Basics of Social Research Canadian 3rd Edition Neuman – Test Bank

$20.00

Pay And Download
Complete Test Bank With Answers
 
 
Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5       Designing a Study

 

1) State a hypothesis with an independent, dependent, and intervening variable. What are the units of analysis and levels of analysis of the hypothesis? Draw a diagram showing the relationship.

Answer:

  • Racial classification (independent variable) causes school quality (intervening variable), which affects test scores (dependent variable).
  • Units of analysis are students and the levels of analysis are: nominal (race); ratio (test scores); and ordinal (school quality).

RACIAL CLASSIFICATION à SCHOOL QUALITY à TEST SCORES

Diff: 8           Type: ES           Page Ref: 87–89

Learning Objective: 5. Distinguish between independent, dependent, and intervening variables.

Skill: 17. Distinguishes among and properly uses various types of variables and causal hypotheses

 

2) A researcher using “The Logic of Disconfirming Hypotheses” uses two different hypotheses. What are they? Why is negative evidence considered stronger?

Answer:

  • The two hypotheses are the null and alternative hypotheses. The null hypothesis says that there is no relationship between two variables, or no effect. The alternative hypothesis says that a relationship exists.
  • Negative evidence is considered stronger because the hypothesis becomes “tarnished” or “soiled” if the evidence fails to support it. This is because a hypothesis makes predictions. Negative and disconfirming evidence show that the predictions are wrong. Positive or confirming evidence for a hypothesis is less critical because alternative hypotheses may make the same prediction. A researcher who finds confirming evidence for a prediction may not elevate one explanation over its alternatives.

Diff: 9           Type: ES           Page Ref: 90

Learning Objective: 6. Describe the major characteristics of a hypothesis.

Skill: 17. Distinguishes among and properly uses various types of variables and causal hypotheses

 

3) Restate the following in terms of a hypothesis with independent and dependent variables: “The number of kilometres a person drives in a year affects the number of visits a person makes to gasoline filling stations, and there is a positive unidirectional relationship between the variables.” What is the unit of analysis for the hypothesis?

Answer:

  • As the number of kilometres a person drives in a year increases, the number of visits she or he makes to gas filling stations increases.
  • The unit of analysis is the individual (person who drives).

Diff: 6           Type: ES           Page Ref: 87–89

Learning Objective: 5. Distinguish between independent, dependent, and intervening variables.

Skill: 17. Distinguishes among and properly uses various types of variables and causal hypotheses

 

4) Give an example of a spurious relationship and draw a diagram of the links among variables.

Answer:

  • Spuriousness occurs when two variables are associated but are not causally related because an unseen third factor is the real cause.
  • For example, the argument that there is a relationship between illegal drugs and criminal activity. Some people maintain that taking illegal drugs causes criminal activity. This argument is spurious because the initial relationship between taking illegal drugs and criminal activity is misleading. The emotional problems and community disorder factors/variables are the true and often unobserved causal variables.
  • INITIAL RELATIONSHIP = ILLEGAL DRUG USE à CRIMINAL ACTIVITY
  • ADDITION OF THE MISSING TRUE CAUSAL FACTOR(S) =

EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS + COMMUNITY DISORDER à ILLEGAL DRUG USE à CRIMINAL ACTIVITY

Diff: 7           Type: ES           Page Ref: 94–96

Learning Objective: 8. Explain the five different types of errors of explanation.

Skill: 18. Able to read and understand symbolic causal diagrams

 

5) In what ways do the ecological fallacy and reductionism involve problems with the units of analysis?

Answer:

  • Ecological fallacy arises from a mismatch of analysis. It refers to a poor fit between the units for which a researcher has empirical evidence and the units for which that researcher wants to make statements. It is due to imprecise reasoning and generalizing beyond what the evidence warrants. A researcher has empirical evidence about an association for large-scale units or huge aggregates but over-generalizes to make theoretical statements about an association among small-scale units or individuals.
  • Reductionism, also called the fallacy of nonequivalence, occurs when a researcher explains macro-level events but has evidence only about specific individuals. It occurs when a researcher observes a lower or disaggregated unit of analysis but makes statements about the operations of higher or aggregated units. It is a mirror image of the mismatch error in the ecological fallacy.

