BIOLOGY CONNECT AN AUSTRALIAN FOCUS 5y th Ed B ROBERT KNOX – Test Bank

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Chapter 05 Testbank

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

  1. Cells are able to control the composition of their cytoplasm and internal compartments because cellular membranes

    A. are selective barriers.

    B. lack membrane-spanning proteins.

    C. protect the cell interior.

    D. are selective barriers and protect the cell interior.

    E. allow water to diffuse in and out of the cell.

 

  1. The features of molecules that affect their permeability coefficient include

    A. lipid solubility.

    B. size.

    C. electrical charge.

    D. water solubility.

    E. All of the answers are correct.

 

  1. Diffusion is

    A. an active process.

    B. driven by the intrinsic kinetic energy of a molecule.

    C. driven by the enzyme activity of membrane proteins.

    D. the result of molecules tending to move out unevenly.

    E. the movement of molecules from a low- to a high-solute concentration.

 

  1. The rate of net diffusion of a substance into a cell is dependent on all the following factors EXCEPT

    A. size of molecule.

    B. temperature.

    C. type of cell.

    D. lipid solubility.

    E. magnitude of concentration gradient.

 

  1. The phospholipid bilayer of membranes is highly permeable to small non-polar molecules such as dissolved carbon dioxide. Which of the following is most likely to affect the rate of its diffusion?

    A. The amount of ATP produced by the cell

    B. The carbon dioxide concentration gradient

    C. The electrochemical gradient across the membrane

    D. The osmotic potential

    E. The availability of specific carriers

 

  1. The diffusive force for a charged substance depends on its concentration gradient and the electrical potential across the membrane. Which statement about the net movement of the charged substance across the membrane of a cell is CORRECT?

    A. The substance can only move from where it is in higher concentration to where it is in lower concentration.

    B. Net movement of the substance will continue along the charge gradient when electrochemical equilibrium is reached.

    C. The substance will move against its electrical gradient if the opposing concentration gradient is small enough.

    D. The substance can move from where it is in higher concentration to where it is in lower concentration if the charge gradient exceeds the opposing concentration gradient.

    E. The substance can move along the electrochemical gradient only when the charge difference is very large.

 

  1. If the electrical and concentration gradients draw ions in opposite directions, the direction of net passive movement depends on the

    A. strength of the electrical gradient.

    B. strength of the concentration gradient.

    C. strength of neither gradient.

    D. strengths of both gradients.

    E. the charge on the ion.

 

  1. Facilitated diffusion

    A. can be an active or passive process.

    B. can be via transmembrane protein channels or carriers.

    C. is usually against electrochemical gradients.

    D. is always against the concentration gradient.

    E. is generally faster via carrier than channel.

 

  1. The principal difference between transmembrane carriers and channels is the

    A. size of the solute or molecule that can be transported.

    B. size of the proteins involved in their structure.

    C. rate of transport.

    D. type of cells they are found on.

    E. the charge on the molecule being transported.

 

  1. Transmembrane carrier proteins

    A. undergo radical conformational change while transporting solutes.

    B. unlike channels, span the lipid bilayer.

    C. always transport molecules actively.

    D. form hydrophilic pores through membranes.

    E. are open only when they bind the correct signal molecule.

 

  1. Electrical impulses are conducted using

    A. simple diffusion.

    B. transmembrane carrier proteins.

    C. endocytosis.

    D. active transport.

    E. transmembrane protein channels.

 

  1. Although chloride ions are hydrophilic, they can enter cells by diffusion through membrane proteins called

    A. receptors.

    B. carriers.

    C. channels.

    D. desmosomes.

    E. pumps.

 

  1. Movement through certain ion channels

    A. is influenced by the presence of specific signal molecules.

    B. is slow compared to transport by protein carriers.

    C. requires the presence of ATP.

    D. is always independent of the electrical potential difference across the membrane.

    E. is non-selective for particular solutes.

 

  1. Which of the following statements about transmembrane channels that open and close is true?

    A. Ligand-gated channels open in response to mechanical force.

    B. Voltage-gated channels open when the charge difference across a membrane decreases.

    C. Ligand-gated channels close in response to specific ligands binding.

    D. Voltage-gated channels open when the charge inside a cell becomes more negative.

    E. Mechanically gated channels are mechanosensitive and open in response to depolarisations.

 

  1. Aquaporins

    A. decrease the permeability coefficient of small polar molecules.

    B. are more abundant in tissues with low water permeability.

    C. maintain water permeability at a constant level.

    D. may result in transient changes to the water permeability of tissues.

    E. increase the active transport of water out of cells.

 

  1. Active movement across a membrane usually involves

    A. the hydrolysis of ADP.

    B. channel-mediated transport.

    C. movement down a concentration gradient.

    D. movement against an electrochemical gradient.

    E. movement along an electrochemical gradient.

 

  1. A symport is a

    A. carrier with two binding sites that transports two substances in opposite directions.

    B. channel with two binding sites that transports two substances in opposite directions.

    C. carrier with two binding sites that transports two substances in the same direction.

    D. carrier that transports H+ ions to activate a channel.

    E. channel with two binding sites that transports two substances in the same direction.

 

  1. In animal cells, the Na+–K+ translocating ATPase

    A. removes 2 Na+ for each 3 K+ pumped into the cell.

    B. is an antiport system.

    C. is an active transport process required to maintain a high intracellular Na+ ion concentration.

    D. increases the concentration of Na+ ions in the cell that may interfere with various enzyme systems.

    E. uses the energy from one ATP molecule for each Na+–K+ pair transported.

 

  1. Osmosis refers to the

    A. passive movement of water against a concentration gradient.

    B. passive movement of water through a membrane against its water potential gradient.

    C. passive movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane down its water potential gradient.

    D. active movement of water against the concentration gradient.

    E. active transport of water through a selectively permeable membrane.

 

  1. Osmotic potential is

    A. the same as osmotic pressure.

    B. inversely proportional to osmotic pressure.

    C. the negative of the osmotic pressure.

    D. proportional to the pressure potential.

    E. None of the above is correct.

 

  1. Which one of the following is an INCORRECT result of adding solutes to water?

    A. The volume increases.

    B. The concentration of the water increases.

    C. The water molecules cluster together to avoid contacting the solute molecules.

    D. There is an effect on the ability of water molecules to diffuse.

    E. The free energy of water is decreased.

 

  1. Which of the following set of conditions will create the highest water potential?

    A. Low concentration of solutes, high hydrostatic pressure

    B. High concentration of solutes, high tension

    C. Low concentration of solutes, low hydrostatic pressure

    D. High concentration of solutes, low tension

    E. High concentration of solutes, high hydrostatic pressure

 

  1. If a red blood cell is placed in distilled water it will

    A. swell and possibly burst because of the lower concentration of solutes outside the cell.

    B. swell and possibly burst because of the ions diffusing out of the cell.

    C. swell and possibly burst because of the greater concentration of solutes outside the cell.

    D. shrink because of the lower concentration of solutes outside the cell.

    E. shrink because of the greater concentration of solutes outside the cell.

 

  1. A plant cell placed in a solution that is hypo-osmotic will

    A. shrink away from the cell wall due to the efflux of water.

    B. take up water and eventually burst.

    C. have no net movement of water into or out of the cell.

    D. swell with water inside the cell wall.

    E. swell and the cell wall will enlarge to accommodate the cell.

 

  1. When a plant cell is placed in a solution that is hyper-osmotic

    A. the cell membrane will shrink away from the cell wall.

    B. the cell will take up water and eventually burst.

    C. there will be no net movement of water into or out of the cell.

    D. there will be no change in the appearance of the cell.

    E. the cell will swell and the cell wall will enlarge to accommodate the cell.

 

  1. Endocytosis involves

    A. the transport of cellular products to the external environment in membrane vesicles.

    B. the fusion of vesicles constructed inside the cell to the plasma membrane.

    C. the formation of clathrin coated pits for the transport of specific molecules out of the cell.

    D. the transport of extracellular products into the cell in membrane vesicles.

    E. manufacturing new membrane components and adding them to the plasma membrane.

 

  1. Animal cells take up cholesterol via

    A. specific receptor proteins on the external surface of the cell membrane.

    B. passive transport through the lipid bilayer.

    C. clathrin receptors on the external surface of the cell membrane.

    D. protein carriers to transport the cholesterol-receptor complex across the membrane.

    E. the fusing of clathrin-coated vesicles to the cell membrane.

 

  1. Clathrin

    A. is a receptor in the surface of the cell membrane.

    B. is a protein that coats vesicles formed by endocytosis.

    C. causes the dissociation of low density lipoprotein-receptor complexes.

    D. is a protein that lines the plasma membrane to mark the sites of exocytosis.

    E. is a carrier specific for low-density lipoproteins.

 

  1. Exocytosis involves

    A. the transport of cellular products to the external environment in membrane vesicles.

    B. the transport of extracellular products into the cell.

    C. the formation of clathrin coated pit.

    D. binding of a vesicle to a specific protein receptor molecule.

    E. the fusion of a vesicle with a lysosome to activate the proteins.

 

  1. Which of the following statements about transport proteins is INCORRECT?

    A. Membrane transport proteins accelerate the movement of molecules across membranes.

    B. In primary active transport, the energy to transport the molecule is obtained directly from the hydrolysis of metabolic energy.

