Biology A Guide To The Natural World 5th Edition By David Krogh – Test Bank


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ExamName___________________________________MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.1)The sodium-potassium pump is an example of:1)A)passive transport.B)receptor-mediated endocytosis.C)active transport.D)facilitated diffusion.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)2)Phagocytosis is a type of ________ in which a cell engulfs another cell.2)A)facilitated diffusionB)exocytosisC)active transportD)endocytosisE)passive transportAnswer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)1
Refer to the figure below, and then answer the question that follows.3)The type of transport shown is an example of:3)A)active transport.B)simple diffusion.C)exocytosis.D)endocytosis.E)facilitated diffusion.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)4)If you transferred a phospholipid bilayer from water to oil, what effect would this have on themembrane?4)A)The membrane would form four layers instead of its normal two.B)The membrane would be unaffected by the oil.C)The membrane would invert its normal structure by positioning the heads on the inside of thebilayer and the fatty-acid tails outside.D)The phospholipid bilayer would split into two separate layers, which each would bemaintained in the oil.E)The membrane would become very rigid.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)2
5)If you could add a colored label to one phospholipid in the cell’s plasma membrane to observe thismolecule, what kind of movement of the molecule would you see?5)A)The molecule would be locked in place by its tightly packed neighbors in the plasmamembrane.B)The molecule would move back and forth between the membrane and the surroundingwatery solution.C)The molecule would be converted back and forth between a receptor protein and aphospholipid.D)The molecule would flip back and forth from one layer of the membrane to the other.E)The molecule would move rapidly back and forth across the surface of the membrane.Answer:EExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)6)One difference between passive and active transport through a cell membrane is that:6)A)passive transport requires ATP.B)active transport requires ATP.C)passive transport makes ATP.D)active transport makes ATP.Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)7)Diffusing molecules move ________ until they are ________.7)A)down their concentration gradients; evenly distributedB)through channels of active transport proteins; evenly distributedC)up their concentration gradients; unevenly distributedD)up their concentration gradients; evenly distributedE)down their concentration gradients; unevenly distributedAnswer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)3
8)Facilitated diffusion occurs with the help of:8)A)recognition proteins.B)communication proteins.C)ribosomes.D)peripheral proteins.E)transport proteins.Answer:EExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)9)A main function of the carbohydrates that form the glycocalyx is to:9)A)bind cell membranes to the cytoskeleton.B)regulate water movement into the cell.C)move large molecules in and out of the cell.D)maintain the proper fluidity of the plasma membrane.E)act as binding sites for signaling molecules.Answer:EExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)10)Oxygen moving through the plasma membrane down its concentration gradient is an example of:10)A)simple diffusion.B)active transport.C)osmosis.D)facilitated diffusion.Answer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)11)What is the role of transport proteins within the plasma membrane?11)A)Transport proteins identify the cell.B)Transport proteins prevent the passage of amino acids through the membrane.C)Transport proteins maintain membrane fluidity.D)Transport proteins allow movement of ions and polar molecules through the plasmamembrane.E)Transport proteins interact with the cytoskeleton to stabilize various parts of the cell.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)4
12)Yeast cells take up glucose (a sugar) to use as their primary source of energy. Typically, glucoseconcentrations outside yeast cells are far lower than glucose concentrations inside the cells.Therefore, for yeast to take up glucose, the cells must use:12)A)facilitated diffusion to move glucose up its concentration gradient.B)active transport to move glucose down its concentration gradient.C)facilitated diffusion to move glucose down its concentration gradient.D)active transport to move glucose up its concentration gradient.E)osmosis to directly absorb glucose.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)13)The term that describes the diffusion of water is:13)A)simple diffusion.B)active transport.C)osmosis.D)facilitated diffusion.E)equilibrium.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)5
Refer to the figure below, and then answer the question that follows.14)For this type of transport to take place, which of the following must be true about the interior andexterior environments?14)A)A transport protein is involved, so it doesn’t matter what the concentrations of glucose are oneither side of the membrane.B)The amount of glucose outside the cell must be less than the interior concentration.C)The glucose concentration must be higher outside the cell than inside the cell.D)The glucose concentrations on both sides of the cell must be the same.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)15)Active transport:15)A)moves only large molecules into the cell.B)increases the concentration of solute inside the cell.C)causes the production of ATP within the cell.D)moves substances against their concentration gradient.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)6