Diff: 8           Type: ES           Page Ref: 92–94

Learning Objective: 8. Explain the five different types of errors of explanation.

Skill: 18. Able to read and understand symbolic causal diagrams

 

6) Explain how a linear and nonlinear path to doing research differ, and how a preplanned vs. emergent research question differ. What types of researchers are most likely to use each?

Answer:

  • A linear research path follows a fixed sequence of steps; it is like a staircase leading in one clear direction. It is a way of thinking and a way of looking at issues—the direct, narrow, straight path that is common in Western European and North American culture.
  • A nonlinear research path makes successive passes through steps, sometimes moving backward and sideways before moving on. It is more of a spiral, moving slowly upward but not directly. With each cycle or repetition, a researcher collects new data and gains new insights.
  • The linear research path is favoured by quantitative researchers and involves the preplanning and development of a focused research question(s) for a specific study. On the other hand, qualitative researchers tend to favour a nonlinear research path that often begins with a vague or unclear research question(s) and the topic emerges slowly during the study.

Diff: 7           Type: ES           Page Ref: 81–82

Learning Objective: 1. Explain the difference between linear and nonlinear paths.

Skill: 16. Capable of comparing features of qualitative and quantitative research designs

 

7) Provide an example of a good versus a bad research question on abortion in Canada. Explain why each is an example of a good versus a bad question.

Answer:

  • An example of a bad research question is “Is abortion immoral?” This question is not empirically testable and it is too vague (needs to be more specific).
  • An example of a good research question is “What socio-demographic factors are related to Canadians’ attitudes on abortion?” This is a testable question that is descriptive in nature.

Diff: 7           Type: ES           Page Ref: 82–84

Learning Objective: 2. Differentiate between preplanned and emergent research questions.

Skill: 01. Applies abstract learning to realistic situations

 

8) What is grounded theory, and why is it a widely used approach in qualitative research?

Answer:

  • Grounded theory is a qualitative research method that focuses on the development of theory during the data collection process.
  • It is an inductive method that involves the construction of theory from data; i.e., it grounds the construction of theory in data. Conceptualization and operationalization occur simultaneously with data collection and preliminary data analysis.
  • This makes grounded theory a flexible approach that allows data and theory to interact.
  • Qualitative researchers remain open to the unexpected, are willing to change the direction or focus of a research project, and may abandon their original research questions in the middle of a project.
  • A qualitative researcher builds theory by making comparisons. When data collection and theorizing are interspersed, theoretical questions arise that suggest future observations, so new data are tailored to answer theoretical questions that came from thinking about previous data.

Diff: 5           Type: ES           Page Ref: 85

Learning Objective: 3. Identify the major differences between qualitative and quantitative research design practices.

Skill: 16. Capable of comparing features of qualitative and quantitative research designs

 

9) Variables and attributes are two different things, but they are often confused by new members of the research community. Explain the difference between a variable and an attribute. Why is it easy to confuse variable with attributes? Use an example to illustrate your answers.

Answer:

  • A variable is a concept that varies. In quantitative research, concepts are converted into variables that represent the concepts. Variables take on two or more values—the core of the word variable is “vary,” so there must be more than one value in a variable.
  • The values or the categories of a variable are its attributes.
  • It is easy to confuse variables with attributes. Variables and attributes are related, but they have distinct purposes. The confusion arises because the attribute of one variable can itself become a separate variable with a slight change in definition. The distinction is between concepts themselves that vary and conditions within concepts that vary. For example, “male” is not a variable; it describes a category of gender and is an attribute of the variable “gender.” Yet a related idea, “degree of masculinity,” is a variable. It describes the intensity or strength of attachment to attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours associated with the concept of being masculine within a culture.

