BASICS OF SOCIAL RESEARCH QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE APPROACHES, 3RD ED BY W. LAWRENCE – TEST BANK

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Chapter 5 Qualitative and Quantitative Measurement

 

5.1 Essay Questions

 

1 ) How does a researcher use the conceptual definition of a construct in operationalization and conceptualization?

 

Diff: 8 Page Ref: 115, 121

Topic: Parts of the Measurement Process; Reliability and Validity

Skill: 21. Recognize and describe parts of the measurement process

Objective: 05.01 Compare Qual & Quant Measurement Processes

 

2 ) How do reliability and validity differ? How do they complement each other? Can a measure be reliable but invalid? How?

 

Diff: 8 Page Ref: 121

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 22. Distinguish between reliability & validity, & the types

Objective: 05.01 Compare Qual & Quant Measurement Processes

 

3 ) Name the levels of measurement and explain how they differ. Give examples.

 

Diff: 7 Page Ref: 127

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 25. Identify a variable’s level of measurement

Objective: 05.04 Understand 4 levels of measurement & discrete/cont. var

 

4 ) What are the differences among face, content, and criterion validity?

 

Diff: 8 Page Ref: 121

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 22. Distinguish between reliability & validity, & the types

Objective: 05.03 Discuss Reliability & Validity for Measurement

 

5 ) How do qualitative and quantitative ideas about validity differ?

 

Diff: 6 Page Ref: 121

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 16. Compare qual. & quantitative. research design/data analysis

Objective: 05.01 Compare Qual & Quant Measurement Processes

 

6 ) Explain the difference between the logic of a scale and an index.

 

Diff: 6 Page Ref: 127

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 23. Identify measurement scales & explain index constr.

Objective: 05.05 Be aware of index construction issues

 

7 ) How can a measure have unidimensionality, but also use multiple indicators which capture all parts of the content of a construct?

 

Diff: 9 Page Ref: 127

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 23. Identify measurement scales & explain index constr.

Objective: 05.05 Be aware of index construction issues

 

8 ) Create three example items using the Likert scale which have mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories and no problem with the response set.

 

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 135

Topic: Scales

Skill: 23. Identify measurement scales & explain index constr.

Objective: 05.08 Recognize & know how to use social sci. scales

 

9 ) Explain how to use the Bogardus Social Distance Scale to measure whether people feel more socially distant from ex-mental hospital patients or heroin addicts.

 

Diff: 6 Page Ref: 135

Topic: Scales

Skill: 23. Identify measurement scales & explain index constr.

Objective: 05.08 Recognize & know how to use social sci. scales

 

10 ) How does standardization make comparisons easier?

 

Diff: 7 Page Ref: 132

Topic: Index Construction

Skill: 24. Discern when standardization is necessary for measurement

Objective: 05.06 Show awareness of need to standardize data

 

 

5.2 Multiple Choice Questions

 

1 ) Most social scientists do not accept a person’s height in centimeters and millimeters as a measure of her or his intelligence because it lacks

  1. A) precision.
  2. B) reliability.
  3. C) accuracy.
  4. D) validity.
  5. E) all of the above

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 121

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 22. Distinguish between reliability & validity, & the types

Objective: 05.03 Discuss Reliability & Validity for Measurement

 

2 ) Which sequence illustrates the progression of quantitative measurement steps?

  1. A) conceptualization, conceptual definition, operational definition, and measurement in the empirical world
  2. B) conceptual definition, conceptualization, operational definition, and measurement in the empirical world
  3. C) operational definition, conceptualization, conceptual definition, and measurement in the empirical world
  4. D) conceptual definition, operationalization, conceptualization, and empirical world measurement
  5. E) conceptualization, operationalization, conceptual definition, and empirical world measurement

 

Answer: A

Diff: 5 Page Ref: 115

Topic: Parts of the Measurement Process

Skill: 21. Recognize and describe parts of the measurement process

Objective: 05.02 Discuss Conceptualization & Operationalization

 

3 ) Safrina developed a way to measure sexist attitudes. It worked such that a person with a sexist-attitude score of zero truly had neutral attitude. Also, a person who had a score of 50 had exactly double the score of someone with a score of 25. She created a(n)