16)The huge array of capabilities of the plasma membrane are performed by its:16)A)carbohydrates.B)cholesterol.C)phospholipids.D)proteins.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)17)Which type of proteins are involved in nutrient transport across the plasma membrane and why?17)A)peripheral proteins, because they are smaller and can travel across the membrane, therebycarrying nutrients across the membraneB)receptor proteins, because their carbohydrate chains bind to nutrients and carry them acrossthe membraneC)integral proteins, because they are smaller and can travel across the membrane, therebycarrying nutrients across the membraneD)peripheral proteins, because they span the membrane and are able to carry nutrients acrossthe membraneE)integral proteins, because they span the membrane and are able to carry nutrients across themembraneAnswer:EExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)18)How does glucose enter a cell if levels of blood glucose are high?18)A)Insulin molecules bind to glucose receptors, causing cellular responses to take up glucose.B)Glucose pokes a hole in the cell’s membrane, creating a channel through which it can move.C)The glucose molecules diffuse through the membrane.D)An electrical signal is passed through the blood, opening glucose channels within themembranes of cells.Answer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)19)Which of the following is an accurate description of the plasma membrane?19)A)It separates the nuclear contents from the environment.B)It is a solid material.C)It is permeable to all substances.D)It is a phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)7
20)It seems that bacteria and molds should grow well in jam. It’s extremely high in sugar, a substancemany cells can use for energy, and contains enough other nutrients to support cell growth. Yet jamcan be left unrefrigerated for a very long time without contamination by microorganisms. How canthis be?20)A)The high sugar concentration causes bacterial and mold cells to swell and rupture.B)Bacteria and molds cannot grow on fruit products.C)The high sugar concentration damages cell membranes.D)Bacteria and molds cannot get into the jam because its high concentration of sugar makes it sosticky.E)The high sugar concentration causes bacterial and mold cells to shrink and die.Answer:EExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)21)The phospholipids of membranes are:21)A)hydrophilic molecules.B)oils.C)both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules.D)hydrophobic molecules.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)22)The central vacuoles of some plant cells you are studying fill with water and press the cell contentsagainst their cell walls because of osmosis. What can you predict about the concentration of solutesin the solution that bathes the turgid plant cells?22)A)The concentration of solutes outside the cell must be about the same as that of seawater.B)There must be no solutes either outside or inside the cell.C)The concentration of solutes outside the cell must be significantly higher than theconcentration within the cell.D)The concentration of solutes outside the cell can’t be predicted, because it’s the concentrationinside the cell that’s important.E)The concentration of solutes outside the cell must be significantly lower than theconcentration within the cell.Answer:EExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)8
23)Peripheral proteins:23)A)are defective in cystic fibrosis.B)usually attach to integral proteins.C)usually span the entire membrane.D)act as channels through which materials can pass.E)have no known functions in membranes.Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)24)The ________ of a phospholipid molecule will seek water, whereas the ________ of the moleculeswill avoid water.24)A)hydrophobic portion; hydrophilic portionB)tail; headC)head; tailD)fatty acid; phosphate groupAnswer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)25)A component of the plasma membrane that helps to maintain its fluidity is:25)A)nucleic acid.B)protein.C)the phospholipid bilayer.D)carbohydrate.E)cholesterol.Answer:EExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)26)Water moves from a:26)A)solution with more salt to a solution with less salt.B)low free-water solution toward a high free-water solution.C)hypotonic environment to a hypertonic environment.D)hypertonic environment to a hypotonic environment.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)9
27)Red blood cells placed in pure water will swell and burst. What process is causing this to happen?27)A)Water is being pulled into the cell by the cell’s solutes.B)Water is diffusing across the plasma membrane from a region of high (outside the cell) to low(inside the cell) “free” water concentration.C)Ions are diffusing across the plasma membrane and destabilizing the phospholipids.D)Water is diffusing across the plasma membrane from a region of low (outside the cell) to high(inside the cell) “free” water concentration.E)Solutes are being drawn into the cell across the plasma membrane.Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)28)All of the following processes bring materials into a cellexcept:28)A)phagocytosis.B)endocytosis.C)receptor-mediated endocytosis.D)exocytosis.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)29)Cystic fibrosis is the result of:29)A)cysts in the lungs.B)an abnormal chloride channel protein.C)an abnormal sodium channel protein.D)no sodium channel protein.E)no sodium-potassium pump.Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)30)The plasma membrane is composed of phospholipids, which are free to move laterally, and ispeppered with both stationary and mobile proteins. This view of the plasma membrane is knownas the:30)A)peppered membrane model.B)semipermeable membrane model.C)fluid-mosaic model.D)phospholipid bilayer model.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)10