Diff: 6           Type: ES           Page Ref: 86–87

Learning Objective: 4. Explain what a variable is, as well as its attributes.

Skill: 17. Distinguishes among and properly uses various types of variables and causal hypotheses

 

10) Researchers rarely explicitly define their levels and units of analysis. Nevertheless, it is important to distinguish between the two. Define “levels” of analysis, list the levels of analysis, and provide examples of what they might encompass. Likewise, define units of analysis and provide some examples of common units of analysis in sociological research.

Answer:

  • A level of analysis is the level of social reality to which theoretical explanations refer. The level of social reality varies on a continuum from micro-level (e.g., small groups or individual processes) to macro-level (e.g., civilizations or structural aspects of society). The level includes a mix of the number of people, the amount of space, the scope of the activity, and the length of time.
  • Units of analysis correspond loosely to levels of analysis, but serve a different function. The unit of analysis refers to the type of unit a researcher uses when measuring. The units of analysis determine how a researcher measures variables or themes. For example, if we want to study the topic of dating among university students, we can use a micro-level analysis and develop an explanation that uses concepts such as interpersonal contact, mutual friendships, and common interests. We may think that students are likely to date someone with whom they have had personal contact in a class, share friends in common, and share common interests. The topic and focus fit with a micro-level explanation because they are targeted at the level of face-to-face interaction among individuals.
  • Common units in sociology are the individual, the group (e.g., family, friendship group), the organization (e.g., corporation, university), the social category (e.g., social class, gender, race), the social institution (e.g., religion, education, the family), and the society (e.g., a nation, a tribe). Researchers also use units of analysis other than individuals, groups, organizations, social categories, institutions, and societies. For example, a researcher wants to determine whether the speeches of two candidates for leader of the Conservative Party of Canada contain specific themes. The researcher uses content analysis and measures the themes in each speech of the candidates. Here, the speech is the unit of analysis. Geographic units of analysis are also used. A researcher interested in determining whether cities that have a high number of teenagers also have a high rate of vandalism would use the city as the unit of analysis.

Diff: 6           Type: ES           Page Ref: 91–92

Learning Objective: 7. Differentiate between units and levels of analysis.

Skill: 17. Distinguishes among and properly uses various types of variables and causal hypotheses

 

Use the following model for the questions that follow:

X à Y à Z

11) The dependent variable is

  1. A) X.
  2. B) Y.
  3. C) Z.
  4. D) all of the above.
  5. E) none of the above.

Answer: C

Diff: 2          Type: MC           Page Ref: 87–88

Learning Objective: 5. Distinguish between independent, dependent, and intervening variables.

Skill: 09. Can read and express an understanding of a simple set of causal relations

 

12) The intervening variable is

  1. A) X.
  2. B) Y.
  3. C) Z.
  4. D) all of the above.
  5. E) none of the above.

Answer: B

Diff: 3           Type: MC            Page Ref: 87–88

Learning Objective: 5. Distinguish between independent, dependent, and intervening variables.

Skill: 09. Can read and express an understanding of a simple set of causal relations

 

13) A good causal hypothesis

  1. A) cannot be shown to be false with evidence.
  2. B) only contains one variable.
  3. C) can be proven to be true once and for all.
  4. D) must apply to all humans in all human history in all societies.
  5. E) is logically linked to a research question and a theory.

Answer: E

Diff: 3           Type: MC           Page Ref: 89

Learning Objective: 6. Describe the major characteristics of a hypothesis.

Skill: 17. Distinguishes among and properly uses various types of variables and causal hypotheses

 

14) What is the independent variable(s) in the following hypothesis? “Persons who experience economic deprivation during childhood socialization will place a higher priority on economic self-interest later in life than will people who did not experience economic deprivation during childhood.”