    C. Ion channels are present in all membranes to allow the rapid influx of specific ions.

    D. Transport proteins often span the phospholipid bilayer.

    E. Aquaporins are a class of transport proteins involved in water transport.

 

  1. Carrier proteins do NOT

    A. get inhibited by similar molecules which compete for the binding site.

    B. act like a pore in the membrane to allow ions to flow rapidly along the electrochemical gradient.

    C. tend to transport molecules more slowly that transport by channels.

    D. require the hydrolysis of metabolic energy for transport.

    E. bind a solute to be transported in a hydrophilic pocket causing a conformational change in the protein.

 

  1. When a solute is placed in water, the molecules spread until they are evenly spread. Which of the following statements about this movement of the molecules is INCORRECT?

    A. Movement is a result of the intrinsic kinetic energy of the molecules.

    B. The tendency of the molecules to spread evenly through the space available is termed diffusion.

    C. Movement of the molecules is an active process.

    D. The larger the concentration difference, the more rapid the rate of movement.

    E. Increasing the temperature increases the rate of solute movement.

 

  1. Ions are charged and so have very low permeability through a hydrophilic lipid membrane. However, ions are able to enter and exit cells by

    A. active transport using the energy of ATP.

    B. facilitated transport using a carrier protein.

    C. diffusion through a ligand-gated channel.

    D. active transport using the energy of ATP and facilitated transport using a carrier protein.

    E. active transport using the energy of ATP and diffusion through a ligand-gated channel.

 

  1. Which of the following statements about ion channels is INCORRECT?

    A. Ion channels are present on all membranes.

    B. Ion channels allow the rapid movement of ions along an electrochemical gradient.

    C. Ion channels act like a pipe, opening a hole in the membrane allowing the passage of many different ions through the one channel.

    D. Ion channels may be opened or closed by a change in the voltage across a membrane.

    E. Ion channels may be opened in response to a physical force change in the membrane.

 

  1. Aquaporins are

    A. transmembrane transport proteins using ATP to transport water across the membrane.

    B. membrane transport proteins which transport water and some specific small ions into cells.

    C. specific membrane proteins which are hormonally induced only in kidney cells to transport large volumes of water.

    D. a family of membrane-spanning proteins that contribute to water permeability of membranes.

    E. All of the answers are correct.

 

  1. Primary active transport pumps ions against their electrochemical gradient. However, in secondary active transport

    A. the movement of ions down its electrochemical gradient is used to move other solutes against their electrochemical gradient.

    B. the hydrolysis of ATP is used to drive hydrogen ions and other ions against the electrochemical gradient.

    C. the movement of protons is used to move negatively charged ions against the concentration gradient.

    D. the co-transport of ions down the electrochemical gradient.

    E.

All the statements are forms of secondary active transport.

 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a function performed by cell membranes?

    A. Rigidity for strength

    B. Regulation of internal environment against changes to the external environment

    C. Ejection of waste products

    D. Facilitates the entry of nutrients

    E. Export of products synthesised for transport out of the cell

 

  1. The direction of the net transport of water by osmosis across a cell membrane is determined by

    A. active transport.

    B. diffusion.

    C. the di-hydrogen monoxide coefficient potential.

    D. where water has the highest free energy.

    E. kinetic force.

 

  1. Two identical containers of water have the same dye added to each of them, but at different concentrations. Why does the dye diffuse through the solvent faster when added at a higher concentration?

    A. Because the dye has higher Brownian motion at higher concentrations

    B. Because there is a smaller difference in the concentration gradient

    C. Because there is a larger difference in the concentration gradient

    D. Because there is a smaller difference in the rate of net diffusion

    E. Because there is a larger input of energy facilitated by the more concentrated dye

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a membrane bound protein that can facilitate the faster transport of certain molecules across membranes?

    A. Symport

    B. Aquaporin

    C. Channel

    D. Antiport

    E. Cytoporin

 

  1. Which of these processes can be commonly associated with an ion being transported across a cell membrane?

    A. A change in voltage across the cell membrane

    B. A change in the state of a ligand-gated channel

    C. All options listed here are correct

    D. Rapid entry/exit across the membrane relative to a carrier

    E. A change in the state of a mechanically gated channel

 

  1. A graduate scientist is working with a cell culture that he has determined requires a particular nutrient at a rate faster than the cell can uptake it by simple or facilitated diffusion. How would the scientist deal with this cell culture in light of this requirement?

    A. He will need to genetically engineer it to integrate additional carrier or channel proteins into the cell membranes.

    B. He will need to subject it to a natural mutagen such as gamma rays to produce a mutated line with a higher passive transport capacity.

    C. He will need to find a new cell line that does not have this nutrient requirement.

    D. He must ensure there are adequate levels of the nutrient in his media so that the cell culture can expend energy in the form of ATP and uptake it via active transport.

    E. He should add a nutrient binding compound that will chelate with the nutrient, thus facilitating its uptake.

 

  1. In animal cells, the action of the Na+–K+ translocating ATPase results in a net export of

    A. Na+, with no associated net change in membrane potential.

    B. K+, with no associated net change in membrane potential.

    C. Depending on the cells’ homeostatic requirements, it can be either Na+ or K+.

    D. Na+, and an associated positive charge.

    E.

K+, and an associated positive charge.

 

 

The equation Y = Yp + YP represents

  1. water potential, osmotic potential and pressure potential respectively.

    B. water potential, pressure potential and osmotic potential respectively.

    C. osmotic potential, water potential and pressure potential respectively.

    D. pressure potential, water potential and osmotic potential respectively.

    E. osmotic potential, pressure potential and water potential respectively.

 

  1. The mechanism for bringing cholesterol into a cell is

    A. mediated by the membrane folding inwards to form a pit.

    B. all of the options listed here are correct.

    C. more specifically called receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    D. initially stimulated by the binding of a receptor molecule on the membrane.

    E. involves the protein clathrin coating the internal surface of the membrane.

 

 

 

Chapter 05 Testbank Key

  1. Cells are able to control the composition of their cytoplasm and internal compartments because cellular membranes

    A. are selective barriers.

    B. lack membrane-spanning proteins.

    C. protect the cell interior.

    D. are selective barriers and protect the cell interior.

    E. allow water to diffuse in and out of the cell.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1. Explain why cells must regulate the composition of the cytosol and the membrane-bound compartments and maintain the composition of the cytosol and the membrane-bound compartments within particular limits.
Section: The plasma membrane: the interface between a cell and its environment

  1. The features of molecules that affect their permeability coefficient include

    A. lipid solubility.

    B. size.

    C. electrical charge.

    D. water solubility.

    E. All of the answers are correct.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1. Explain why cells must regulate the composition of the cytosol and the membrane-bound compartments and maintain the composition of the cytosol and the membrane-bound compartments within particular limits.
Section: The plasma membrane: the interface between a cell and its environment

  1. Diffusion is

    A. an active process.

    B. driven by the intrinsic kinetic energy of a molecule.

    C. driven by the enzyme activity of membrane proteins.

    D. the result of molecules tending to move out unevenly.

    E. the movement of molecules from a low- to a high-solute concentration.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2. Define, using examples, the terms diffusion, concentration gradient and permeability.
Section: Diffusion

  1. The rate of net diffusion of a substance into a cell is dependent on all the following factors EXCEPT

    A. size of molecule.

    B. temperature.

    C. type of cell.

    D. lipid solubility.

    E. magnitude of concentration gradient.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2. Define, using examples, the terms diffusion, concentration gradient and permeability.
Section: Diffusion

  1. The phospholipid bilayer of membranes is highly permeable to small non-polar molecules such as dissolved carbon dioxide. Which of the following is most likely to affect the rate of its diffusion?

    A. The amount of ATP produced by the cell

    B. The carbon dioxide concentration gradient

    C. The electrochemical gradient across the membrane

    D. The osmotic potential

    E. The availability of specific carriers

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: Diffusion

  1. The diffusive force for a charged substance depends on its concentration gradient and the electrical potential across the membrane. Which statement about the net movement of the charged substance across the membrane of a cell is CORRECT?