31)A purpose of the plasma membrane is to:31)A)keep harmful substances within the cell.B)form the outer boundary of a cell.C)produce proteins.D)form ribosomes.E)allow no contact with other cells.Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)32)Which statement about diffusion is correct?32)A)Diffusion causes movement of materials toward equilibrium.B)Diffusion of water cannot occur.C)Diffusion can occur only through a membrane.D)Diffusion requires a protein channel.Answer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)33)Which statement below is true?33)A)All internal membranes of a cell are just giant invaginations from the plasma membrane.B)Vesicle membranes degrade as they fuse with the plasma membrane during exocytosis.C)All internal cell membranes are similar in structure to the plasma membrane.D)The only internal membrane of a cell that is similar to the plasma membrane is the nuclearmembrane.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)34)Diffusion is a process by which a substance:34)A)goes down its concentration gradient.B)goes from lesser to greater concentration.C)is at equilibrium.D)goes up its concentration gradient.Answer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)11
35)Calcium ions (Ca2+) are present in the endoplasmic reticulum at concentrations 1,000 times higherthan in the cytosol (the gel-like part of the cell outside organelles). One protein on the endoplasmicreticulum membrane is devoted to allowing Ca2+to move from the endoplasmic reticulum to thecytosol, and another protein moves Ca2+from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum. Theseprocesses are not trivial–Ca2+released into the cytosol allows, for example, for muscle contractionand communication between nerve cells. In this pair of Ca2+transport proteins, you would predictthat the protein moving Ca2+from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol ________, and theprotein that moves Ca2+from cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum ________.35)A)requires ATP; works without ATPB)is large; is smallC)is small; is largeD)works without ATP; requires ATPE)transports calcium slowly; transports calcium rapidlyAnswer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)36)You have isolated a cell that is unable to produce cholesterol for its cell membranes. Which of thefollowing defects is this cell most likely to have?36)A)The cell will not be able to regulate the transportation of substances into and out of the cell.B)The cell will burst as a result of osmosis.C)The cell will not be able to communicate with other cells.D)The cell will be unable to transport nutrients.E)The cell membrane will not have the correct fluidity.Answer:EExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)37)You have lost a lot of blood in an accident. In the emergency room the first thing the doctors willneed to do is replace lost fluids. The fluids they give you should be:37)A)either hypertonic or isotonic to your cells.B)either hypertonic or hypotonic to your cells.C)hypertonic to your cells.D)isotonic to your cells.E)hypotonic to your cells.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)12
38)The 1985 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Michael Brown and JosephGoldstein for their work on cholesterol metabolism. Brown and Goldstein investigated the cause ofremarkably high levels of circulating cholesterol found in certain families. Just as remarkable wasthe high incidence of heart disease in these families. What Brown and Goldstein found was notwhat might be expected–these individuals did not make too much cholesterol. Instead, most ofthese people had defects in receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME). What could possibly link highcholesterol levels in the blood and defective RME in these patients?38)A)Cholesterol was not transported into cells by facilitated diffusion and therefore accumulatedin the blood.B)Cholesterol was being secreted from cells by RME at too high a rate and thereforeaccumulated in the blood.C)Cholesterol was not transported into cells by RME and therefore accumulated in the blood.D)Cholesterol was not transported into cells by active transport proteins and thereforeaccumulated in the blood.E)Cholesterol was being secreted by facilitated diffusion at too high a rate and thereforeaccumulated in the blood.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)39)Membrane proteins perform all of the following functionsexcept:39)A)communication.B)transport.C)maintainance of membrane fluidity.D)cell recognition.E)structural support.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)40)Which of the following would be least likely to diffuse through a phospholipid bilayer?40)A)the small, nonpolar molecule of butaneB)waterC)carbon dioxideD)sodium ionsE)oxygenAnswer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)13