  1. A) Economic deprivation
  2. B) Priority of economic self-interest
  3. C) Persons
  4. D) Later life
  5. E) A and B only are correct.

Answer: A

Diff: 5           Type: MC           Page Ref: 87–88

Learning Objective: 5. Distinguish between independent, dependent, and intervening variables.

Skill: 17. Distinguishes among and properly uses various types of variables and causal hypotheses

 

15) What is the independent variable in the following statement? “The continuing absence of a father leads to low educational attainment among offspring in single-parent families. This view is derived from socialization theory, which stresses the importance of the male role model to the cognitive and emotional development of children.”

  1. A) Educational attainment
  2. B) Single-parent family
  3. C) Socialization theory
  4. D) Absence of father in the family
  5. E) Emotional development of children

Answer: D

Diff: 4           Type: MC           Page Ref: 87–88

Learning Objective: 5. Distinguish between independent, dependent, and intervening variables.

Skill: 01. Applies abstract learning to realistic situations

 

16) Prime Minister Harper stated that an individual’s political orientation has an effect on that individual’s stand on the legalization of marijuana issue. “Political orientation” was used as his

  1. A) independent variable.
  2. B) dependent variable.
  3. C) unit of analysis.
  4. D) aggregate.
  5. E) attribute.

Answer: A

Diff: 5           Type: MC           Page Ref: 87–88

Learning Objective: 5. Distinguish between independent, dependent, and intervening variables.

Skill: 01. Applies abstract learning to realistic situations

 

17) Professor Pugsworth examined the following types of marital status: married/common-law, single-never married, widowed, separated/divorced. The types of marital status are called the professor’s

  1. A) variables.
  2. B) variable categories or attributes.
  3. C) units of analysis.
  4. D) theoretical elements.
  5. E) sampling units.

Answer: B

Diff: 2           Type: MC            Page Ref: 87

Learning Objective: 4. Explain what a variable is, as well as its attributes.

Skill: 01. Applies abstract learning to realistic situations

 

18) Graduate student Lola Lively conducted a study of how children thought about society. She asked them about their attitudes toward the prime minister of Canada. Her unit(s) of analysis is(are)

  1. A) the individual child.
  2. B) attitudes.
  3. C) the prime minister.
  4. D) children’s attitudes.
  5. E) society.

Answer: A

Diff: 5           Type: MC           Page Ref: 91–92

Learning Objective: 7. Differentiate between units and levels of analysis.

Skill: 01. Applies abstract learning to realistic situations

 

19) Graduate student Phineas Manly studied the admissions practices and sports records of 200 colleges and universities in the U.S. and Canada to see whether postsecondary institutions with more lax admissions standards won more games. What are the units of analysis in this study?

  1. A) Sports teams
  2. B) College students
  3. C) Colleges
  4. D) Admissions standards
  5. E) Number of winning games

Answer: C

Diff: 5           Type: MC            Page Ref: 91–92

Learning Objective: 7. Differentiate between units and levels of analysis.

Skill: 01. Applies abstract learning to realistic situations

 

20) Melissa was interested in consumer preferences of female undergraduate students. Melissa found participants for her study, conducted and transcribed interviews, and began to analyze interviewees’ responses. After a first pass, Melissa realized class played a bigger role in shaping her interviewees’ consumer preferences than she anticipated when designing her interview schedule and so decided to conduct a second round of interviews with additional questions before formulating her findings. Which path did Melissa’s research take?

  1. A) Linear
  2. B) Regular
  3. C) Nonlinear
  4. D) Irregular
  5. E) Repetitive

Answer: C

Diff: 3           Type: MC            Page Ref: 81–82

Learning Objective: 1. Explain the difference between linear and nonlinear paths.

Skill: 09. Can read and express an understanding of a simple set of causal relations

 

21) Benjamin hypothesizes that people who grow up in violent households are more likely to be violent as adults. Benjamin wants to conduct quantitative research to determine whether his hypothesis is correct. What should Benjamin’s null hypothesis be?