    A. The substance can only move from where it is in higher concentration to where it is in lower concentration.

    B. Net movement of the substance will continue along the charge gradient when electrochemical equilibrium is reached.

    C. The substance will move against its electrical gradient if the opposing concentration gradient is small enough.

    D. The substance can move from where it is in higher concentration to where it is in lower concentration if the charge gradient exceeds the opposing concentration gradient.

    E. The substance can move along the electrochemical gradient only when the charge difference is very large.

 

Bloom’s: Application
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.2. Define, using examples, the terms diffusion, concentration gradient and permeability.
Section: Diffusion

  1. If the electrical and concentration gradients draw ions in opposite directions, the direction of net passive movement depends on the

    A. strength of the electrical gradient.

    B. strength of the concentration gradient.

    C. strength of neither gradient.

    D. strengths of both gradients.

    E. the charge on the ion.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2. Define, using examples, the terms diffusion, concentration gradient and permeability.
Section: Diffusion

  1. Facilitated diffusion

    A. can be an active or passive process.

    B. can be via transmembrane protein channels or carriers.

    C. is usually against electrochemical gradients.

    D. is always against the concentration gradient.

    E. is generally faster via carrier than channel.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2. Define, using examples, the terms diffusion, concentration gradient and permeability.
Section: Diffusion

  1. The principal difference between transmembrane carriers and channels is the

    A. size of the solute or molecule that can be transported.

    B. size of the proteins involved in their structure.

    C. rate of transport.

    D. type of cells they are found on.

    E. the charge on the molecule being transported.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. Transmembrane carrier proteins

    A. undergo radical conformational change while transporting solutes.

    B. unlike channels, span the lipid bilayer.

    C. always transport molecules actively.

    D. form hydrophilic pores through membranes.

    E. are open only when they bind the correct signal molecule.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. Electrical impulses are conducted using

    A. simple diffusion.

    B. transmembrane carrier proteins.

    C. endocytosis.

    D. active transport.

    E. transmembrane protein channels.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. Although chloride ions are hydrophilic, they can enter cells by diffusion through membrane proteins called

    A. receptors.

    B. carriers.

    C. channels.

    D. desmosomes.

    E. pumps.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. Movement through certain ion channels

    A. is influenced by the presence of specific signal molecules.

    B. is slow compared to transport by protein carriers.

    C. requires the presence of ATP.

    D. is always independent of the electrical potential difference across the membrane.

    E. is non-selective for particular solutes.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. Which of the following statements about transmembrane channels that open and close is true?

    A. Ligand-gated channels open in response to mechanical force.

    B. Voltage-gated channels open when the charge difference across a membrane decreases.

    C. Ligand-gated channels close in response to specific ligands binding.

    D. Voltage-gated channels open when the charge inside a cell becomes more negative.

    E. Mechanically gated channels are mechanosensitive and open in response to depolarisations.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. Aquaporins

    A. decrease the permeability coefficient of small polar molecules.

    B. are more abundant in tissues with low water permeability.

    C. maintain water permeability at a constant level.

    D. may result in transient changes to the water permeability of tissues.

    E. increase the active transport of water out of cells.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. Active movement across a membrane usually involves

    A. the hydrolysis of ADP.

    B. channel-mediated transport.

    C. movement down a concentration gradient.

    D. movement against an electrochemical gradient.

    E. movement along an electrochemical gradient.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. A symport is a

    A. carrier with two binding sites that transports two substances in opposite directions.

    B. channel with two binding sites that transports two substances in opposite directions.

    C. carrier with two binding sites that transports two substances in the same direction.

    D. carrier that transports H+ ions to activate a channel.

    E. channel with two binding sites that transports two substances in the same direction.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. In animal cells, the Na+–K+ translocating ATPase

    A. removes 2 Na+ for each 3 K+ pumped into the cell.

    B. is an antiport system.

    C. is an active transport process required to maintain a high intracellular Na+ ion concentration.

    D. increases the concentration of Na+ ions in the cell that may interfere with various enzyme systems.

    E. uses the energy from one ATP molecule for each Na+–K+ pair transported.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. Osmosis refers to the

    A. passive movement of water against a concentration gradient.

    B. passive movement of water through a membrane against its water potential gradient.

    C. passive movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane down its water potential gradient.

    D. active movement of water against the concentration gradient.

    E. active transport of water through a selectively permeable membrane.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.7. Define osmosis, osmotic potential and pressure potential.
Section: Osmosis: passive movement of water

  1. Osmotic potential is

    A. the same as osmotic pressure.

    B. inversely proportional to osmotic pressure.

    C. the negative of the osmotic pressure.

    D. proportional to the pressure potential.

    E. None of the above is correct.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.7. Define osmosis, osmotic potential and pressure potential.
Section: Osmosis: passive movement of water

  1. Which one of the following is an INCORRECT result of adding solutes to water?

    A. The volume increases.

    B. The concentration of the water increases.

    C. The water molecules cluster together to avoid contacting the solute molecules.

    D. There is an effect on the ability of water molecules to diffuse.

    E. The free energy of water is decreased.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2. Define, using examples, the terms diffusion, concentration gradient and permeability.
Section: The plasma membrane: the interface between a cell and its environment

  1. Which of the following set of conditions will create the highest water potential?

    A. Low concentration of solutes, high hydrostatic pressure

    B. High concentration of solutes, high tension

    C. Low concentration of solutes, low hydrostatic pressure

    D. High concentration of solutes, low tension

    E. High concentration of solutes, high hydrostatic pressure

 

Bloom’s: Application
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.7. Define osmosis, osmotic potential and pressure potential.
Section: Osmosis: passive movement of water

  1. If a red blood cell is placed in distilled water it will

    A. swell and possibly burst because of the lower concentration of solutes outside the cell.

    B. swell and possibly burst because of the ions diffusing out of the cell.

    C. swell and possibly burst because of the greater concentration of solutes outside the cell.

    D. shrink because of the lower concentration of solutes outside the cell.

    E. shrink because of the greater concentration of solutes outside the cell.

 

Bloom’s: Application
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.7. Define osmosis, osmotic potential and pressure potential.
Section: Osmosis: passive movement of water

  1. A plant cell placed in a solution that is hypo-osmotic will

    A. shrink away from the cell wall due to the efflux of water.

    B. take up water and eventually burst.

    C. have no net movement of water into or out of the cell.

    D. swell with water inside the cell wall.

    E. swell and the cell wall will enlarge to accommodate the cell.

 

Bloom’s: Application
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.7. Define osmosis, osmotic potential and pressure potential.
Section: Osmosis: passive movement of water

  1. When a plant cell is placed in a solution that is hyper-osmotic

    A. the cell membrane will shrink away from the cell wall.

    B. the cell will take up water and eventually burst.

    C. there will be no net movement of water into or out of the cell.

    D. there will be no change in the appearance of the cell.

    E. the cell will swell and the cell wall will enlarge to accommodate the cell.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.7. Define osmosis, osmotic potential and pressure potential.
Section: Osmosis: passive movement of water

  1. Endocytosis involves

    A. the transport of cellular products to the external environment in membrane vesicles.

    B. the fusion of vesicles constructed inside the cell to the plasma membrane.

    C. the formation of clathrin coated pits for the transport of specific molecules out of the cell.

    D. the transport of extracellular products into the cell in membrane vesicles.

    E. manufacturing new membrane components and adding them to the plasma membrane.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.8. Explain the process of vesicle-mediated transport and give examples.
Section: Transport of large molecules across membranes

  1. Animal cells take up cholesterol via

    A. specific receptor proteins on the external surface of the cell membrane.

    B. passive transport through the lipid bilayer.

    C. clathrin receptors on the external surface of the cell membrane.

    D. protein carriers to transport the cholesterol-receptor complex across the membrane.

    E. the fusing of clathrin-coated vesicles to the cell membrane.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. Clathrin

    A. is a receptor in the surface of the cell membrane.

    B. is a protein that coats vesicles formed by endocytosis.

    C. causes the dissociation of low density lipoprotein-receptor complexes.

    D. is a protein that lines the plasma membrane to mark the sites of exocytosis.

    E. is a carrier specific for low-density lipoproteins.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.8. Explain the process of vesicle-mediated transport and give examples.
Section: Transport of large molecules across membranes

  1. Exocytosis involves

    A. the transport of cellular products to the external environment in membrane vesicles.

    B. the transport of extracellular products into the cell.

    C. the formation of clathrin coated pit.

    D. binding of a vesicle to a specific protein receptor molecule.

    E. the fusion of a vesicle with a lysosome to activate the proteins.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.8. Explain the process of vesicle-mediated transport and give examples.
Section: Transport of large molecules across membranes

  1. Which of the following statements about transport proteins is INCORRECT?

    A. Membrane transport proteins accelerate the movement of molecules across membranes.

    B. In primary active transport, the energy to transport the molecule is obtained directly from the hydrolysis of metabolic energy.

