue.
  3. C) nerve tissue.
  4. D) stratified epithelium.
  5. E) simple epithelium.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

31.6   Scenario Questions

 

1) The common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) is found throughout North America. In the South, it is active year round. In the North, it is active during the warmer months but hibernates during the winter. It is commonly found basking on warm rocks during cool mornings. This lifestyle indicates that the snake is probably

  1. A) endothermic.
  2. B) thermoneutral.
  3. C) ectothermic.
  4. D) photosynthetic.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Section:  31.1

Skill:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

2) While working in a forensic lab, you are given a bit of tissue to analyze. It has several layers. The upper surface consists of dead, flattened cells. As you move deeper into the tissue, the cells look healthier. The bottom layer of cells is actively dividing. Under the dividing layer is an acellular protein goo. You identify the sample as ________ tissue.

  1. A) loose connective
  2. B) cardiac muscle
  3. C) adipose
  4. D) dense connective
  5. E) stratified epithelial

Answer:  E

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

3) You are given a sample of tissue to identify. The cells contain large amounts of protein arranged in stripes. When an electrical charge is applied to it, the tissue twitches and then relaxes. You classify this sample as ________ tissue.

  1. A) loose connective
  2. B) skeletal muscle
  3. C) adipose
  4. D) simple epithelial
  5. E) stratified epithelial

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  31.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

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