  1. A) The less violence one experiences in their childhood home, the less violence they will exhibit as adults.
  2. B) There is no relationship between growing up in violent households and being violent as an adult.
  3. C) Children who grow up in violent households are less likely to be violent as adults.
  4. D) Children who grow up in violent households are more likely to be violent as adults.
  5. E) There is a negative relationship between growing up in violent households and being violent as an adult.

Answer: B

Diff: 6           Type: MC            Page Ref: 90

Learning Objective: 6. Describe the major characteristics of a hypothesis.

Skill: 01. Applies abstract learning to realistic situations

 

22) When quantitative researchers want to test a hypothesis about a relationship between two variables they often develop a null hypothesis and a corresponding alternative hypothesis.  What does the null hypothesis say about the relationship being studied?

  1. A) There is no relationship between the two variables.
  2. B) The dependent variable has an effect on the independent variable.
  3. C) There is no intervening variable affecting the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
  4. D) The relationship between the independent and dependent variables is spurious.
  5. E) The independent variable has an effect on the dependent variable.

Answer: E

Diff: 5           Type: MC            Page Ref: 90

Learning Objective: 6. Describe the major characteristics of a hypothesis.

Skill: 17. Distinguishes among and properly uses various types of variables and causal hypotheses

 

23) How does the intervening variable relate to the independent variable and dependent variable in a three-variable causal relationship?

  1. A) The intervening variable acts as a dependent variable with respect to the dependent variable and acts as an independent variable toward the dependent variable.
  2. B) The intervening variable acts as a dependent variable with respect to the independent variable and acts as an independent variable toward the dependent variable.
  3. C) The intervening variable acts as an independent variable with respect to the independent variable and acts as an independent variable toward the dependent variable.
  4. D) The intervening variable acts as a dependent variable with respect to the independent variable and acts as a dependent variable toward the dependent variable.
  5. E) The relationship of the intervening variable to the independent and dependent variables is not fixed.

Answer: B

Diff: 7           Type: MC            Page Ref: 87–88

Learning Objective: 5. Distinguish between independent, dependent, and intervening variables.

Skill: 17. Distinguishes among and properly uses various types of variables and causal hypotheses

 

24) Professor Crimefighter looked at the number of arrests for drunken driving on the roads in 10 urban and 10 rural counties of Ontario. He found police made more arrests on roads in the rural counties. Professor Crimefighter concluded that people who live in rural areas are more likely to drive while intoxicated than are people who live in urban areas. Crimefighter’s conclusion has the problem of

  1. A) premature closure.
  2. B) overextension.
  3. C) ecological fallacy.
  4. D) reductionism.
  5. E) spuriousness.

Answer: E

Diff: 7           Type: MC            Page Ref: 94–95

Learning Objective: 8. Explain the five different types of errors of explanation.

Skill: 01. Applies abstract learning to realistic situations

 

25) The worldwide “Great Depression” of the 1930s was caused by Michael Moneybags, a prominent New York Stock broker, who suffered from severe paranoia and told six wealthy friends to sell their stocks no matter what the price when he heard of a European bank going bankrupt in October 1929. Which logical error in causal explanation is presented in this explanation of the Great Depression?

  1. A) Null hypothesis
  2. B) Spurious statement
  3. C) Ecological fallacy
  4. D) Reductionism
  5. E) None of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 6           Type: MC            Page Ref: 93–94

Learning Objective: 8. Explain the five different types of errors of explanation.