  1. A) nominal variable.
  2. B) interval variable.
  3. C) ratio variable.
  4. D) ordinal variable.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: C

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 127

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.04 Understand 4 levels of measurement & discrete/cont. var

 

4 ) Anthony DeGrassi asked 200 students about individual forms of physical exercise they have seriously tried. He asked questions about: (1) bicycling, (2) swimming, (3) jogging/long-distance running, and (4) weight training [free-weights or exercise machines]. When he looked at the results he found that a large majority of those who tried weight training previously had tried bicycling, swimming, and jogging. At the same time, joggers usually had tried swimming and bicycling, but not weight lifting. Also, many of those who bicycle had never tried any other form of exercise listed. With this type of result, what scaling technique should you recommend he use to organize the information?

  1. A) Borgadus Social Distance Scale
  2. B) semantic differential
  3. C) Harrison’s scale
  4. D) Likert scale
  5. E) Guttman scaling

 

Answer: E

Diff: 5 Page Ref: 135

Topic: Scales

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.08 Recognize & know how to use social sci. scales

 

5 ) Janice developed a new measure of intelligence. She then tested two groups of people. One group scored low on existing IQ tests. The other scored very high. Those who scored low on old tests usually scored low on her new test; those who scored very high on old tests usually scored high on the new test. Her new measure has

  1. A) concurrent validity.
  2. B) face validity.
  3. C) content validity.
  4. D) internal validity.
  5. E) statistical validity.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 121

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.03 Discuss Reliability & Validity for Measurement

 

6 ) During the conceptualization process, a quantitative researcher should

  1. A) look for multiple dimensions of a construct.
  2. B) ignore definitions of other scientists, because it creates confusion.
  3. C) avoid thinking about measuring the concept.
  4. D) use vague, general definitions to protect a definition from criticism.
  5. E) include a mix of unrelated ideas in your definition.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 115

Topic: Parts of the Measurement Process

Skill: 21. Recognize and describe parts of the measurement process

Objective: 05.02 Discuss Conceptualization & Operationalization

 

7 ) I took an abstract idea and developed a clear conceptual definition for it. This is called

  1. A) androtempration.
  2. B) conceptualization.
  3. C) operationalization.
  4. D) replication.
  5. E) triangulation.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 115

Topic: Parts of the Measurement Process

Skill: 21. Recognize and describe parts of the measurement process

Objective: 05.01 Compare Qual & Quant Measurement Processes

 

8 ) Dr. Smellie’s survey question asked students to indicate their class standing as one of the following: Fresh., Soph., Jr., Sr., or Grad. He measured the variable at what level of measurement?

  1. A) nominal
  2. B) ordinal
  3. C) interval
  4. D) ratio

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 127

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.04 Understand 4 levels of measurement & discrete/cont. var

 

9 ) Which one of the following is FALSE?

  1. A) Ordinal measures have the properties of interval measures.
  2. B) Interval measures have the properties of nominal measures.
  3. C) Ratio measures have the properties of ordinal measures.
  4. D) Ordinal measures have the properties of nominal measures.
  5. E) all are true

 

Answer: B

Diff: 6 Page Ref: 127

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 25. Identify a variable’s level of measurement

Objective: 05.04 Understand 4 levels of measurement & discrete/cont. var

 

10 ) Which of the following is NOT measured at a higher level than the nominal level?

  1. A) temperature
  2. B) student grades
  3. C) personal income in a year
  4. D) the color of a person’s hair (blond, brunette, redhead)
  5. E) the number of members in a club

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 127

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.04 Understand 4 levels of measurement & discrete/cont. var

 

11 ) Which of the following is measured at the ordinal level?

