A History Of Psychology Ideas and Context 4th Edition by King – Test Bank


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Lecture Outline for Chapter 5 – The Renaissance
1) The Renaissance extended through the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries and was
a paradoxical time including the rebirth of inquiry, a rising interest in the individual, and
continued stagnation in some arenas.
2) Effects of the plague were overwhelming as the Black Death swept across Europe.
Historians estimate that millions died, perhaps one third of the population of Europe.
a) Psychological reactions to the plague included stoicism, heroism, opportunism,
hedonism, and flight. Many viewed the plague as punishment from God.
i) The Jews were the most common scapegoat for the plague. The plagues of the
Renaissance were times of torture, imprisonment, and massacre for the Jews. The
Jewish ghetto emerged at this time. The Renaissance set new standards of anti-
Semitism that would last until the 20th century.
ii) Some individuals joined flagellant orders and responded self-destructively to atone
for sin and ameliorate what they viewed as punishment from God.
iii) The plague generated doubt related to theological institutions. The church leaders
were powerless to save anyone, even themselves.
3) Expanding geographical knowledge also damaged the authority of the church. Explorers
returned to suggest that theological leaders were wrong about the shape of the earth, the land
on the earth, and the existence of humans in the Western hemisphere.
4) The Greek classics provided models of unrestrained speculation. More people were reading
the original works instead of the texts approved by the church, and many people were
genuinely speculating as the Greeks did.
5) The authority of the Roman Catholic Church diffused in a number of ways.
a) Emerging nation-states challenged the church politically and financially.
b) A wider-reading public began to question the relationship between church doctrine and
the Bible.
c) Some financial practices of the church (e.g., the sale of indulgences) created frustration.
d) The Protestant Reformation also served to diffuse church authority. The Reformation
may or may not have contributed to the development of science; Protestant authorities
were as restrictive of inquiry as were Catholic authorities.
6) Growth of empirical studies continued in such areas as anatomy, botany, and zoology.
7) Interest in quantification and mathematics for its own sake emerged in the Renaissance and
was put to practical application in business and navigation.
8) New data encouraged changing visions of the world. Various astronomers provided evidence
to challenge the geocentric cosmology and replace it with a heliocentric cosmology.
a) The geocentric work of Ptolemy was accepted as church doctrine and could not be
challenged. The geocentric view supported the church’s Biblical worldview placing20A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, Fourth Edition
humans at the center of creation and existence and making the history of the universe
synonymous with human history.
b) Nicolaus Copernicus argued for a heliocentric system with circular planetary orbits.
c) Johannes Kepler refined the Copernican system by introducing elliptical planetary orbits.
d) Galileo Galilei refined the telescope and challenged the assumptions of the church
regarding the geocentric cosmology.
i) The conflict between Galileo and the church was not only a conflict of cosmology; it
was also a conflict over epistemology. The church favored authority as a method of
knowledge. Galileo was forced to recant his views.
e) The larger meaning of the Copernican revolution involved the increasing sphere in which
natural causes could act. Predictable, lawful, and quantifiable forces were at work in
astronomy, and these forces threatened extrinsic teleology (see Chapter 2) in astronomy.
9) Psychological thought in the Renaissance included some isolated but significant interest in
natural approaches.
a) Petrarch advocated a broader approach to the Greek classics and set the stage for the
expansion of humanism through the Renaissance.
b) Niccolò Machiavelli encouraged the use of a naturalistic, objective, and descriptive
methodology that rejected moralistic approaches to human behavior. He emphasized the
malleability of humans and the power of social influences.
c) In terms of methodology and topical selection, Juan Luis Vives may be viewed as the
founder of modern psychology.
i) Juan Luis Vives described emotions objectively and in bodily terms.
ii) He also argued for associationism in memory and for a broad and secular approach to
education including education for women.
d) Leonardo da Vinci was a true Renaissance Person whose contributions to psychology
include an accurate anatomy of the visual system, advances in understanding of visual
perception, and descriptions of the variety of emotional facial expressions.
e) Paracelsus was an innovative chemist who applied his chemical knowledge to medicine.
He argued that mental processes may affect the health of the body and vice versa.
i) Paracelsus argued strongly for knowledge through experience instead of by authority.
f) Julius Caesar Scaliger was a Renaissance Person who was one of the first to study
kinesthetic and muscle senses and the role of muscles in habit.
g) Michel de Montaigne was a Catholic with strong Protestant sympathies during the time of
bloody conflict between these religions. He resurrected skepticism in his Apology for
Raimond Sebond, a scathing, multifaceted attack on the arrogance of human knowledge.
i) Michel de Montaigne takes the reader through his personal explorations of
psychological topics including thought, emotion, and motivation. More practically,
he argued against the brutal child-rearing practices of his day.
ii) He argued that experience is not pure, and he accurately described much of human
behavior as inconsistent in terms of both conduct and opinion.
h) Olivia Sabuco examined the physical and psychological consequences of the passions,
and even though she emphasized the importance of intellectual processes, she stressed the
central role of emotions for humans.
i) Juan Huarte studied individual differences in aptitude and attributed these differences to
the effects of the humors and the condition of the brain.21Instructor’s Manual
j) Although the Renaissance was a great intellectual leap forward, it was not a renaissance
for women (see Chapter 9).

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