    C. Ion channels are present in all membranes to allow the rapid influx of specific ions.

    D. Transport proteins often span the phospholipid bilayer.

    E. Aquaporins are a class of transport proteins involved in water transport.

 

Bloom’s: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: The plasma membrane: the interface between a cell and its environment

  1. Carrier proteins do NOT

    A. get inhibited by similar molecules which compete for the binding site.

    B. act like a pore in the membrane to allow ions to flow rapidly along the electrochemical gradient.

    C. tend to transport molecules more slowly that transport by channels.

    D. require the hydrolysis of metabolic energy for transport.

    E. bind a solute to be transported in a hydrophilic pocket causing a conformational change in the protein.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. When a solute is placed in water, the molecules spread until they are evenly spread. Which of the following statements about this movement of the molecules is INCORRECT?

    A. Movement is a result of the intrinsic kinetic energy of the molecules.

    B. The tendency of the molecules to spread evenly through the space available is termed diffusion.

    C. Movement of the molecules is an active process.

    D. The larger the concentration difference, the more rapid the rate of movement.

    E. Increasing the temperature increases the rate of solute movement.

 

Bloom’s: Comprehension
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.2. Define, using examples, the terms diffusion, concentration gradient and permeability.
Section: Diffusion

  1. Ions are charged and so have very low permeability through a hydrophilic lipid membrane. However, ions are able to enter and exit cells by

    A. active transport using the energy of ATP.

    B. facilitated transport using a carrier protein.

    C. diffusion through a ligand-gated channel.

    D. active transport using the energy of ATP and facilitated transport using a carrier protein.

    E. active transport using the energy of ATP and diffusion through a ligand-gated channel.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.5. Define active transport.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. Which of the following statements about ion channels is INCORRECT?

    A. Ion channels are present on all membranes.

    B. Ion channels allow the rapid movement of ions along an electrochemical gradient.

    C. Ion channels act like a pipe, opening a hole in the membrane allowing the passage of many different ions through the one channel.

    D. Ion channels may be opened or closed by a change in the voltage across a membrane.

    E. Ion channels may be opened in response to a physical force change in the membrane.

 

Bloom’s: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. Aquaporins are

    A. transmembrane transport proteins using ATP to transport water across the membrane.

    B. membrane transport proteins which transport water and some specific small ions into cells.

    C. specific membrane proteins which are hormonally induced only in kidney cells to transport large volumes of water.

    D. a family of membrane-spanning proteins that contribute to water permeability of membranes.

    E. All of the answers are correct.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. Primary active transport pumps ions against their electrochemical gradient. However, in secondary active transport

    A. the movement of ions down its electrochemical gradient is used to move other solutes against their electrochemical gradient.

    B. the hydrolysis of ATP is used to drive hydrogen ions and other ions against the electrochemical gradient.

    C. the movement of protons is used to move negatively charged ions against the concentration gradient.

    D. the co-transport of ions down the electrochemical gradient.

    E.

All the statements are forms of secondary active transport.

 

 

Bloom’s: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.5. Define active transport.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. Which of the following is NOT a function performed by cell membranes?

    A. Rigidity for strength

    B. Regulation of internal environment against changes to the external environment

    C. Ejection of waste products

    D. Facilitates the entry of nutrients

    E. Export of products synthesised for transport out of the cell

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1. Explain why cells must regulate the composition of the cytosol and the membrane-bound compartments and maintain the composition of the cytosol and the membrane-bound compartments within particular limits.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. The direction of the net transport of water by osmosis across a cell membrane is determined by

    A. active transport.

    B. diffusion.

    C. the di-hydrogen monoxide coefficient potential.

    D. where water has the highest free energy.

    E. kinetic force.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.7. Define osmosis, osmotic potential and pressure potential.
Section: Osmosis: passive movement of water

  1. Two identical containers of water have the same dye added to each of them, but at different concentrations. Why does the dye diffuse through the solvent faster when added at a higher concentration?

    A. Because the dye has higher Brownian motion at higher concentrations

    B. Because there is a smaller difference in the concentration gradient

    C. Because there is a larger difference in the concentration gradient

    D. Because there is a smaller difference in the rate of net diffusion

    E. Because there is a larger input of energy facilitated by the more concentrated dye

 

Bloom’s: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2. Define, using examples, the terms diffusion, concentration gradient and permeability.
Section: Diffusion

  1. Which of the following is NOT a membrane bound protein that can facilitate the faster transport of certain molecules across membranes?

    A. Symport

    B. Aquaporin

    C. Channel

    D. Antiport

    E. Cytoporin

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. Which of these processes can be commonly associated with an ion being transported across a cell membrane?

    A. A change in voltage across the cell membrane

    B. A change in the state of a ligand-gated channel

    C. All options listed here are correct

    D. Rapid entry/exit across the membrane relative to a carrier

    E. A change in the state of a mechanically gated channel

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4. List four general properties of carrier-mediated transport that distinguish it from simple diffusion.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. A graduate scientist is working with a cell culture that he has determined requires a particular nutrient at a rate faster than the cell can uptake it by simple or facilitated diffusion. How would the scientist deal with this cell culture in light of this requirement?

    A. He will need to genetically engineer it to integrate additional carrier or channel proteins into the cell membranes.

    B. He will need to subject it to a natural mutagen such as gamma rays to produce a mutated line with a higher passive transport capacity.

    C. He will need to find a new cell line that does not have this nutrient requirement.

    D. He must ensure there are adequate levels of the nutrient in his media so that the cell culture can expend energy in the form of ATP and uptake it via active transport.

    E. He should add a nutrient binding compound that will chelate with the nutrient, thus facilitating its uptake.

 

Bloom’s: Evaluation
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.5. Define active transport.
Section: Membrane transporters

  1. In animal cells, the action of the Na+–K+ translocating ATPase results in a net export of

    A. Na+, with no associated net change in membrane potential.

    B. K+, with no associated net change in membrane potential.

    C. Depending on the cells’ homeostatic requirements, it can be either Na+ or K+.

    D. Na+, and an associated positive charge.

    E.

K+, and an associated positive charge.

 

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.6. Describe the action of the Na+-K+ pump in animal cells.
Section: Voltage differences across membranes: a dynamic feature of all cells

The equation Y = Yp + YP represents

  1. water potential, osmotic potential and pressure potential respectively.

    B. water potential, pressure potential and osmotic potential respectively.

    C. osmotic potential, water potential and pressure potential respectively.

    D. pressure potential, water potential and osmotic potential respectively.

    E. osmotic potential, pressure potential and water potential respectively.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.7. Define osmosis, osmotic potential and pressure potential.
Section: Osmosis: passive movement of water

  1. The mechanism for bringing cholesterol into a cell is

    A. mediated by the membrane folding inwards to form a pit.

    B. all of the options listed here are correct.

    C. more specifically called receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    D. initially stimulated by the binding of a receptor molecule on the membrane.

    E. involves the protein clathrin coating the internal surface of the membrane.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.8. Explain the process of vesicle-mediated transport and give examples.
Section: Transport of large molecules across membranes

 

 

Chapter 05 Testbank Summary

Category # of Questions
Bloom’s: Application 4
Bloom’s: Comprehension 5
Bloom’s: Evaluation 1
Bloom’s: Knowledge 35
Difficulty: Easy 5
Difficulty: Hard 7
Difficulty: Medium 33
Learning Objective: 5.1. Explain why cells must regulate the composition of the cytosol and the membrane-bound compartments and maintain the composition of the cytosol and the membrane-bound compartments within particular limits. 3
Learning Objective: 5.2. Define, using examples, the terms diffusion, concentration gradient and permeability. 8
Learning Objective: 5.3. Explain how some molecules use intrinsic proteins that span the lipid bilayer to move across membranes. 17
Learning Objective: 5.4. List four general properties of carrier-mediated transport that distinguish it from simple diffusion. 1
Learning Objective: 5.5. Define active transport. 3
Learning Objective: 5.6. Describe the action of the Na+-K+ pump in animal cells. 1
Learning Objective: 5.7. Define osmosis, osmotic potential and pressure potential. 8
Learning Objective: 5.8. Explain the process of vesicle-mediated transport and give examples. 4
Section: Diffusion 8
Section: Membrane transporters 20
Section: Osmosis: passive movement of water 8
Section: The plasma membrane: the interface between a cell and its environment 4
Section: Transport of large molecules across membranes 4
Section: Voltage differences across membranes: a dynamic feature of all cells 1

 

 

 

 

Chapter 31 Testbank

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

  1. If male satin bower birds learn to construct and decorate bowers from their parents, this behaviour would be explained by
    A. causation.
    B. development.
    C. adaptive value.
    D. evolutionary history.
    E. ethology.