41)Facilitated diffusion is similar to simple diffusion because:41)A)each requires the use of energy.B)each requires a protein channel for movement to occur.C)each utilizes vesicles to move material around the cell.D)in both, materials move down their concentration gradient.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)42)Small, nonpolar molecules easily pass through the phospholipid bilayer because the molecules:42)A)dissolve in water and follow the water as it flows into the cell.B)are brought in by attaching to structural proteins in the membrane.C)are brought in by attaching to cholesterol in the membrane.D)can dissolve in the hydrophobic portion of the bilayer.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)43)Which of the following is true of the plasma membrane?43)A)Its capabilities are primarily determined by carbohydrates in the membrane.B)It only allows hydrophilic materials to pass through.C)It is a rigid, nonchanging structure.D)It controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)44)The primary component of the plasma membrane is:44)A)cholesterol.B)protein.C)phospholipid.D)carbohydrate.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)14
45)Plants stay standing upright because of turgor pressure caused by:45)A)bones that run through the plant, holding it upright.B)solutes rushing into the cells, keeping the cells tight.C)cell walls of the plants supporting and keeping the plants standing upright.D)water rushing into the cells, keeping the cells tight.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)46)The fatty-acid tails of a phospholipid are:46)A)carbohydrates.B)proteins.C)polar.D)hydrophilic.E)hydrophobic.Answer:EExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)47)Insulin and many other hormones are protein molecules. Based on your knowledge of transportprocesses, you can say that cells that secrete these types of hormones do so through:47)A)facilitated diffusion.B)receptor-mediated endocytosis.C)pinocytosis.D)passive diffusion.E)exocytosis.Answer:EExplanation:A)B)C)D)E)48)The outer living limit of the cell is called the:48)A)plasma membrane.B)cell wall.C)edge.D)plastid.Answer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)15
49)The plasma membrane is a semipermeable membrane. This means that it is:49)A)permeable to small molecules except water.B)only permeable to cholesterol.C)permeable to small and uncharged molecules but not to larger or charged substances.D)permeable to large charged molecules but not to small uncharged molecules.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)50)Short chains of sugars attached to proteins or phospholipids in the cell membrane make up the:50)A)communication proteins.B)phospholipid bilayer.C)glycocalyx.D)cholesterol.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.51)________ is the process that a cell can use to bring very large molecules into the cell.51)Answer:EndocytosisExplanation:52)A ________ plasma membrane allows water but not solutes to pass through it.52)Answer:semipermeableExplanation:53)Osmosis refers to the diffusion of ________ across a membrane.53)Answer:waterExplanation:54)The ________ functions in cell lubrication, adhesion, and signaling.54)Answer:glycocalyxExplanation:TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.55)The phospholipid bilayer forms spontaneously in water.55)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:56)Hydrophobic molecules easily pass through the fatty-acid region of the plasma membrane.56)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:16
57)The phospholipid bilayer forms because fatty-acid tails do not dissolve in water.57)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:58)Having defective proteins in the cell membrane can cause disease.58)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:59)Osmosis is an example of passive transport.59)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:60)To move a molecule into a cell against the concentration gradient requires energy.60)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:61)Cholesterol is a hormone receptor in the plasma membrane.61)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:62)Phagocytosis is an example of passive transport.62)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:63)Signals sent between cells reach a cell at receptor proteins.63)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:64)The functioning of the immune system depends on recognition proteins.64)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:65)Carbohydrate chains serve as the binding sites for many signaling molecules.65)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:66)Facilitated diffusion occurs down a concentration gradient.66)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:67)The chief component of the plasma membrane is the phospholipid bilayer.67)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:68)In cystic fibrosis, cells cannot pump out enough chloride ions.68)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:17