  1. A) George weighs the same as Harry.
  2. B) Mary weighs less than Janet.
  3. C) Martha weighs eight pounds more than Ruth.
  4. D) Sam weighs twice as much as his dog.
  5. E) Henry and Charlie weigh 150 lbs.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 127

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.04 Understand 4 levels of measurement & discrete/cont. var

 

12 ) When a researcher seeks to validate a measure by comparing it with a “tried and true” preexisting measure, this type of validity is called

  1. A) face.
  2. B) predictive.
  3. C) criterion.
  4. D) concurrent.
  5. E) content.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 121

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 22. Distinguish between reliability & validity, & the types

Objective: 05.03 Discuss Reliability & Validity for Measurement

 

13 ) Kim Jae-On said his measure of community had unidimensionality. This means

  1. A) the independent variable causes the dependent variable, and vice versa.
  2. B) it only measures one thing or a single construct.
  3. C) the unit of analysis is the individual.
  4. D) measures are divided by a common base so that comparison is possible.
  5. E) it measures something across different time periods.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 127

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 23. Identify measurement scales & explain index constr.

Objective: 05.05 Be aware of index construction issues

 

14 ) Which of the following statements about the role of a conceptual definition in variable measurement is TRUE?

  1. A) Value judgments never play a role.
  2. B) There is agreement among researchers about the single best definition for all concepts, and we just have to find it.
  3. C) Good definitions are ones that are explicit and unambiguous.
  4. D) Never provide an example for a definition.
  5. E) Conceptual definitions should never contain multiple dimensions.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 115

Topic: Parts of the Measurement Process

Skill: 21. Recognize and describe parts of the measurement process

Objective: 05.02 Discuss Conceptualization & Operationalization

 

15 ) Dr. Liu developed a new measure of fear of crime. His conceptual definition was: The degree of emotional, behavioral, or mental response to a real or imagined theft of property or attack on one’s person or family members. He then developed one question for a survey to measure his concept: “Do you lock your car doors when you park to go shopping?” What is the MAJOR problem with his measure?

  1. A) reliability
  2. B) content validity
  3. C) face validity
  4. D) internal validity
  5. E) representative validity

 

Answer: B

Diff: 7 Page Ref: 121

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.03 Discuss Reliability & Validity for Measurement

 

16 ) Dr. Liu found a high correlation between his operational definition of fear of crime and watching too much prime-time television. From this he can conclude

  1. A) his measure of fear of crime is valid.
  2. B) his measure of fear of crime is reliable.
  3. C) there is proof that watching TV causes a much greater fear of crime.
  4. D) some evidence suggests that people who watch prime-time TV a lot have taken precautions to avoid some crimes.
  5. E) people who fear crime a lot stay at home more, and while they are at home, they watch a lot of television.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 8 Page Ref: 115

Topic: Parts of the Measurement Process

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.03 Discuss Reliability & Validity for Measurement

 

17 ) What level of measurement is being used in the statement: “A fox terrier is smaller than a Russian wolfhound, but bigger than a Chinchilla.”

  1. A) nominal
  2. B) ordinal
  3. C) internal
  4. D) ratio

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 127

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.04 Understand 4 levels of measurement & discrete/cont. var

 

18 ) Fat Harry got on the scale at 7:00 a.m. and weighed 295 pounds. At 7:02 a.m. he again got on the scale and weighed 200 pounds. At 7:04 he weighed 499 pounds. The measurement of Harry’s weight has problems with

  1. A) reliability.
  2. B) induction.
  3. C) standardization
  4. D) conceptualization.
  5. E) precision.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 5 Page Ref: 121

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.03 Discuss Reliability & Validity for Measurement

 

19 ) Professor Howery created a measure of how students feel about the effectiveness of college teaching. He identified many subjective dimensions and labeled each with polar extremes. The extremes referred to general evaluative adverbs and adjectives. Subjects marked answers on one of nine spaces between the two extremes. Howery used a

  1. A) semantic differential.
  2. B) Guttman scale.
  3. C) Bogardus Social Distance Scale.
  4. D) Likert scale.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 5 Page Ref: 135

Topic: Scales

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.08 Recognize & know how to use social sci. scales

 

 

Refer to the following paragraph to answer the questions below.

 

Maria Valencia developed a new test to measure intelligence or IQ. She claimed that, using her test, someone with an IQ of 180 would be considered twice as intelligent as someone with an IQ of 90. In addition, someone with an IQ of 90 was three times as intelligent as someone with an IQ of 30. In order to see how good it was, she tested two groups of students with her new test during the first week of the semester. One group scored low on existing IQ tests. The other scored very high.