Skill: 01. Applies abstract learning to realistic situations

 

26) Dr. Munroe of the Quick Stop Counselling Clinic noticed that female clients with eating disorders who were counselled during the hours of 8:00 to 11:45 a.m. recovered much faster than those who were counselled from 1:00 to 5:00 p.m. She jumped to the false conclusion that time of day of counselling caused a quicker recovery. Dr. Elgin was more cautious. He noticed that all the clinic staff used the same treatment, but the clinic’s female counsellors all worked at the clinic in the morning, and male counsellors worked in the afternoon. He found that the faster recovery had nothing to do with the time of day; rather, it was due to female clients responding to the treatment with female counsellors. What is Dr. Munroe’s initial causal relationship called?

  1. A) Null hypothesis
  2. B) Spurious statement
  3. C) Ecological fallacy
  4. D) Reductionism
  5. E) None of the above

Answer: B

Diff: 8           Type: MC            Page Ref: 94–95

Learning Objective: 8. Explain the five different types of errors of explanation.

Skill: 01. Applies abstract learning to realistic situations

 

27) An error in explanation that relies on the fulfillment of an ultimate purpose is called

  1. A) tautology.
  2. B) teleology.
  3. C) reductionism.
  4. D) spuriousness.
  5. E) ecological fallacy

Answer: B

Diff: 3           Type: MC            Page Ref: 98

Learning Objective: 8. Explain the five different types of errors of explanation.

Skill: 19. Detects potential logical problems that can arise in causal explanations

 

28) Which of the following is part of study design by someone using a quantitative research style?

  1. A) Variables and hypotheses
  2. B) Grounded theory
  3. C) Use of different orders of interpretation
  4. D) Nonlinear research path
  5. E) Emphasis on cases and contexts

Answer: A

Diff: 3           Type: MC            Page Ref: 86–87

Learning Objective: 4. Explain what a variable is, as well as its attributes.

Skill: 16. Capable of comparing features of qualitative and quantitative research designs

 

29) How does a qualitative researcher assign significance or a coherent meaning to something?

  1. A) By rearranging, examining, and discussing the numbers by using charts and statistics to explain how patterns in the data relate to the research question
  2. B) By rearranging, examining, and discussing textual or visual data in a way that remains true to the original people and situations that the researcher studied
  3. C) By rearranging, examining, and discussing textual or visual data in a way that conveys an authentic voice
  4. D) B and C
  5. E) A and C

Answer: D

Diff: 5           Type: MC          Page Ref: 86

Learning Objective: 3. Identify the major differences between qualitative and quantitative research design practices.

Skill: 16. Capable of comparing features of qualitative and quantitative research designs

 

30) Which of the following is an example of a bad research question?

  1. A) Do students attending high schools that offer sex education have lower teen pregnancy rates than those schools that do not?
  2. B) Is premarital sex immoral?
  3. C) Do teens who begin to engage in sexual relations when they are younger than 15 have lower self-esteem than teens who wait to begin until they are over 18?
  4. D) Does an absence of reliable birth control information increase the chances that sexually active teens will catch and spread sexually transmitted diseases?
  5. E) Does the age at which young men first engage in sexual intercourse differ among those who live in rural areas, small towns, suburbs, and large cities?

Answer: B

Diff: 4           Type: MC            Page Ref: 99–100

Learning Objective: 8. Explain the five different types of errors of explanation.

Skill: 01. Applies abstract learning to realistic situations

 

31) When does a qualitative researcher focus a study into a specific research question?

  1. A) Before selecting a general topic
  2. B) After selecting a topic, but before gathering any data
  3. C) After selecting a topic and deciding how to collect data
  4. D) After selecting a topic, gathering some data, and conducting preliminary analysis of the data
  5. E) There are no research questions in qualitative research.

Answer: D

Diff: 4           Type: MC            Page Ref: 83

Learning Objective: 2. Differentiate between preplanned and emergent research questions.

Skill: 16. Capable of comparing features of qualitative and quantitative research designs

 

32) Political Scientist Tom Travers tested whether the “military effort of modern industrial nations” is caused by the “electoral success by the right-wing parties” or the “popularity of nationalist beliefs” in a society. In this study, the dependent variable is

  1. A) nationalist beliefs.
  2. B) military effort.
  3. C) gross national product.
  4. D) International Labour Organization.
  5. E) votes during national and local elections for right-wing parties.