 

  1. Which of the following statements is correct?
    A. All forms of behaviour are under the influence of natural selection.
    B. All forms of behaviour, except learned behaviour, are under the influence of natural selection.
    C. All forms of behaviour are under the influence of sexual selection.
    D. Behaviour is a result of environmental factors.
    E. Some behaviour has no genetic basis and this type of behaviour is not under the influence of natural selection.

 

  1. All forms of animal behaviour
    A. have an anatomical explanation.
    B. have a genetic basis.
    C. are based on learning.
    D. depend on hormones.
    E. are based on circadian rhythms.

 

  1. Evolution of animal behaviour can occur only if
    A. individuals within a population show variation in behaviour.
    B. differences in behaviour are genetic in origin.
    C. greater survival or reproductive success results from some behaviours in comparison to others.
    D. reproduction is advantaged by one behaviour in comparison to another.
    E. All of the answers are true.

 

  1. Most ideas about the evolutionary significance of behaviour come from
    A. comparisons within species.
    B. comparisons between species.
    C. experimental manipulations.
    D. examining genetic markers.
    E. DNA electrophoresis.

 

  1. A change in an individual’s behaviour that is due to its experience is referred to as
    A. mature behaviour.
    B. innate behaviour.
    C. learning.
    D. artificial selection.
    E. proximate explanation.

 

  1. A barnacle closes its valves every time a shadow passes over it. This behaviour is called
    A. imprinting.
    B. habituation.
    C. learnt.
    D. maturation.
    E. innate.

 

  1. A barnacle living beneath some kelp fronds ceases closing its valves every time a shadow passes over it. This behaviour is called
    A. imprinting.
    B. habituation.
    C. learnt.
    D. maturation.
    E. innate.

 

  1. When collecting food, the honeybee (Apis mellifera) frequently returns to its nest with less than a full crop of nectar. Experiments suggest that this behaviour can be explained by
    A. small quantities of nectar in most foraging areas.
    B. the high predation risk involved in being away from the nest for long periods.
    C. high demand for nectar at the nest.
    D. optimisation of net return and energy expenditure.
    E. All of the answers are correct.

 

  1. An example of aggressive mimicry would be
    A. a duck shooter blowing a horn that reproduces the mating call of a male duck.
    B. a harmless arthropod that has the same coloration patterns as a stinging ant.
    C. a harmless arthropod that assumes the same aggressive posture as a stinging ant when threatened.
    D. a young cuckoo chick parasitising the nest of the fairy wren. These birds eject the fairy wren eggs and allow themselves to be raised by the fairy wren parents.
    E. when, as in Pavlov’s experiment, the dog salivates in response to the bell ring.

 

  1. Prey animals that exhibit the characteristics of other unpalatable organisms to reduce the probability of predation are
    A. defensive mimics.
    B. aggressive mimics.
    C. camouflaged.
    D. mutualistic.
    E. communal.

 

  1. Some species of ants tend to protect aphids, which in return produce honeydew, a source of food for the ants. This type of relationship is called
    A. parasitism.
    B. predation.
    C. mutualism.
    D. mimicry.
    E. communal.

 

  1. Both the costs and benefits of defending a territory against other individuals
    A. always change at the same rate.
    B. decrease with territory size.
    C. increase with territory size.
    D. do not depend on resource quality.
    E. depend on the contents of the territory.

 

  1. Contests for resources between individuals of the same species
    A. frequently result in serious injury or death.
    B. never result in serious injury or death.
    C. never involve physical contact.
    D. occasionally involve physical contact.
    E. rarely result in serious injury or death.

 

  1. In a model of the development of evolutionarily stable behaviours, a ‘hawk’ strategy means the animal will always fight while a ‘dove’ strategy means the animal only displays, but will not fight. An evolutionarily stable mixture will occur when
    A. most of the population consists of ‘hawks’.
    B. most of the population consists of ‘doves’.
    C. the average payoff to ‘hawks’ and ‘doves’ is equal.
    D. there are equal numbers of ‘hawks’ and ‘doves’.
    E. the number of hawks and doves will depend on seasonal influences.

 

  1. The colourful plumage of the bird of paradise (Paradisea raggiana) has evolved
    A. through intrasexual selection.
    B. through intersexual selection.
    C. through sperm competition.
    D. as a result of genetic drift.
    E. as protection against predators.

 

  1. A mating system where a male mates with only one female but the female mates with several males is known as
    A. polygamy.
    B. polygyny.
    C. promiscuity.
    D. polyandry.
    E. multiple mating.

 

  1. Contests between animals often end in ritualistic displays, rather than a physical fight, because
    A. contests are evolutionarily unstable strategies.
    B. non-fighting males steal the resource while the others fight.
    C. the value of the resource exceeds the cost of fighting.
    D. the social group intervenes.
    E. of the cost of injuries to combatants.

 

  1. Sexual selection may arise in two ways:
    A. competition between males or courtship.
    B. female choice or courtship.
    C. courtship or competition between females.
    D. competition between males or female choice.
    E. competition between females or courtship.

 

  1. In some species of insects, males deposit a sperm plug into the female’s reproductive tract after copulation to prevent other males from fertilising her. This behaviour could best be described as
    A. kin selection.
    B. intersexual selection.
    C. parental care.
    D. mate guarding.
    E. polyandry.

 

  1. Wandering albatrosses produce young that need a long period of parental care. Both males and females provide this care, so you would predict that the most likely mating system found in albatrosses is
    A. polygyny.
    B. polyandry.
    C. promiscuity.
    D. monogamy.
    E. polygamy.

 

  1. Polygyny is a mating system in which
    A. a female mates with several males.
    B. a male mates with several females.
    C. females and males mate with several individuals.
    D. a male mates with one or two females only.
    E. a long-term pair bond is formed.

 

  1. A eusocial mammal society would be characterised by
    A. widely dispersed individuals that live alone for most of the year but come together briefly to mate and raise offspring.
    B. a lone female parent caring for a group of offspring for an extended period of time.
    C. overlapping generations and a division of reproductive labour.
    D. breeding pairs living in close association and sharing tasks such as foraging and defence of their offspring.
    E. a cooperative group where all care for the young animals.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an explanation for the evolution of co-operative behaviour?
    A. Competition for breeding territories
    B. Manipulation of offspring by parents
    C. Inclusive fitness
    D. Group selection
    E. Kin selection

 

  1. Dominance hierarchies in chickens provide an example of
    A. reciprocal altruism.
    B. polyandry.
    C. eusocial behaviour.
    D. social behaviour.
    E. polygyny.

 

  1. Eusocial societies
    A. have discrete generations.
    B. have a reproductive division of labour.
    C. occur only in small groups.
    D. are only found in one family of insects.
    E. consist of large numbers of male workers.

 

  1. Honeybees communicate the accurate location of food sources to their nest mates via
    A. pheromones.
    B. dancing.
    C. vocal cues.
    D. pheromones and dancing.
    E. pheromones, dancing and vocal cues.

 

  1. Which of the following does NOT help to explain the evolution of co-operative societies?
    A. Inclusive fitness
    B. Kin selection
    C. Sexual selection
    D. Selection favouring parental self-interest
    E. Indirect fitness

 

  1. According to the theory of kin selection, if r is a measure of the relatedness between individuals and b and c are respectively the benefit and cost to the donor, then a donor can be expected to help another individual only when
    A. rb – c > 0.
    B. rb = c.
    C. rb – c < 0.
    D. b – rc = 0.
    E. rc = b.

 

  1. Ethology is
    A. the natural selection imposed on animals by their behaviour.
    B. the study of animal behaviour.
    C. the evolution of eusocial behaviour in insects.
    D. the mating behaviour demonstrated by males.
    E. the genetic difference between animals that is the basis of social behaviour.

 

  1. Explanations of animal behaviour fall into two classes. These are
    A. ultimate explanations and functional explanations.
    B. functional explanations and proximate explanations.
    C. causative explanations and ultimate explanations.
    D. proximate explanations and ultimate explanations.
    E. causative explanations and functional explanations.