She found that those who scored low on old tests usually scored low on her new test, while those who scored very high on old tests usually scored high on the new test. In addition, she had the group of people who took the new test retake it at the midterm and again at the end of the semester. She found that a person’s IQ score did not change across the three times it was measured during the semester.

 

20 ) What is the level of measurement of her new test?

  1. A) nominal variable
  2. B) interval variable
  3. C) ratio variable
  4. D) ordinal variable
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: C

Diff: 5 Page Ref: 127

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.04 Understand 4 levels of measurement & discrete/cont. var

 

21 ) By comparing it with an old test, she has shown the new measure to have

  1. A) content validity.
  2. B) face validity.
  3. C) concurrent validity.
  4. D) internal validity.
  5. E) reliability.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 5 Page Ref: 121

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.03 Discuss Reliability & Validity for Measurement

 

22 ) Which of the following lists contains all variables?

  1. A) female, Catholic, educational level
  2. B) accountant, professor, carpenter
  3. C) occupation, number of children, rate of divorce
  4. D) 21 years old, married, middle-class
  5. E) frequency of attending religious services, Chinese heritage, farmer

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 127

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.02 Discuss Conceptualization & Operationalization

 

23 ) Dr. Horse developed a measure of an ideal place to live. He added together measures of many factors: tax rate, quality of school system, cultural and recreational opportunities, pollution, traffic congestion, crime rate, and health-care availability for 100 U.S. cities to get a score for each. Dr. Horse created a(n)

  1. A) index.
  2. B) scale.
  3. C) measure of central tendency.
  4. D) statistic.
  5. E) item analysis.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 127

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.05 Be aware of index construction issues

 

24 ) Beth Bobson wants to develop a composite measure of how employees feel about a new corporate name and logo. She uses a measure where employees note their feelings on a continuum between two extremes. The polar extremes are labeled and refer to general evaluative adjectives. Which of the following is she using?

  1. A) Guttman scale
  2. B) Bogardus Social Distance Scale
  3. C) an index
  4. D) semantic differential
  5. E) Likert scale

 

Answer: D

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 135

Topic: Scales

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.08 Recognize & know how to use social sci. scales

 

25 ) Jack Jackson, owner of the Jackson Automobile Supermarket, wanted to find out the kinds of cars to push to graduating college students. He asked 100 college seniors to rate ten aspects of 11 models his dealership sold: style, fuel economy, engineering, safety, performance, prestige, comfort, price, selection or options, and interior size. Each car was rated on the ten aspects from 0 (poor) to 5 (excellent). Each student also rated the importance of each aspect (1 = unimportant, 2 = moderate importance, 3 = very important). Then each aspect rating was weighed (multiplied) by its importance rating. Next, everything was added together for a score. Each car received a score of 0 to 150. After calculating the information and reviewing the results, Jack focused on selling cars with scores of 80 and higher to graduating students. What measurement technique did Jack use in his study?

  1. A) semantic differential
  2. B) Bogardus Social Distance Scale
  3. C) Likert scale
  4. D) Hawthorne scale
  5. E) an index

 

Answer: E

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 132

Topic: Index Construction

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.05 Be aware of index construction issues

 

26 ) What is the problem with this measure of college-student age?

Please indicate your age:

(i) 17 to 18 years old

(ii) 19 to 20 years old

(iii) 21 to 22 years old

  1. A) Its attributes are mutually exclusive.
  2. B) Its attributes are not exhaustive.
  3. C) Its attributes are at a nominal level of measurement.
  4. D) Its attributes are double-barreled.
  5. E) There is nothing wrong with it.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 127

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.07 Understand mutually exclusive & exhaustive

 

27 ) Blue Health Clinic wants to measure the feelings of people towards people suffering from AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency). A questionnaire is created with an item that has six categories for the degree of contact. It goes from “Having people with AIDS in my city,” to “Having someone who tests positive for the AIDS virus as a roommate.” People are to begin with the first category and mark all those that they feel personally comfortable with. The questionnaire uses the