Answer: B

Diff: 5           Type: MC            Page Ref: 87

Learning Objective: 5. Distinguish between independent, dependent, and intervening variables.

Skill: 01. Applies abstract learning to realistic situations

 

33) Durkheim’s classic study, Suicide (1897), was criticized because

  1. A) of his treatment of aggregate data as though they were individual-level data.
  2. B) of his treatment of individual-level data as though they were aggregate data.
  3. C) he pooled his data and treated the populations across countries as though they were comparable.
  4. D) A and C
  5. E) B and C

Answer: A

Diff: 6           Type: MC          Page Ref: 93

Learning Objective: 8. Explain the five different types of errors of explanation.

Skill: 19. Detects potential logical problems that can arise in causal explanations

 

34) Below is a list of features of qualitative or quantitative research. Which one is a feature of qualitative research but NOT quantitative research?

  1. A) Measures are created in an ad hoc manner and often specific to an individual setting.
  2. B) Standard procedures are used and replication assumed.
  3. C) Measures are systematically created before gathering any data.
  4. D) Concepts are in the form of distinct variables.
  5. E) The theory is usually causal and deductive.

Answer: A

Diff: 6           Type: MC          Page Ref: 84

Learning Objective: 2. Differentiate between preplanned and emergent research questions.

Skill: 16. Capable of comparing features of qualitative and quantitative research designs

 

35) The statement “People are poor because they have little money” is an example of what error in explanation?

  1. A) Spuriousness
  2. B) Reductionism
  3. C) Tautology
  4. D) Ecological fallacy
  5. E) Teleology

Answer: C

Diff: 3           Type: MC         Page Ref: 98–99

Learning Objective: 8. Explain the five different types of errors of explanation.

Skill: 01. Applies abstract learning to realistic situations

 

36) alternative hypothesis

 

Answer:

A hypothesis paired with a null hypothesis; it states that the independent variable has an effect on the dependent variable.

Diff: 4           Type: ES           Page Ref: 90

Learning Objective: 6. Describe the major characteristics of a hypothesis.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

37) attributes

 

Answer:

The categories of a variable.

Diff: 4            Type: ES           Page Ref: 87

Learning Objective: 4. Explain what a variable is, as well as its attributes.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

38) dependent variable

 

Answer:

The effect variable that is last and results from the causal variable(s) in a causal explanation. Also the variable that is measured in the pretest and post-test and that is the result of a treatment in experimental research.

Diff: 4           Type: ES           Page Ref: 87

Learning Objective: 5. Distinguish between independent, dependent, and intervening variables.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

39)  ecological fallacy

 

Answer:

Something that appears to be a causal explanation but is not. It occurs because of confusion about units of analysis. A researcher has empirical evidence about an association for large-scale units or huge aggregates, but overgeneralizes to make theoretical statements about an association among small-scale units or individuals.

Diff: 4           Type: ES            Page Ref: 92

Learning Objective: 8. Explain the five different types of errors of explanation.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

40) hypothesis

 

Answer:

The statement from a causal explanation or a proposition that has at least one independent and one dependent variable, but it has yet to be empirically tested.

Diff: 4           Type: ES           Page Ref: 89

Learning Objective: 6. Describe the major characteristics of a hypothesis.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

41) independent variable

 

Answer:

The first variable that causes or produces the effect in a causal explanation.

Diff: 4           Type: ES           Page Ref: 87

Learning Objective: 5. Distinguish between independent, dependent, and intervening variables.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

42) intervening variable

 

Answer:

A variable that is between the initial causal variable and the final effect variable in a causal explanation.