69)The hydrophilic heads of phospholipids in the plasma membrane face a water-based environment.69)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:70)Transport proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins.70)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:71)Exocytosis is an example of active transport of a substance into the cell.71)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:72)A cell wall stops a plant cell from taking in so much water that it will burst.72)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:73)A substance moving down the concentration gradient is an example of active transport.73)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:74)Active transport moves a substance against the concentration gradient.74)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:75)Facilitated diffusion occurs through membrane-bound transport proteins.75)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:76)Water moves freely through a semipermeable membrane.76)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:77)The hydrophilic region of the phospholipid bilayer faces to the interior of the plasma membrane.77)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:78)Diffusion occurs because of random molecular movement.78)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:79)Integral proteins always extend completely through the plasma membrane.79)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:80)Cholesterol helps to maintain the correct fluidity of the plasma membrane.80)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:18
81)Some integral proteins can span the entire phospholipid bilayer.81)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:82)The glycocalyx is found just inside the plasma membrane of the cell.82)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:83)The most up-to-date explanation of the structure of the plasma membrane is called thefluid-mosaic model.83)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.Match column 1 with the items in column 2.84)Requires the expenditure of energy tomove molecules or ions across a cellmembraneAnswer:A85)Uses a transport vesicle to bring largematerials into the cellAnswer:B86)Movement of materials across a cellmembrane that does not requireenergyAnswer:E87)Uses a transport vesicle to releasematerials to the exterior of a cellAnswer:C88)The movement of molecules downtheir concentration gradient withoutthe use of a transport proteinAnswer:F89)Uses transport proteins to assist themovement of materials down aconcentration gradientAnswer:DA)active transportB)endocytosisC)exocytosisD)facilitated diffusionE)passive transportF)simple diffusion84)85)86)87)88)89)ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.90)An accident victim lost a lot of blood and was rushed to the emergency room. In the emergency room, the firstthing the doctors did was replace lost fluids by giving an IV of pure water. But this caused the patient to die.Propose a reason why the patient died.Answer:Pure water is hypotonic to the cells in the blood. This would cause blood cells to swell and burst, whichcould lead to the death of the patient.19
91)What are two major differences between active transport and passive transport? Please give a specific exampleof each that occurs within a eukaryotic cell.Answer:Active transport moves molecules against their concentration gradient and thus requires energy, whereaspassive transport requires movement with the concentration gradient and does not require energy.Oxygen moves through passive transport, whereas glucose can be moved through active transport.92)A woman suffering from severe dehydration goes into the hospital. The doctor tells the woman that her bloodhas far too much solute in it and not enough water. Explain how this condition could affect the cells of her bodyand why.Answer:This could make the cells of her body lose their water by osmosis. The water in the cells will rush out,trying to equilibrate the higher-than-normal solute level outside the cells.93)The plasma membrane proteins of a cell can be linked to colored marker molecules. In an experiment, youlabeled the membrane proteins of one cell with a red marker and the membrane proteins of a second cell with ablue marker. Using your understanding of the fluid-mosaic model, what might you see happen if youconnected the plasma membranes of the two cells so that they form one continuous membrane?Answer:The plasma membrane is fluid, so the proteins are free to move across the membrane. Eventually, the redproteins of one cell would move to the membrane of the second cell, and the blue proteins of the secondcell would move to the membrane of the first cell. Eventually you would have an even mix of red andblue proteins throughout the membrane.20




ExamName___________________________________MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.1)In both monocotyledons and dicotyledons, a cotyledon is a(n):1)A)type of seed.B)embryonic root.C)type of flower.D)embryonic leaf.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)2)Place the following listed items in the correct order in relation to the life cycle of a flowering plant:(1) fertilization, (2) formation of a pollen tube, (3) pollination.2)A)1, 2, 3B)2, 1, 3C)2, 3, 1D)3, 2, 1Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)3)The male gametophyte generation of angiosperms is represented by:3)A)embryo sacs.B)the style.C)seeds.D)pollen grains.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)4)The trap of a carnivorous plant such as the Venus flytrap is what plant structure?4)A)leafB)flowerC)fruitD)stemAnswer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)1