 

  1. Learning in animal behaviour
    A. is any permanent change in an individual’s behaviour that depends on experience.
    B. is advantageous to the development of an animal, as it can change according to circumstances.
    C. provides the potential to change behaviour.
    D. is demonstrated by changing behaviour during life.
    E. All of the answers are correct.

 

  1. Maturation effects are
    A. a combination of imprinting and learning.
    B. a behaviour associated with juvenile life stages.
    C. changes in behaviour as a result of age, not experience.
    D. any permanent change in an individual’s behaviour.
    E. advantageous to the development of an animal, as it can change with age.

 

  1. Animals obtain their food in diverse ways. However foraging behaviour of animals has a common feature which is
    A. animals forage in a haphazard manner to find what they like.
    B. animals make choices that maximise their survival.
    C. animals forage at night to avoid predators.
    D. animals forage for whatever is available in their territory.
    E. All of the answers are correct.

 

  1. Natural selection has favoured numerous anatomical, physical and behavioural characteristics that are defence mechanisms against predators. This includes
    A. cryptic species.
    B. camouflaged species.
    C. resemble other species.
    D. mimicry of other species.
    E. All of these are mechanisms.

 

  1. Defensive mimicry is used by many animals to avoid predators. An example of defensive mimicry is
    A. animals that lose part of their body to avoid capture.
    B. animals that blend with their surroundings and so are not seen by predators.
    C. animals that secrete odours that attract specific prey.
    D. animals that appear similar to toxic species to avoid being captured.
    E. animals that feed at night to avoid being seen by predators.

 

  1. When populations of the same species become isolated for extended periods of time, they can experience different ecological conditions. This can result in changes to individual’s responses to stimuli. Such changes can be experimentally demonstrated to
    A. be due to epigenetic effects.
    B. have a genetic basis.
    C. be a heritable trait.
    D. be an irreversible behavioural adaptation.
    E. All of the answers are correct.

 

  1. Foraging behaviour is influenced by many factors. Which of the following is NOT such a factor?
    A. Energy expenditure
    B. Nutrient balance
    C. Food acquisition
    D. Chromatin immunoprecipitation
    E. Predation risk

 

  1. How is the jumping spider Cosmophasis bitaeniata able to enter the nest of green tree ants and eat larvae without being attacked?
    A. Chemical mimicry
    B. Camouflage.
    C. Passivity
    D. Morphological mimicry
    E. Electrochemical secretion

 

  1. Eusociality is particularly prevalent in the Order hymenoptera because
    A. alleles favouring co-operative behaviour are not restricted.
    B. haplodiploid genetic systems are more common in the hymenoptera than other Orders.
    C. haploid selection in insects such as bees and ants produces higher mutation rates, and therefore a higher incidence of producing co-operative alleles.
    D. they do not delay breeding.
    E. they spend only brief periods in natal territory.

 

  1. Hibernation behaviour in black bears is triggered by diminishing food availability. This is an example of
    A. development.
    B. adaptive value.
    C. causation.
    D. vernalisation.
    E. stratification.

 

  1. Two populations of cloned mice are being studied to try to characterise an unknown locus. All the mice are housed and raised identically, but one population has a single nucleotide polymorphism in the locus of interest, resulting in a non-sense mutation. The mutant mice are observed to forage more frequently but for shorter periods of time compared to those without the mutation. This locus is therefore
    A. a polycistronic transcript.
    B. a genetic marker for foraging behaviour.
    C. a pseudo-gene.
    D. inherited maternally.
    E. inherited paternally.

 

  1. A scientist is studying animal behaviour in water fowl and wants to produce a generation of offspring that will follow her as part of her studies. What developmental behaviour could she manipulate to achieve this?
    A. Maturational effects
    B. Causality
    C. Adaptation
    D. Observational loci polymorphism via microsatellites
    E. Imprinting

 

  1. The Tawny Frogmouth (Podargus strigoides) avoids predation by remaining perfectly still, with eyes almost shut and beak facing upwards. Combined with its drab, grey plumage, it employs what kind of defence mechanism against predation?
    A. Mmutualistic protection
    B. Flee
    C. Chemical
    D. Mimicry
    E. Cryptic

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a potential benefit for an animal maintaining a territory?
    A. Competition for mating
    B. Chasing off intruders
    C. Competition for food
    D. Energy expenditure
    E. Less sharing of resources

 

 

 

Chapter 31 Testbank Key

  1. If male satin bower birds learn to construct and decorate bowers from their parents, this behaviour would be explained by
    A.causation.
    B. development.
    C. adaptive value.
    D. evolutionary history.
    E. ethology.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 31.3 Describe, with examples, how comparisons of the behaviour of individuals within a species, comparisons of the behaviour of individuals of different species and experimental manipulations can be used to study animal behaviour, especially learning.
Section: Learning and the development of behaviour

  1. Which of the following statements is correct?
    A.All forms of behaviour are under the influence of natural selection.
    B. All forms of behaviour, except learned behaviour, are under the influence of natural selection.
    C. All forms of behaviour are under the influence of sexual selection.
    D. Behaviour is a result of environmental factors.
    E. Some behaviour has no genetic basis and this type of behaviour is not under the influence of natural selection.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.2 Describe the use of genetic markers, selection experiments and population studies to establish the role of genetics in determining animal behaviour.
Section: Genetics and the evolution of behaviour

  1. All forms of animal behaviour
    A.have an anatomical explanation.
    B. have a genetic basis.
    C. are based on learning.
    D. depend on hormones.
    E. are based on circadian rhythms.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.2 Describe the use of genetic markers, selection experiments and population studies to establish the role of genetics in determining animal behaviour.
Section: Genetics and the evolution of behaviour

  1. Evolution of animal behaviour can occur only if
    A.individuals within a population show variation in behaviour.
    B. differences in behaviour are genetic in origin.
    C. greater survival or reproductive success results from some behaviours in comparison to others.
    D. reproduction is advantaged by one behaviour in comparison to another.
    E. All of the answers are true.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.2 Describe the use of genetic markers, selection experiments and population studies to establish the role of genetics in determining animal behaviour.
Section: Genetics and the evolution of behaviour

  1. Most ideas about the evolutionary significance of behaviour come from
    A.comparisons within species.
    B. comparisons between species.
    C. experimental manipulations.
    D. examining genetic markers.
    E. DNA electrophoresis.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.3 Describe, with examples, how comparisons of the behaviour of individuals within a species, comparisons of the behaviour of individuals of different species and experimental manipulations can be used to study animal behaviour, especially learning.
Section: Genetics and the evolution of behaviour

  1. A change in an individual’s behaviour that is due to its experience is referred to as
    A.mature behaviour.
    B. innate behaviour.
    C. learning.
    D. artificial selection.
    E. proximate explanation.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.3 Describe, with examples, how comparisons of the behaviour of individuals within a species, comparisons of the behaviour of individuals of different species and experimental manipulations can be used to study animal behaviour, especially learning.
Section: Learning and the development of behaviour

  1. A barnacle closes its valves every time a shadow passes over it. This behaviour is called
    A.imprinting.
    B. habituation.
    C. learnt.
    D. maturation.
    E. innate.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.3 Describe, with examples, how comparisons of the behaviour of individuals within a species, comparisons of the behaviour of individuals of different species and experimental manipulations can be used to study animal behaviour, especially learning.
Section: Learning and the development of behaviour

  1. A barnacle living beneath some kelp fronds ceases closing its valves every time a shadow passes over it. This behaviour is called
    A.imprinting.
    B. habituation.
    C. learnt.
    D. maturation.
    E. innate.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 31.3 Describe, with examples, how comparisons of the behaviour of individuals within a species, comparisons of the behaviour of individuals of different species and experimental manipulations can be used to study animal behaviour, especially learning.
Section: Learning and the development of behaviour

  1. When collecting food, the honeybee (Apis mellifera) frequently returns to its nest with less than a full crop of nectar. Experiments suggest that this behaviour can be explained by
    A.small quantities of nectar in most foraging areas.
    B. the high predation risk involved in being away from the nest for long periods.
    C. high demand for nectar at the nest.
    D. optimisation of net return and energy expenditure.
    E. All of the answers are correct.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.4 Explain the concept of foraging theory as it relates to animal behaviour and describe ways in which prey animals reduce the risk of predation.
Section: Obtaining food

  1. An example of aggressive mimicry would be
    A.a duck shooter blowing a horn that reproduces the mating call of a male duck.
    B. a harmless arthropod that has the same coloration patterns as a stinging ant.
    C. a harmless arthropod that assumes the same aggressive posture as a stinging ant when threatened.
    D. a young cuckoo chick parasitising the nest of the fairy wren. These birds eject the fairy wren eggs and allow themselves to be raised by the fairy wren parents.
    E. when, as in Pavlov’s experiment, the dog salivates in response to the bell ring.