  1. A) semantic differential.
  2. B) Likert scale.
  3. C) Harrison scale.
  4. D) Guttman scale.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 6 Page Ref: 135

Topic: Scales

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.08 Recognize & know how to use social sci. scales

 

28 ) Green County Social Services Department is interested in placing a group home for adults with mental retardation in a neighborhood. The department wants to measure the feelings of people in the Meadowood neighborhood towards cognitively disabled adults. The staff creates a questionnaire that contains an item that has six categories for the degree of contact that goes from “Having cognitively disabled adults in my city,” to “Having a cognitively disabled adult as a roommate.” Neighborhood residents are to begin with the first category and mark all those that they feel personally comfortable with. The questionnaire uses the

  1. A) semantic differential.
  2. B) Bogardus Social Distance Scale.
  3. C) Likert scale.
  4. D) Guttman scale.
  5. E) Thurstone scale.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 135

Topic: Scales

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.08 Recognize & know how to use social sci. scales

 

29 ) Dr. Soundstorm developed a measure of an ideal rock group. She added together ratings of six factors: clear beat in music, on-stage performance excitement, new electronic sound, dress and appearance of performers, distinctiveness of sound, and degree to which lyrics were relevant. She rated 25 groups on the six factors to get an overall measure of each rock group. She created a(n)

  1. A) index.
  2. B) scale.
  3. C) measure of central tendency.
  4. D) statistic.
  5. E) item analysis.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 132

Topic: Index Construction

Skill: 01. Apply abstract learning to realistic situations

Objective: 05.05 Be aware of index construction issues

 

30 ) When should a researcher consider using the Guttman scale?

  1. A) when there is only one indicator in a measure
  2. B) in a survey when everyone gives identical answers to a question
  3. C) when one thinks there might be a pattern in data or survey responses, such that all who agree with a strong position also agree with mild positions, but those holding a mild position rarely take a strong stand
  4. D) in a study when the data or results have absolutely no pattern
  5. E) when the researcher plans to add together all responses to a questionnaire into a single number

 

Answer: C

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 135

Topic: Scales

Skill: 23. Identify measurement scales & explain index constr.

Objective: 05.08 Recognize & know how to use social sci. scales

 

 

Use the letters marking parts of the diagram of the measurement process to identify the following parts.

 

31 ) Operational definition of the dependent variable:

  1. A) F
  2. B) G
  3. C) K
  4. D) J
  5. E) L

 

Answer: C

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 115

Topic: Parts of the Measurement Process

Skill: 21. Recognize and describe parts of the measurement process

Objective: 05.02 Discuss Conceptualization & Operationalization

 

32 ) Conceptual definition of the dependent variable:

  1. A) K
  2. B) G
  3. C) B
  4. D) A
  5. E) C

 

Answer: B

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 115

Topic: Parts of the Measurement Process

Skill: 21. Recognize and describe parts of the measurement process

Objective: 05.02 Discuss Conceptualization & Operationalization

 

33 ) Conceptualization of the dependent variable:

  1. A) E
  2. B) I
  3. C) H
  4. D) D
  5. E) F

 

Answer: A

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 115

Topic: Parts of the Measurement Process

Skill: 21. Recognize and describe parts of the measurement process

Objective: 05.02 Discuss Conceptualization & Operationalization

 

34 ) Empirical hypothesis:

  1. A) L
  2. B) B
  3. C) H
  4. D) G
  5. E) C

 

Answer: A

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 115

Topic: Parts of the Measurement Process

Skill: 21. Recognize and describe parts of the measurement process

Objective: 05.02 Discuss Conceptualization & Operationalization

 

35 ) When comparing a qualitative and a quantitative approaches to measurement, operationalization in the qualitative approach involves

  1. A) more of an “after-the-fact” description based on what was observed in the data than based on a preplanned idea.
  2. B) a researcher taking a carefully developed theoretical definition and developing specific empirical indicators of it for use when later gathering data.
  3. C) a process that comes after careful conceptualization; operationalization never comes before careful conceptualization in qualitative research.
  4. D) There is no difference between qualitative and quantitative operationalization.
  5. E) There is no operationalization in qualitative research.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 115

Topic: Parts of the Measurement Process

Skill: 21. Recognize and describe parts of the measurement process

Objective: 05.01 Compare Qual & Quant Measurement Processes

 

 

5.3 Key Terms Vocabulary Questions

 

1 ) Bogardus Social Distance Scale

 

Answer: A scale that measures the distance between two or more social groups by having members of one group express the point at which they feel comfortable with various types of social interaction or closeness with member of other groups(s).