5)The major advantage provided to plants by root hairs is:5)A)ability to produce new taproots.B)greatly increasing absorptive surface area.C)underground asexual reproduction.D)needle-like points for drilling through hard or rocky soil.Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)6)Narrow, parallel-veined leaves are characteristic of:6)A)many dicots.B)monocots.C)both monocots and dicots.D)non-flowering seed plants.Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)7)Vascular tissue that conducts water and minerals is the:7)A)meristematic tissue.B)ground substance.C)xylem.D)phloem.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)8)You find a leaf that has large stomata and a thick, waxy covering. What is clear about the originalplant?8)A)The plant minimizes nutrient uptake.B)The plant maximizes nutrient uptake.C)The plant minimizes water loss.D)The plant minimizes sunlight uptake.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)2
9)Which plant tissue may play a role in photosynthesis, nutrient storage, and plant structure?9)A)vascularB)dermalC)meristematicD)groundAnswer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)10)A ring of vascular bundles in a stem is characteristic of:10)A)monocots.B)both monocots and dicots.C)many dicots.D)non-flowering seed plants.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)11)Companion cells are specialized cells found in which plant tissue?11)A)xylemB)meristematic tissueC)ground substanceD)phloemAnswer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)3
Refer to the figure below, and then answer the following question(s).12)The missing label indicated by a “2” corresponds to the:12)A)anther.B)ovary.C)stigma.D)style.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)13)The outer portion of the “ground tissue” of a stem is referred to as its:13)A)sepal.B)mesophyll.C)cortex.D)pith.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)14)The force that moves material through phloem is provided by:14)A)transpiration.B)gravity.C)active transport.D)osmosis.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)4
15)Guard cells are responsible for:15)A)transport of water and minerals.B)photosynthesis.C)protection of a leaf.D)regulating passage of carbon dioxide into the leaf.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)16)The force that moves water through xylem is provided by:16)A)active transport.B)osmosis.C)gravity.D)transpiration.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)17)Sepals are:17)A)pollen-producing structures.B)insect-attracting structures of the flower.C)pollen receptacles on a carpel.D)leaf-like structures that protect a flower before it opens.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)18)Growth areas of an angiosperm are called:18)A)cuticles.B)ground tissue.C)apical meristems.D)root caps.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)5
19)About 90 percent of water absorbed through roots is lost to the atmosphere due to the process of:19)A)photosynthesis.B)perspiration.C)transpiration.D)expiration.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)20)Fusion of a sperm cell with the large central cell in an angiosperm embryo sac produces:20)A)the endosperm.B)a pollen tube.C)a spore.D)the zygote.Answer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)21)Which statement best describes the role of the megaspore in angiosperm reproduction?21)A)The megaspore produces pollen grains.B)The megaspore develops into a seed.C)The megaspore produces the egg-containing embryo sac.D)The megaspore develops into the anther.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)22)Flower parts arranged in multiples of four or five is characteristic of:22)A)both monocots and dicots.B)non-flowering seed plants.C)dicots.D)monocots.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)6
23)The female gametophyte generation of angiosperms is represented by:23)A)pollen tubes.B)embryo sacs.C)seeds.D)pollen grains.Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)24)Vascular tissue that conducts food produced during photosynthesis is the:24)A)ground substance.B)xylem.C)phloem.D)meristematic tissue.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)25)Which plant tissue contains cells called tracheids?25)A)meristematic tissueB)xylemC)phloemD)ground substanceAnswer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)26)Secondary woody growth is characteristic of:26)A)monocots.B)non-flowering seed plants.C)dicots.D)both monocots and dicots.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)7
Refer to the scenario below, and then answer the following question(s).A friend of yours finds a plastic bag containing what appear to be similar seeds collected last year during a vacation hikingtrip. Your friend isn’t quite sure which plant he collected them from. You open the seed with a sharp knife, examine theinside, and ask him if it was a non-woody plant with narrow leaves. Now recalling the plant, and astonished by your”detective work,” he says, “Yes! How did you know?” Your friend then presents several pressed flowers and states that one ofthe flowers was from the plant from which he collected the seeds, but he isn’t exactly sure which one. You examine the petalsand sepals of each flower. The first flower has six parts, the second has five parts, and the third has eight parts.27)How did you know by examining the seed that it was a non-woody plant with narrow leaves?27)A)The seed contained one cotyledon.B)The seed contained an embryonic flower with four petals.C)The seed contained a small taproot.D)The seed contained two cotyledons.Answer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)28)The source of a fruit produced by an angiosperm is its:28)A)endosperm.B)seed.C)ovary wall.D)sepal.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)8