 

Bloom’s: Comprehension
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 31.4 Explain the concept of foraging theory as it relates to animal behaviour and describe ways in which prey animals reduce the risk of predation.
Section: Avoiding being eaten

  1. Prey animals that exhibit the characteristics of other unpalatable organisms to reduce the probability of predation are
    A.defensive mimics.
    B. aggressive mimics.
    C. camouflaged.
    D. mutualistic.
    E. communal.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.4 Explain the concept of foraging theory as it relates to animal behaviour and describe ways in which prey animals reduce the risk of predation.
Section: Avoiding being eaten

  1. Some species of ants tend to protect aphids, which in return produce honeydew, a source of food for the ants. This type of relationship is called
    A.parasitism.
    B. predation.
    C. mutualism.
    D. mimicry.
    E. communal.

 

Bloom’s: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.4 Explain the concept of foraging theory as it relates to animal behaviour and describe ways in which prey animals reduce the risk of predation.
Section: Avoiding being eaten

  1. Both the costs and benefits of defending a territory against other individuals
    A.always change at the same rate.
    B. decrease with territory size.
    C. increase with territory size.
    D. do not depend on resource quality.
    E. depend on the contents of the territory.

 

Bloom’s: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.5 Define ‘territorial behaviour’ and give examples of animals that maintain territories.
Section: Competition and territorial behaviour

  1. Contests for resources between individuals of the same species
    A.frequently result in serious injury or death.
    B. never result in serious injury or death.
    C. never involve physical contact.
    D. occasionally involve physical contact.
    E. rarely result in serious injury or death.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 31.5 Define ‘territorial behaviour’ and give examples of animals that maintain territories.
Section: Competition and territorial behaviour

  1. In a model of the development of evolutionarily stable behaviours, a ‘hawk’ strategy means the animal will always fight while a ‘dove’ strategy means the animal only displays, but will not fight. An evolutionarily stable mixture will occur when
    A.most of the population consists of ‘hawks’.
    B. most of the population consists of ‘doves’.
    C. the average payoff to ‘hawks’ and ‘doves’ is equal.
    D. there are equal numbers of ‘hawks’ and ‘doves’.
    E. the number of hawks and doves will depend on seasonal influences.

 

Bloom’s: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.6 Define ‘game theory’ and give examples of how it can be used to explain animal contests.
Section: Competition and territorial behaviour

  1. The colourful plumage of the bird of paradise (Paradisea raggiana) has evolved
    A.through intrasexual selection.
    B. through intersexual selection.
    C. through sperm competition.
    D. as a result of genetic drift.
    E. as protection against predators.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.7 Define ‘sexual selection’ and give examples of its application to courtship, mating, sperm competition and parental care.
Section: Courtship and mating behaviour

  1. A mating system where a male mates with only one female but the female mates with several males is known as
    A.polygamy.
    B. polygyny.
    C. promiscuity.
    D. polyandry.
    E. multiple mating.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 31.7 Define ‘sexual selection’ and give examples of its application to courtship, mating, sperm competition and parental care.
Section: Courtship and mating behaviour

  1. Contests between animals often end in ritualistic displays, rather than a physical fight, because
    A.contests are evolutionarily unstable strategies.
    B. non-fighting males steal the resource while the others fight.
    C. the value of the resource exceeds the cost of fighting.
    D. the social group intervenes.
    E. of the cost of injuries to combatants.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.6 Define ‘game theory’ and give examples of how it can be used to explain animal contests.
Section: Competition and territorial behaviour

  1. Sexual selection may arise in two ways:
    A.competition between males or courtship.
    B. female choice or courtship.
    C. courtship or competition between females.
    D. competition between males or female choice.
    E. competition between females or courtship.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.7 Define ‘sexual selection’ and give examples of its application to courtship, mating, sperm competition and parental care.
Section: Courtship and mating behaviour

  1. In some species of insects, males deposit a sperm plug into the female’s reproductive tract after copulation to prevent other males from fertilising her. This behaviour could best be described as
    A.kin selection.
    B. intersexual selection.
    C. parental care.
    D. mate guarding.
    E. polyandry.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.7 Define ‘sexual selection’ and give examples of its application to courtship, mating, sperm competition and parental care.
Section: Courtship and mating behaviour

  1. Wandering albatrosses produce young that need a long period of parental care. Both males and females provide this care, so you would predict that the most likely mating system found in albatrosses is
    A.polygyny.
    B. polyandry.
    C. promiscuity.
    D. monogamy.
    E. polygamy.

 

Bloom’s: Comprehension
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 31.7 Define ‘sexual selection’ and give examples of its application to courtship, mating, sperm competition and parental care.
Section: Courtship and mating behaviour

  1. Polygyny is a mating system in which
    A.a female mates with several males.
    B. a male mates with several females.
    C. females and males mate with several individuals.
    D. a male mates with one or two females only.
    E. a long-term pair bond is formed.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.7 Define ‘sexual selection’ and give examples of its application to courtship, mating, sperm competition and parental care.
Section: Courtship and mating behaviour

  1. A eusocial mammal society would be characterised by
    A.widely dispersed individuals that live alone for most of the year but come together briefly to mate and raise offspring.
    B. a lone female parent caring for a group of offspring for an extended period of time.
    C. overlapping generations and a division of reproductive labour.
    D. breeding pairs living in close association and sharing tasks such as foraging and defence of their offspring.
    E. a cooperative group where all care for the young animals.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.8 Explain the origin of co-operative and social behaviour, using at least one vertebrate and one invertebrate example.
Section: Social organisation and co-operative behaviour

  1. Which of the following is NOT an explanation for the evolution of co-operative behaviour?
    A.Competition for breeding territories
    B. Manipulation of offspring by parents
    C. Inclusive fitness
    D. Group selection
    E. Kin selection

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.8 Explain the origin of co-operative and social behaviour, using at least one vertebrate and one invertebrate example.
Section: Social organisation and co-operative behaviour

  1. Dominance hierarchies in chickens provide an example of
    A.reciprocal altruism.
    B. polyandry.
    C. eusocial behaviour.
    D. social behaviour.
    E. polygyny.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 31.8 Explain the origin of co-operative and social behaviour, using at least one vertebrate and one invertebrate example.
Section: Social organisation and co-operative behaviour

  1. Eusocial societies
    A.have discrete generations.
    B. have a reproductive division of labour.
    C. occur only in small groups.
    D. are only found in one family of insects.
    E. consist of large numbers of male workers.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 31.8 Explain the origin of co-operative and social behaviour, using at least one vertebrate and one invertebrate example.
Section: Social organisation and co-operative behaviour

  1. Honeybees communicate the accurate location of food sources to their nest mates via
    A.pheromones.
    B. dancing.
    C. vocal cues.
    D. pheromones and dancing.
    E. pheromones, dancing and vocal cues.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 31.8 Explain the origin of co-operative and social behaviour, using at least one vertebrate and one invertebrate example.
Section: Social organisation and co-operative behaviour

  1. Which of the following does NOT help to explain the evolution of co-operative societies?
    A.Inclusive fitness
    B. Kin selection
    C. Sexual selection
    D. Selection favouring parental self-interest
    E. Indirect fitness

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.8 Explain the origin of co-operative and social behaviour, using at least one vertebrate and one invertebrate example.
Section: Social organisation and co-operative behaviour

  1. According to the theory of kin selection, if r is a measure of the relatedness between individuals and b and c are respectively the benefit and cost to the donor, then a donor can be expected to help another individual only when
    A.rb – c > 0.
    B. rb = c.
    C. rb – c < 0.
    D. b – rc = 0.
    E. rc = b.