Diff: 4           Type: ES           Page Ref: 87

Learning Objective: 5. Distinguish between independent, dependent, and intervening variables.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

43) level of analysis

 

Answer:

A way to talk about the scope of a social theory, causal explanation, proposition, hypothesis, or theoretical statement. The range of phenomena it covers, or to which it applies, goes from social psychological (micro level) to organizational (meso level) to large-scale social structure (macro level).

Diff: 4           Type: ES           Page Ref: 91

Learning Objective: 7. Differentiate between units and levels of analysis.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

44)  linear research path

 

Answer:

Research that proceeds in a clear, logical, step-by-step straight line. It is more characteristic of a quantitative than a qualitative approach to social research.

Diff: 4           Type: ES            Page Ref: 81

Learning Objective: 1. Explain the difference between linear and nonlinear paths.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

45) nonlinear research path

 

Answer:

Research that proceeds in a circular, back-and-forth manner. It is more characteristic of qualitative than a quantitative style to social research.

Diff: 4           Type: ES            Page Ref: 81

Learning Objective: 1. Explain the difference between linear and nonlinear paths.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

46) null hypothesis

 

Answer:

A hypothesis that says there is no relationship or association between two variables, or no effect.

Diff: 4           Type: ES            Page Ref: 90

Learning Objective: 6. Describe the major characteristics of a hypothesis.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

47) reductionism

 

Answer:

Something that appears to be a causal explanation but is not because of a confusion about units of analysis. A researcher has empirical evidence for association at the level of individual behaviour or small-scale units, but overgeneralizes to make theoretical statements about a relationship among large-scale units.

Diff: 4           Type: ES            Page Ref: 93

Learning Objective: 8. Explain the five different types of errors of explanation.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

48) Simpson’s paradox

 

Answer:

An error in explanation where apparent differences between groups tend to reverse or disappear when groups are combined.

Diff: 4           Type: ES            Page Ref: 96

Learning Objective: 8. Explain the five different types of errors of explanation.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

49) spuriousness

 

Answer:

A statement that appears to be a causal explanation, but is not because of a hidden, unmeasured, or initially unseen variable. The unseen variable comes earlier in the temporal order, and it has a causal impact on what was initially posited to be the independent variable, as well as the dependent variable.

Diff: 4           Type: ES            Page Ref: 95

Learning Objective: 8. Explain the five different types of errors of explanation.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

50)  tautology

 

Answer:

An error in explanation that rests on circular reasoning.

Diff: 4           Type: ES            Page Ref: 98

Learning Objective: 8. Explain the five different types of errors of explanation.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

51) teleology

 

Answer:

An error in explanation that relies on the fulfillment of an ultimate purpose.

Diff: 4           Type: ES            Page Ref: 98

Learning Objective: 8. Explain the five different types of errors of explanation.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

52)  unit of analysis

 

Answer:

The kind of empirical case or unit that a researcher observes, measures, and analyzes in a study.

Diff: 4           Type: ES            Page Ref: 91

Learning Objective: 7. Differentiate between units and levels of analysis.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

53) variable

 

Answer:

A concept or its empirical measure that can take on multiple values.

Diff: 4           Type: ES            Page Ref: 86

Learning Objective: 4. Explain what a variable is, as well as its attributes.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

54) interpretation

 

Answer:

Assigning significance or a coherent meaning to something.

Diff: 4           Type: ES            Page Ref: 86

Learning Objective: 4. Explain what a variable is, as well as its attributes.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

55) grounded theory

 

Answer:

An inductive, qualitative approach in which theory is built up from data or grounded in data; conceptualization and operationalization occur simultaneously with data collection and preliminary data analysis.

Diff: 4           Type: ES            Page Ref: 85

Learning Objective: 3. Identify the major differences between qualitative and quantitative research design practices.

Skill: 50. Able to define key terms

 

There are no reviews yet.

Add a review

Be the first to review “Basics of Social Research Canadian 3rd Edition Neuman – Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Category:
Updating…
  • No products in the cart.