Refer to the figure below, and then answer the following question(s).29)The missing label indicated by a “1” corresponds to the:29)A)style.B)stigma.C)ovary.D)anther.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)30)Which statement best describes primary growth in angiosperms?30)A)Growth occurs evenly throughout the plant.B)Growth occurs at the tips of shoots and roots.C)First-year growth occurs at the tips of shoots and roots, and then growth occurs evenlythroughout the plant as it ages.D)First-year growth occurs evenly throughout the plant, and then growth only occurs at the tipsand shoots as it ages.Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)9
31)Which plant tissue is associated with a waxy coating called the cuticle?31)A)groundB)dermalC)meristematicD)vascularAnswer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)32)Which kind of root system consists of a large central root and numerous lateral roots?32)A)spinousB)taprootC)needle-likeD)fibrousAnswer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)Refer to the scenario below, and then answer the following question(s).A friend of yours finds a plastic bag containing what appear to be similar seeds collected last year during a vacation hikingtrip. Your friend isn’t quite sure which plant he collected them from. You open the seed with a sharp knife, examine theinside, and ask him if it was a non-woody plant with narrow leaves. Now recalling the plant, and astonished by your”detective work,” he says, “Yes! How did you know?” Your friend then presents several pressed flowers and states that one ofthe flowers was from the plant from which he collected the seeds, but he isn’t exactly sure which one. You examine the petalsand sepals of each flower. The first flower has six parts, the second has five parts, and the third has eight parts.33)Which flower would you select as the one matching the plant from which he gathered the seeds?33)A)Either the flower with five or the flower with eight parts could match the seeds.B)The flower with five partsC)The flower with eight partsD)The flower with six partsAnswer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)10
34)Which of the following best describes the nature of the sieve element cells of mature, functioningphloem?34)A)living, thick-walled tubesB)living cells that have lost their nucleusC)dead, thick-walled tubesD)dead cells that retain some organelles and some maintenance functionsAnswer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)35)Mesophyll cells are primarily responsible for:35)A)regulating passage of carbon dioxide into the leaf.B)protection of a leaf.C)photosynthesis.D)transport of water.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)36)Because a plant can grow indefinitely at the tips of the roots and shoots, we say that a plant’sgrowth is:36)A)limitless.B)indeterminate.C)annualized.D)determinate.Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)37)The structure that attaches a leaf to the rest of the plant is the:37)A)blade.B)petiole.C)stoma.D)stem.Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)11
38)A flower’s nectar is food for pollinators, so one might question whether fruit is also an adaptationfor attracting pollinators. Which of the following would be the most valid fact supporting thehypothesis that fruit is for encouraging seed dispersal rather than to encourage pollination?38)A)Pollinators do not have mouthparts appropriate to eat fruit.B)Fruit is too large for pollinators to consume.C)Fruit does not last long enough for long-term pollination cycles.D)The carpel has already been pollinated when fruit is developing.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)39)Which of the following best describes the nature of the cells of mature, functioning xylem?39)A)living, thick-walled tubesB)living cells that have lost their nucleusC)dead, thick-walled tubesD)dead cells that retain some organelles and some maintenance functionsAnswer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)40)Lateral buds tend to stay dormant when:40)A)damaged apical meristems produce hormones that suppress their growth.B)conditions are favorable for leaf growth.C)root growth is rapid.D)healthy apical meristems produce hormones that suppress their growth.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.41)The two basic divisions of the “body” of an angiosperm plant are ________ and ________.41)Answer:roots; shootsExplanation:42)The structures in which xylem and phloem tubes are found are called ________.42)Answer:vascular bundlesExplanation:43)________ provides the force that moves water up xylem.43)Answer:TranspirationExplanation:12
44)The type of root system more common in monocots is the ________ root system.44)Answer:fibrousExplanation:45)After pollination, sperm cells travel through the carpel in a structure called the ________.45)Answer:pollen tubeExplanation:TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.46)The “style” is the long, slender structure of the stamen.46)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:47)The pod of a pea plant represents a fruit produced by the plant.47)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:48)Although they may look different, all fruits come from one carpel and produce one seed.48)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:49)Stomata allow carbon dioxide into a leaf and water vapor out.49)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:50)Woody plants such as oaks and maples are dicots.50)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:51)Although they produce flowers, cacti with needle-like leaves would be classified as gymnospermsrather than angiosperms.51)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:52)Most stomata are found on the top surface of a leaf.52)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:53)The cotyledons of an embryo represent the first leaves of the plant.53)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:54)The male gametophyte generation develops largely within pollen grains of angiosperms.54)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:55)Root hairs develop into taproots.55)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:13