 

Bloom’s: Application
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 31.8 Explain the origin of co-operative and social behaviour, using at least one vertebrate and one invertebrate example.
Section: Social organisation and co-operative behaviour

  1. Ethology is
    A.the natural selection imposed on animals by their behaviour.
    B. the study of animal behaviour.
    C. the evolution of eusocial behaviour in insects.
    D. the mating behaviour demonstrated by males.
    E. the genetic difference between animals that is the basis of social behaviour.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 31.1 Define ethology and explain the distinction between proximate and ultimate explanations of animal behaviour.
Section: Genetics and the evolution of behaviour

  1. Explanations of animal behaviour fall into two classes. These are
    A.ultimate explanations and functional explanations.
    B. functional explanations and proximate explanations.
    C. causative explanations and ultimate explanations.
    D. proximate explanations and ultimate explanations.
    E. causative explanations and functional explanations.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.1 Define ethology and explain the distinction between proximate and ultimate explanations of animal behaviour.
Section: Genetics and the evolution of behaviour

  1. Learning in animal behaviour
    A.is any permanent change in an individual’s behaviour that depends on experience.
    B. is advantageous to the development of an animal, as it can change according to circumstances.
    C. provides the potential to change behaviour.
    D. is demonstrated by changing behaviour during life.
    E. All of the answers are correct.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.3 Describe, with examples, how comparisons of the behaviour of individuals within a species, comparisons of the behaviour of individuals of different species and experimental manipulations can be used to study animal behaviour, especially learning.
Section: Learning and the development of behaviour

  1. Maturation effects are
    A.a combination of imprinting and learning.
    B. a behaviour associated with juvenile life stages.
    C. changes in behaviour as a result of age, not experience.
    D. any permanent change in an individual’s behaviour.
    E. advantageous to the development of an animal, as it can change with age.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.3 Describe, with examples, how comparisons of the behaviour of individuals within a species, comparisons of the behaviour of individuals of different species and experimental manipulations can be used to study animal behaviour, especially learning.
Section: Learning and the development of behaviour

  1. Animals obtain their food in diverse ways. However foraging behaviour of animals has a common feature which is
    A.animals forage in a haphazard manner to find what they like.
    B. animals make choices that maximise their survival.
    C. animals forage at night to avoid predators.
    D. animals forage for whatever is available in their territory.
    E. All of the answers are correct.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 31.4 Explain the concept of foraging theory as it relates to animal behaviour and describe ways in which prey animals reduce the risk of predation.
Section: Obtaining food

  1. Natural selection has favoured numerous anatomical, physical and behavioural characteristics that are defence mechanisms against predators. This includes
    A.cryptic species.
    B. camouflaged species.
    C. resemble other species.
    D. mimicry of other species.
    E. All of these are mechanisms.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.4 Explain the concept of foraging theory as it relates to animal behaviour and describe ways in which prey animals reduce the risk of predation.
Section: Avoiding being eaten

  1. Defensive mimicry is used by many animals to avoid predators. An example of defensive mimicry is
    A.animals that lose part of their body to avoid capture.
    B. animals that blend with their surroundings and so are not seen by predators.
    C. animals that secrete odours that attract specific prey.
    D. animals that appear similar to toxic species to avoid being captured.
    E. animals that feed at night to avoid being seen by predators.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.4 Explain the concept of foraging theory as it relates to animal behaviour and describe ways in which prey animals reduce the risk of predation.
Section: Avoiding being eaten

  1. When populations of the same species become isolated for extended periods of time, they can experience different ecological conditions. This can result in changes to individual’s responses to stimuli. Such changes can be experimentally demonstrated to
    A.be due to epigenetic effects.
    B. have a genetic basis.
    C. be a heritable trait.
    D. be an irreversible behavioural adaptation.
    E. All of the answers are correct.

 

Bloom’s: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.2 Describe the use of genetic markers, selection experiments and population studies to establish the role of genetics in determining animal behaviour.
Section: Genetics and the evolution of behaviour

  1. Foraging behaviour is influenced by many factors. Which of the following is NOT such a factor?
    A.Energy expenditure
    B. Nutrient balance
    C. Food acquisition
    D. Chromatin immunoprecipitation
    E. Predation risk

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 31.4 Explain the concept of foraging theory as it relates to animal behaviour and describe ways in which prey animals reduce the risk of predation.
Section: Obtaining food

  1. How is the jumping spider Cosmophasis bitaeniata able to enter the nest of green tree ants and eat larvae without being attacked?
    A.Chemical mimicry
    B. Camouflage.
    C. Passivity
    D. Morphological mimicry
    E. Electrochemical secretion

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.4 Explain the concept of foraging theory as it relates to animal behaviour and describe ways in which prey animals reduce the risk of predation.
Section: Avoiding being eaten

  1. Eusociality is particularly prevalent in the Order hymenoptera because
    A.alleles favouring co-operative behaviour are not restricted.
    B. haplodiploid genetic systems are more common in the hymenoptera than other Orders.
    C. haploid selection in insects such as bees and ants produces higher mutation rates, and therefore a higher incidence of producing co-operative alleles.
    D. they do not delay breeding.
    E. they spend only brief periods in natal territory.

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 31.8 Explain the origin of co-operative and social behaviour, using at least one vertebrate and one invertebrate example.
Section: Social organisation and co-operative behaviour

  1. Hibernation behaviour in black bears is triggered by diminishing food availability. This is an example of
    A.development.
    B. adaptive value.
    C. causation.
    D. vernalisation.
    E. stratification.

 

Bloom’s: Evaluation
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.1 Define ethology and explain the distinction between proximate and ultimate explanations of animal behaviour.
Section: Animal behaviour

  1. Two populations of cloned mice are being studied to try to characterise an unknown locus. All the mice are housed and raised identically, but one population has a single nucleotide polymorphism in the locus of interest, resulting in a non-sense mutation. The mutant mice are observed to forage more frequently but for shorter periods of time compared to those without the mutation. This locus is therefore
    A.a polycistronic transcript.
    B. a genetic marker for foraging behaviour.
    C. a pseudo-gene.
    D. inherited maternally.
    E. inherited paternally.

 

Bloom’s: Synthesis
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 31.2 Describe the use of genetic markers, selection experiments and population studies to establish the role of genetics in determining animal behaviour.
Section: Genetics and the evolution of behaviour

  1. A scientist is studying animal behaviour in water fowl and wants to produce a generation of offspring that will follow her as part of her studies. What developmental behaviour could she manipulate to achieve this?
    A.Maturational effects
    B. Causality
    C. Adaptation
    D. Observational loci polymorphism via microsatellites
    E. Imprinting

 

Bloom’s: Application
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 31.3 Describe, with examples, how comparisons of the behaviour of individuals within a species, comparisons of the behaviour of individuals of different species and experimental manipulations can be used to study animal behaviour, especially learning.
Section: Learning and the development of behaviour

  1. The Tawny Frogmouth (Podargus strigoides) avoids predation by remaining perfectly still, with eyes almost shut and beak facing upwards. Combined with its drab, grey plumage, it employs what kind of defence mechanism against predation?
    A.Mmutualistic protection
    B. Flee
    C. Chemical
    D. Mimicry
    E. Cryptic

 

Bloom’s: Evaluation
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 31.4 Explain the concept of foraging theory as it relates to animal behaviour and describe ways in which prey animals reduce the risk of predation.
Section: Avoiding being eaten

  1. Which of the following is NOT a potential benefit for an animal maintaining a territory?
    A.Competition for mating
    B. Chasing off intruders
    C. Competition for food
    D. Energy expenditure
    E. Less sharing of resources

 

Bloom’s: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 31.5 Define ‘territorial behaviour’ and give examples of animals that maintain territories.
Section: Competition and territorial behaviour

 

 

Chapter 31 Testbank Summary

Category # of Questions
Bloom’s: Application 2
Bloom’s: Comprehension 6
Bloom’s: Evaluation 2
Bloom’s: Knowledge 34
Bloom’s: Synthesis 1
Difficulty: Easy 13
Difficulty: Hard 4
Difficulty: Medium 28
Learning Objective: 31.1 Define ethology and explain the distinction between proximate and ultimate explanations of animal behaviour. 3
Learning Objective: 31.2 Describe the use of genetic markers, selection experiments and population studies to establish the role of genetics in determining animal behaviour. 5
Learning Objective: 31.3 Describe, with examples, how comparisons of the behaviour of individuals within a species, comparisons of the behaviour of individuals of different species and experimental manipulations can be used to study animal behaviour, especially learning. 8
Learning Objective: 31.4 Explain the concept of foraging theory as it relates to animal behaviour and describe ways in which prey animals reduce the risk of predation. 10
Learning Objective: 31.5 Define ‘territorial behaviour’ and give examples of animals that maintain territories. 3
Learning Objective: 31.6 Define ‘game theory’ and give examples of how it can be used to explain animal contests. 2
Learning Objective: 31.7 Define ‘sexual selection’ and give examples of its application to courtship, mating, sperm competition and parental care. 6
Learning Objective: 31.8 Explain the origin of co-operative and social behaviour, using at least one vertebrate and one invertebrate example. 8
Section: Animal behaviour 1
Section: Avoiding being eaten 7
Section: Competition and territorial behaviour 5
Section: Courtship and mating behaviour 6
Section: Genetics and the evolution of behaviour 8
Section: Learning and the development of behaviour 7
Section: Obtaining food 3
Section: Social organisation and co-operative behaviour 8

 

 

 

 

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