 

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 138

Topic: Scales

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.08 Recognize & know how to use social sci. scales

 

2 ) conceptual definition

 

Answer: A careful, systematic definition of a construct that is explicitly written to clarify one’s thinking. It is often linked to other concepts or theoretical statements.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 123

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.02 Discuss Conceptualization & Operationalization

 

3 ) conceptual hypothesis

 

Answer: A type of hypothesis in which the researcher expresses variables in abstract, conceptual terms and expresses the relationship among variables in a theoretical way.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 117

Topic: Parts of the Measurement Process

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.02 Discuss Conceptualization & Operationalization

 

4 ) conceptualization

 

Answer: The process of developing clear, rigorous, systematic conceptual definitions for abstract ideas/concepts.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 117

Topic: Parts of the Measurement Process

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.02 Discuss Conceptualization & Operationalization

 

5 ) concurrent validity

 

Answer: Measurement validity that relies on a preexisting and already-accepted measure to verify the indicator of a construct.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 116

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.03 Discuss reliability and validity for measurement

 

6 ) content validity

 

Answer: Measurement validity that requires that a measure represent all the aspects of the conceptual definition of a construct.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 123

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.03 Discuss reliability and validity for measurement

 

7 ) continuous variables

 

Answer: Variables measured on a continuum in which an infinite number of finer gradations between variable attributes are possible.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 127

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.04 Understand 4 levels of measurement & discrete/cont. var

 

8 ) criterion validity

 

Answer: Measurement validity that relies on some independent, outside verification.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 124

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.03 Discuss reliability and validity for measurement

 

9 ) discrete variables

 

Answer: Variables in which the attributes can be measured only with a limited number of distinct, separate categories.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 128

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.04 Understand 4 levels of measurement & discrete/cont. var

 

10 ) empirical hypothesis

 

Answer: A type of hypothesis in which the research expresses variable in specific empirical terms and expresses the association among the measured indicators in observable, empirical terms.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 117

Topic: Parts of the Measurement Process

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.02 Discuss Conceptualization & Operationalization

 

11 ) exhaustive attributes

 

Answer: The principle that response categories in a scale or other measure should provide a category for all possible responses (i.e., every possible response fits into some category).

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 131

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.07 Understand mutually exclusive & exhaustive

 

12 ) external validity

 

Answer: The ability to generalize from experimental research to setting or people that differ from the specific conditions of a study.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 127

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.03 Discuss reliability and validity for measurement

 

13 ) face validity

 

Answer: A type of measurement validity in which an indicator “makes sense” as a measure of a construct in the judgment of others, especially those in the scientific community.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 123

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.03 Discuss reliability and validity for measurement

 

14 ) Guttman scaling

 

Answer: A scale that researchers use after data are collected to reveal whether a hierarchical pattern exists among response, such that people who give response at a “higher level” also tend to give “lower level” ones.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 140

Topic: Scales

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.08 Recognize & know how to use social sci. scales

 

15 ) index

 

Answer: A summing or combination of many separate measures of a construct or variable.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 130

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.05 Be aware of index construction issues

 

16 ) internal validity

 

Answer: The ability of experimenters to strengthen a causal explanation’s logical rigor by eliminating potential alternatives explanations for an association between the treatment and the dependent variable through an experimental design.