56)Woody plants exhibit secondary growth in addition to primary growth.56)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:57)Double fertilization occurs within the embryo sac in the carpels of angiosperms.57)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:58)The anther in a flower produces microspores.58)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:59)Guard cells open stomata when they engorge with water and bow outward.59)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:60)Companion cells play a role in keeping xylem cells alive.60)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:61)The apical meristem produces the primary tissues in a plant.61)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:62)A fibrous root system is made of roots that are all about the same size.62)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:63)Angiosperm flowers always self-pollinate because they have both male and female reproductivestructures.63)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:64)Vascular bundles are found in monocot stems but not in dicot stems.64)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:65)Carpels are the often-colorful parts of a flower that attract pollinators.65)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:66)The fruit that surrounds a seed provides the primary nourishment for the germinating embryo.66)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:67)Ground tissue forms the bulk of the primary plant.67)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:14
MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.Match column 1 with the items in column 2. Answers may be used more than once.68)Narrow leaves with parallel veinsAnswer:A69)Fibrous root systemAnswer:A70)Vascular bundles arranged in a ringAnswer:BA)monocotB)dicot68)69)70)Match column 1 with the items in column 2.71)AntherAnswer:B72)Guard cellsAnswer:C73)PetioleAnswer:AA)connects leaf to stemB)produces pollenC)open and close stomata71)72)73)Match column 1 with the items in column 2. Answers may be used more than once.74)Seeds not surrounded by fruitAnswer:AA)non-flowering plant74)Match column 1 with the items in column 2.75)PhloemAnswer:AA)conducts food75)Match column 1 with the items in column 2. Answers may be used more than once.76)May have woody growthAnswer:AA)dicot76)Match column 1 with the items in column 2.77)StigmaAnswer:AA)catches pollen77)15
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.78)Describe how the broad leaf of a typical dicot is so well adapted for its job as the photosynthetic organ of aplant. In your answer make sure to assess the ways plants evolved to deal with potential problems the broadleaf might cause.Answer:The broad leaf exposes a great deal of surface area to sunlight but also creates problems that must besolved. That surface area also allows more opportunity for water loss. Although some water loss isactually desirable in order to power movement of water through xylem, too much would be lost if theleaf did not have an epidermis, which is typically associated with a waxy cuticle, to prevent water loss.However, a cuticle that prevents water vapor loss also prevents most gas exchange. That would alsoprevent much-needed carbon dioxide from entering the leaf for use by photosynthetic cells. To solve thisproblem, stomata provide entrance for carbon dioxide. However, stomata also let water vapor escape.Guard cells are adapted to keep stomata closed unless photosynthesis is actively occurring duringdaylight hours.79)Of the two basic structures of an angiosperm plant, roots are described as having the more straightforwardfunction, while shoots have more complex functions. Evaluate and explain why this is true.Answer:Roots have essentially one job: to grow (mostly underground) toward water and minerals and absorbthose substances. Conversely, shoots must differentiate into structures with many jobs. Shoots mustdifferentiate into leaves specialized for photosynthesis. They must also differentiate into stems, whichhave tissues needed for transport of materials and which support the plant too. Shoots must also produceflowers for reproduction of the plant.80)Evaluate and explain this statement: An angiosperm plant could be described as the ultimate “solar energyorganism.”Answer:The angiosperm plant could be described this way because of photosynthesis and the energy-storing(and energy-releasing) molecules it produces. However, there are other more indirect ways that plantsmaximize use of the sun. Molecules made through photosynthesis provide energy for the active transportthat moves sugars into phloem, indirectly providing the osmotic pressure to move food around the plant.Transpiration occurs because of the warmth (and air movement) powered by the sun, which in turnprovides the force to move water up and through the xylem of the plant. So, while humans, for example,expend a great deal of energy to keep a heart pumping materials around the body, a plant spends almostno energy to accomplish the same result.16

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