 

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 129

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.03 Discuss reliability and validity for measurement

 

17 ) interval-level measurement

 

Answer: A level of measurement that identifies differences among variable attributes, ranks, and categories, and that measures distance between categories, but it is not based on a true zero.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 129

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.04 Understand 4 levels of measurement & discrete/cont. var

 

18 ) levels of measurement

 

Answer: A system that organizes the information in the measurement of variables into four general levels from nominal to ratio level.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 127

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.04 Understand 4 levels of measurement & discrete/cont. var

 

19 ) Likert scale

 

Answer: A scale, often used in survey research, in which people express attitudes or other response in terms of several ordinal-level categories (e.g., agree, disagree) that are ranked along a continuum.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 135

Topic: Scales

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.08 Recognize & know how to use social sci. scales

 

20 ) measurement validity

 

Answer: How well an empirical indicator and the conceptual definition of the construct that the indicator is supposed to measure “fit” together.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 123

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.03 Discuss reliability and validity for measurement

 

21 ) multiple indicators

 

Answer: Many procedures or instruments that indicate, or provide evidence of, the presence or level of a variable in empirical reality. Researchers use the combination of several together to measure a variable.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 122

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.03 Discuss reliability and validity for measurement

 

22 ) mutually exclusive attributes

 

Answer: The principle that response categories in a scale or other measure should be organized so that responses fit into only one category (i.e., categories should not overlap).

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 131

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.07 Understand mutually exclusive & exhaustive

 

23 ) nominal-level measurement

 

Answer: The lowest, least precise level of measurement for which there is only a different in type among the categories of a variable.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 129

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.04 Understand 4 levels of measurement & discrete/cont. var

 

24 ) operational definition

 

Answer: The definition of a variable in terms of the specific activities to measure or indicate it in the empirical world.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 116

Topic: Parts of the Measurement Process

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.02 Discuss Conceptualization & Operationalization

 

25 ) operationalization

 

Answer: The process of moving from the conceptual definition of a construct to a set of specific activities or measures that allows a researcher to observe it empirically (i.e., its operational definition).

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 119

Topic: Parts of the Measurement Process

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.02 Discuss Conceptualization & Operationalization

 

26 ) ordinal-level measurement

 

Answer: A level of measurement that identifies a difference among categories of a variable and allows the categories to be rank ordered.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 129

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.04 Understand 4 levels of measurement & discrete/cont. var

 

27 ) predictive validity

 

Answer: Measurement validity that relies on the occurrence of a future event or behavior that is logically consistent to verify the indicator of a construct.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 124

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.03 Discuss reliability and validity for measurement

 

28 ) ratio-level measurement

 

Answer: The highest, most precise level of measurement for which variable attributes can be rank ordered, the distance between the attributes precisely measured, and a true zero exists.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 129

Topic: A Guide to Quantitative Measurement

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.04 Understand 4 levels of measurement & discrete/cont. var

 

29 ) reliability

 

Answer: The dependability or consistency of the measure of a variable.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 121

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.03 Discuss reliability and validity for measurement

 

30 ) scale

 

Answer: A type of quantitative data measure often used in survey research that captures the intensity, direction, level, or potency of a variable construct along a continuum. Most are at the ordinal level of measurement.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 130

Topic: Scales

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.08 Recognize & know how to use social sci. scales

 

31 ) Semantic differential

 

Answer: A scale to measure indirectly a person’s subjective ideas or feelings. To use it, people are presented with a topic or object and a list of many polar opposite adjectives or adverbs. They are to indicate their thoughts or feelings by marking one of several spaces between two opposing adjectives or adverbs.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 140

Topic: Scales

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.08 Recognize & know how to use social sci. scales

 

32 ) standardization

 

Answer: The procedure to statistically adjust measures to permit making honest comparisons by giving a common basis for the measures of different units.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 133

Topic: Index Construction

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.06 Show awareness of need to standardize data

 

33 ) unidimensionality

 

Answer: The principle that when using multiple indicators to measure a construct, all the indicators should consistently fit together and indicate a single construct.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 131

Topic: A Guide to Quantititative Measurement

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.05 Be aware of index construction issues

 

34 ) validity

 

Answer: A term that broadly means  “true.” It used in various areas of research: to refer to the logical tightness of experimental design for demonstrating causal relations, to the ability to generalize findings beyond a specific study, to the quality of variable measurement, and to the proper use of research procedures.

Diff: 4 Page Ref: 121

Topic: Reliability and Validity

Skill: 50. Ability to Define Key Terms

Objective: 05.03 Discuss reliability and validity for measurement

 

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